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# Chapter 4

Control

1
1. Introduction
2. Simple MRAC Schemes
3. MRC for SISO Plants
4. Direct MRAC
5. Direct MRAC
6. Indirect MRAC
7. Robust MRAC
8. Case Study
2
Introduction
In this chapter, we design and analyze a wide class of
adaptive control schemes based on model reference
control (MRC) referred to as model reference
In MRC, the desired plant behavior is described by a
reference model and is driven by a reference
input. The control law is then developed so that
the closed-loop plant has a transfer function equal
to .This transfer function matching guarantees
that the plant will behave like the reference model for
any reference input signal. 3
Introduction

4
Introduction
Goal:

## This goal, implies that to satisfy certain

assumptions. These assumptions enable the calculation
of the controller parameter vector as

## The above goal guarantees that the tracking error

converges to zero for any given reference
input signal r.

## If is known, then can be calculated using

and the controller can be implemented.
5
Introduction
When is unknown the use of certainty equivalence
(CE) approach, where the unknown parameters are
control scheme referred to as indirect MRAC.

6
Introduction
Another way of designing MRAC schemes is to
parameterize the plant transfer function in terms of the
desired controller parameter vector . The structure of
the MRC law is such that we can write

## In this case, the controller parameter is updated

directly without any intermediate calculations, and for
this reason the scheme is called direct MRAC.
7
Introduction

Direct MRAC
8
Introduction

## Various classes of MRAC 9

Simple MRAC Schemes
Consider the scalar plant

## The control objective is to determine a bounded

function such that the state is
bounded and converges to zero for any .

## A possible procedure to follow in the unknown

parameter case is to use the same control law but with
k* replaced by its estimate k(t) i.e., we use

## and search for an adaptive law to update k(t). 10

Simple MRAC Schemes

11
Simple MRAC Schemes

Barbalat's lemma 12
Simple MRAC Schemes
We have shown that the combination of the control
law with the adaptive law meets the
control objective in the sense that it guarantees
boundedness for all signals and forces the plant state
to converge to zero. It is worth mentioning that, as in
the parameter identification problems, we cannot
establish that k(t) converges to k*. The lack of
parameter convergence is less crucial in adaptive
control than in PI, because in most cases the control
objective can be achieved without requiring the
parameters to converge to their true values.

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization
Consider the following first-order plant:

## where a, b are unknown parameters but the sign of b is

known. The control objective is to choose an
appropriate control law u such that all signals in the
closed-loop plant are bounded and x tracks the state of
the reference model given by

or
We propose the control law:
14
Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization

## are calculated so that the closed-loop transfer

function from r to x is equal to that of the reference
model, i.e.,

plant is controllable

## parameters a, b are unknown

control law 15
Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization
where are the estimates of , respectively,
and search for an adaptive law to generate .

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization

## k&= g 1ex sgn(b )

l&= g 2er sgn(b )

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC without Normalization
Consider the same problem in last example

## where are generated by an

SSPM

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC without Normalization

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC without Normalization

## The boundedness of depend on and then .

The requirement that be bounded away from zero is
a controllability condition for the estimated plant. One
method for preventing from going through zero is to
modify the adaptive law as below. Such a modification
is achieved using the following a priori knowledge:

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC without Normalization

## If the reference input signal is sufficiently rich of

order 2, then and therefore converge to zero
exponentially fast.

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Direct MRAC with Normalization
Consider the same first-order plant:

Control law: or

as before

or :Reference model

B-SPM

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Direct MRAC with Normalization

## Using the PI techniques, the adaptive law is given by

normalizing signal:

## Independent of the boundedness of , the above

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Direct MRAC with Normalization
We can use properties (i)-(ii) of the adaptive law to
first establish signal boundedness and then
convergence of the tracking error e to zero.
It can be follow in ref.

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC with Normalization
Consider the same first-order plant:

SPM

## As last, the above adaptive law guarantees that

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC with Normalization

## Due to division by , the gradient algorithm has to

guarantee that does not become equal to zero.

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC with Normalization
As shown in last chapter, the above adaptive law
guarantees that

## By applying some lemma and theorem, it can be

conclude that:

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Vector Case: Full-State Measurement
Consider the nth-order plant

## where are unknown matrices

and is controllable.
The control objective is to choose the input vector
such that all signals in the closed-loop plant are
bounded and the plant state follows the state
of a reference model:

## where is a stable matrix, , and is

a bounded reference input vector. The reference model
and input r are chosen so that represents a desired
trajectory that has to follow. 29
Simple MRAC Schemes
Vector Case: Full-State Measurement
Control Law: If the matrices A, B were known, we
could apply the control law

## Comparison with closed-loop plant

(*)

Matching condition
30
Simple MRAC Schemes
Vector Case: Full-State Measurement
In general, no may exist to satisfy the matching
condition (*), indicating that the above control law may
not have enough structural flexibility to meet the
control objective.
In some cases, if the structure of is known, ,
may be designed so that (*) has a solution for .

## Let us assume that in (*) exist, and propose

the following control law to be generated by an

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Vector Case: Full-State Measurement

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Simple MRAC Schemes
Vector Case: Full-State Measurement

## It depends on the unknown matrix B. In the scalar case

we manage to get away with the unknown B by
assuming that its sign is known. An extension of the
scalar assumption to the vector case is as follows:
Let us assume that L* is either positive definite or
negative definite and where if L* is
positive definite and if L* is negative definite.
Then and above error dynamic becomes

33
Simple MRAC Schemes
Vector Case: Full-State Measurement
We propose the following Lyapunov function candidate:

Then

## Note that The assumption may not be realistic. 34

MRC for SISO Plants
In the general case, the design of the control law is not
as straightforward as it appears in last examples.
At firs we formulate the MRC problem for a general
class of LTI SISO plants and solve it for the case where
the plant parameters are known exactly.
The significance of the existence of a control law that
solves the MRC problem is twofold:
1)It demonstrates that given a set of assumptions
about the plant and reference model, there is enough
structural flexibility to meet the control objective
2) It provides the form of the control law that is to be
combined with an adaptive law to form MRAC schemes
in the case of unknown plant parameters.
35
MRC for SISO Plants
Problem Statement
Consider the SISO LTI plant

## where are monic polynomials and is a constant

referred to as the high-frequency gain. The reference
model, selected by the designer to describe the
desired characteristics of the plant, is described by:

## where are monic polynomials and is a

constant. 36
MRC for SISO Plants
Problem Statement
The MRC objective is to determine the plant input so
that all signals are bounded and the plant output, ,
tracks the reference model output as close as
possible for any given reference input . We refer to
the problem of finding the desired , to meet the
control objective as the MRC problem.
In order to meet the MRC objective with a control law
that is free of differentiators and uses only measurable
signals, we assume that the plant and reference models
satisfy the following assumptions. 37
MRC for SISO Plants
Plant assumptions:

## Reference model assumptions:

38
MRC for SISO Plants
Remark:
Assumption P1 requires that the plant be minimum
phase and no assumptions about the location of the
poles of plant; i.e., the plant is allowed to have
unstable poles.
Note that we allow the plant to be uncontrollable or
unobservable, since, by assumption P1, all the plant
zeros are in LHP, any zero-pole cancellation can occur
only in LHP, which implies that the plant is both
stabilizable and detectable.
Assumption P1 is a consequence of the control
objective which is met by designing an MRC control law
that cancels the zeros of the plant and replaces them
with those of the reference model. For stability, such
cancellations should occur in LHP, which implies the39
assumption P1.
MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters
Let us consider the feedback control law as:

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Structure of the MRC scheme
MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

control law

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MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters
The closed-loop plant should be equal with reference:

## Choosing and using

or

matching equation 42
MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

## Equating the coefficients of the powers of s on both

sides, we can express it in terms of the algebraic
equation

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MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

## A state-space realization of the above control law:

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MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

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MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters
We obtain the state-space representation of the overall
closed-loop plant by augmenting the state of the plant
with the states of the controller, i.e.,

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MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

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reference model realization
MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

state error:

## output tracking error:

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MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters
Example: Let us consider the second-order plant

choosing

## and the control input

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MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

## and the matching equation

50
MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

## and the matching equation

51
MRC for SISO Plants
MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

## and can be implemented as

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

## In this section, we extend the last scalar example to

the general class of plants where only the output is
available for measurement. The complexity of the
schemes increases with the relative degree n* of
the plant. The simplest cases are the ones where n*
= 1 and 2. Because of their simplicity, they are still
quite popular in the literature of continuous-time
MRAC and are presented in separate sections.

53
Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 1

Plant: Model:

## is chosen to have the same relative degree, and both

and satisfy assumptions P1-P4 and M1 and
M2, respectively. In addition is designed to be
SPR.
We have shown that the control law

## meets the MRC objective 54

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 1

estimate of
composite state-space of the plant and controller:

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 1
Add and subtract the desired input

where Ac is as before.

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 1

B-SSPM form

## where , which is in the form of the bilinear

parametric model

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 1
The MRAC scheme is summarized by the equations

## Theorem: The above MRAC scheme has the following properties:

(i) All signals in the closed-loop plant are bounded, and the tracking
error converges to zero asymptotically with time for any reference
input .
(ii) If is sufficiently rich of order 2n, are
relatively coprime, then the parameter error and the
tracking error converge to zero exponentially fast.
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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Example: Let us consider the second-order plant

reference model:

## The control law is designed as

59
Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
The adaptive law is given by

## For parameter convergence, we choose r to be

sufficiently rich of order 4. As an example, we select

## We may not always choosing r to be sufficiently rich.

For example, if r = constant in order to follow a
constant set point at steady state, then the use of a
sufficiently rich input r of order 4 will destroy the
desired tracking properties of the closed-loop plant. 60
Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 2
Let us again consider the parameterization of the plant
in terms of , developed in the previous section, i.e.,

## With n* = 2, can no longer be designed to be

SPR, and therefore the last procedure fails to apply.
Instead, let us use the identity

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 2

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 2

## using the transformation

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 2
As before

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 2
The overall MRAC scheme is summarized as

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Relative Degree n* = 2

## Theorem: The above MRAC scheme guarantees that:

(i) All signals in the closed-loop plant are bounded, and the
tracking error converges to zero asymptotically.

## (ii) If are coprime and r is sufficiently rich of order 2n,

then the parameter error and
the tracking error , converge to zero exponentially fast.

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
Example: Let us consider the second-order plant

reference model:

## The control law is designed as

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Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
where

## For parameter convergence, the reference input r is

chosen as

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Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws
Let us use the MRC law

69
Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws

## and search for an adaptive law to generate

DPM

70
Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws
B-SPM

## Using the results of PI

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Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws

## Theorem: The above MRAC scheme guarantees that:

(i) All signals are uniformly bounded.
(ii) The tracking error converges to zero.
(iii) If the reference input signal r is sufficiently rich of order 2n,

## are coprime, the tracking error and

parameter error , converge to zero exponentially
fast.

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Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
As in the direct MRAC case with unnormalized adaptive
laws, the complexity of the control law increases with
the value of the relative degree n* of the plant. In this
section we demonstrate the case for n* = 1.
The same methodology is applicable to the case of
n*>2 at the expense of additional algebraic
manipulations.
We propose the same control law as in the direct MRAC
case,

73
Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws
where

plant parameters:

Controller parameters:

matching equations:

74
Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

75
Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

where

## As in the direct case, since n* = 1 we can choose

to be SPR. 76
Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

state-space

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Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

## All signals are bounded and 78

Indirect MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Law
Starting with the plant equation

## where is the high-frequency gain, we obtain

the following plant parametric model:

is a Hurwitz polynomial
79
Indirect MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Law
control law:

## The controller parameter vectors is

calculated using the mapping .
The mapping is obtained by using the matching
equations

80

## where is the quotient of and

Indirect MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Law
If are the estimated values of the
polynomials , respectively, at each
time t, then are obtained as solutions to
the polynomial equations

## are evaluated from the estimate of

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Indirect MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Law
Summary:

Plant:

Controller:

## Control Parameter Calculation:

82
Robust MRAC
In this section we consider MRAC schemes that are
designed for a simplified model of the plant but are
applied to a higher-order plant. We assume that the
plant is of the form

where,
is the modeled part of the plant
is an unknown multiplicative perturbation with stable poles
is a bounded input disturbance

## We assume that the overall plant and modeled part

are strictly proper.
We design the MRAC scheme assuming that the plant
model satisfies assumptions P1-P4. 83
Robust Direct MRAC
We first use an example to illustrate the design and
stability analysis of a robust MRAC scheme with a
normalized adaptive law. Then extend the results to a
general SISO plant with unmodeled dynamics and
bounded disturbances.

## with a strictly proper transfer function, where is

unknown and is a multiplicative plant uncertainty.
Let us consider the nonrobust adaptive control law

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Robust Direct MRAC

## where is the desired closed-loop pole and is the

estimate of designed for the plant model

## and applied to the actual plant. The plant uncertainty

introduces a disturbance term in the adaptive law that
may easily cause to drift to infinity and certain
signals to become unbounded. The above adaptive
control law is, therefore, not robust with respect to the
plant uncertainty . 85
Robust Direct MRAC
robust if we it with a robust one developed by
following the procedure of last Chapter as:

## then we can verify that the signal generated as

guarantees that 86
Robust Direct MRAC
Hence, we can combine normalization with any
modification, such as leakage, dead zone, or
projection, to form a robust adaptive law. Let us
consider the switching σ-modification, i.e.,

## where is as defined in last chapter. According to the

results in last chapter, the above robust adaptive law
guarantees that

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Robust Direct MRAC
Using the properties of the norm, we have

## For analyzing the stability properties follow the ref,

which implies that

## That is, the regulation error is of the order of the

modeling error in m.s.s. where,
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Robust Direct MRAC

## The conditions of to satisfy robust stability are

summarized as follows:

## The constant is arbitrary and chosen to

satisfy the above inequalities for small
89
Robust Direct MRAC

## Simulation results of the MRAC scheme of Example for

90
different values of mu.
Robust Direct MRAC
General case
Let us now consider the SISO plant given by

## Satisfying assumptions P1-P4, and the overall transfer

function of the plant is strictly proper. The
multiplicative uncertainty satisfies the following
assumptions:

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Robust Direct MRAC
Assumptions SI and S2 imply that defined as

## are finite constants which for robustness purposes will

be required to satisfy certain upper bounds. We should
note that the strict properness of the overall plant
transfer function and of imply that is a
strictly proper transfer function.
The control objective is to choose so that all signals
in the closed-loop plant are bounded and the output
tracks, as closely as possible, the output of the
reference model given by

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Robust Direct MRAC
The transfer function of the reference model
satisfies assumptions Ml and M2.

## It can be shown that the parametric model for * is

given by

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Robust Direct MRAC
We can use a wide class of robust adaptive laws. For

## The constant is chosen so that

are analytic in This implies that
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Robust Direct MRAC
The above adaptive law guarantees that

## The control law together with the mentioned

robust adaptive law form the robust direct MRAC
scheme whose properties are described by the
following theorem.

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Robust Direct MRAC
Theorem Consider the MRAC scheme

the plant

## With plant uncertainties and bounded input

disturbance . If

where
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Robust Direct MRAC
is such that is analytic in
is an arbitrary constant, and denotes
finite constants, then all the signals in the closed-loop
plant are bounded and the tracking error satisfies

## If, in addition, the reference signal r is dominantly rich

of order 2n and Zp, Rp are coprime, then the
parameter error and tracking error converge
exponentially to the residual set

97
Robust Direct MRAC
Remark1: it was shown that the projection
modification or switching σ-modification alone is
sufficient to obtain the same qualitative results as
those of Theorem. In simulations, adaptive laws using
dynamic normalization often lead to better transient
behavior than those using static normalization.

## Remark2: The calculation of the constants

is tedious but possible. Because the constants, depend
on unknown transfer functions and parameters, the
conditions for robust stability are quite difficult to
check for a given plant. The importance of the
robustness bounds is therefore more qualitative than
quantitative.
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Case Study:
Adaptive Attitude Control of a Spacecraft
We consider the control problem associated with the
descending of a spacecraft onto a landing site such as
Mars. The attitude of the spacecraft needs to be
controlled in order to avoid tipping or crash. Due to
the consumption of fuel during the terminal landing,
the moments of inertia Ix, Iy, and Iz are changing
with time in an uncertain manner. In order to handle
this parametric uncertainty we consider an adaptive
control design.
In next figure, are the body frame axes of
the spacecraft; X, Y, and Z are the inertial reference
frame axes of Mars; and O and C are the centers of
mass of the spacecraft and Mars, respectively.
99
Case Study:

## Body frames of spacecraft and Mars. 100

Case Study:
The dynamics of the spacecraft are described by the
following equations:

## where are the input torques; are

the moments of inertia; and are the angular
velocities with respect to the inertial frame
Axes. Define the coordinates

## where are the unit vectors along the axis of

rotation and φ is the angle of rotation with
are the quaternion angles of rotation. 101
Case Study:
By assuming a small angle of rotation, i.e.,

## we will have , and the

attitude spacecraft dynamics will be described as

102
Case Study:

## Let the performance requirements are to have settling

time less than 0.6 s. and overshoot less than 5%.
These performance requirements are used to choose
the reference model as a second-order system with two
complex poles corresponding to a damping ratio
and natural frequency rad/sec, i.e., 103
Case Study:

## The control objective is to choose the input torques

so that each follows the output of
the reference model for any unknown moment of
inertia

## The form of the MRC law is

104
Case Study:
where the controller parameters
are such that the closed loop transfer function in each
axis is equal to that of the reference model. It can be
shown that this matching is achieved if

## Substituting these desired controller parameters into

the MRC law, we can express the overall MRC law in
the compact form

where,

105
Case Study:
I is the identity 3x3 matrix, and the design constant λ
is taken to be equal to 1. The relationship between the
desired controller parameters and unknown plant
parameters shows that if we use the direct MRAC
approach, we will have to estimate 12 parameters,
which is the number of the unknown controller
parameters, whereas if we use the indirect MRAC
approach, we estimate only 3 parameters, namely the
unknown inertias. For this reason the indirect MRAC
approach is more desirable.
Using the CE approach, the control law is given as

## where is the estimate of to be generated by an

online adaptive law as follows. 106
Case Study:
We consider the plant equations

Filtering by

Define:

107
Case Study:
we obtain the SPMs

108
Case Study:
where

## form the indirect MRAC scheme 109

Case Study:
Next figure shows the tracking of the output qm of the
reference model by the three coordinates q1,q2,q3, as
well as the way the inertias change due to fuel
reduction and the corresponding estimates generated
by the adaptive law. It is clear that the control
objective is met despite the fact that the estimated
parameters converge to the wrong values due to lack
of persistence of excitation.

110
Case Study:

111
Simulation results of indirect MRAC.
THE END

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