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Control

1

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Simple MRAC Schemes

3. MRC for SISO Plants

4. Direct MRAC

5. Direct MRAC

6. Indirect MRAC

7. Robust MRAC

8. Case Study

2

Introduction

In this chapter, we design and analyze a wide class of

adaptive control schemes based on model reference

control (MRC) referred to as model reference

adaptive control (MRAC).

In MRC, the desired plant behavior is described by a

reference model and is driven by a reference

input. The control law is then developed so that

the closed-loop plant has a transfer function equal

to .This transfer function matching guarantees

that the plant will behave like the reference model for

any reference input signal. 3

Introduction

4

Introduction

Goal:

assumptions. These assumptions enable the calculation

of the controller parameter vector as

converges to zero for any given reference

input signal r.

and the controller can be implemented.

5

Introduction

When is unknown the use of certainty equivalence

(CE) approach, where the unknown parameters are

replaced with their estimates, leads to the adaptive

control scheme referred to as indirect MRAC.

6

Introduction

Another way of designing MRAC schemes is to

parameterize the plant transfer function in terms of the

desired controller parameter vector . The structure of

the MRC law is such that we can write

directly without any intermediate calculations, and for

this reason the scheme is called direct MRAC.

7

Introduction

Direct MRAC

8

Introduction

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Adaptive Regulation

Consider the scalar plant

function such that the state is

bounded and converges to zero for any .

parameter case is to use the same control law but with

k* replaced by its estimate k(t) i.e., we use

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Adaptive Regulation

11

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Adaptive Regulation

Barbalat's lemma 12

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Adaptive Regulation

We have shown that the combination of the control

law with the adaptive law meets the

control objective in the sense that it guarantees

boundedness for all signals and forces the plant state

to converge to zero. It is worth mentioning that, as in

the parameter identification problems, we cannot

establish that k(t) converges to k*. The lack of

parameter convergence is less crucial in adaptive

control than in PI, because in most cases the control

objective can be achieved without requiring the

parameters to converge to their true values.

13

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization

Consider the following first-order plant:

known. The control objective is to choose an

appropriate control law u such that all signals in the

closed-loop plant are bounded and x tracks the state of

the reference model given by

or

We propose the control law:

14

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization

function from r to x is equal to that of the reference

model, i.e.,

plant is controllable

control law 15

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization

where are the estimates of , respectively,

and search for an adaptive law to generate .

16

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization

adaptive laws

l&= g 2er sgn(b )

17

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Direct MRAC without Normalization

18

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC without Normalization

Consider the same problem in last example

adaptive law that we design.

SSPM

19

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC without Normalization

20

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC without Normalization

The requirement that be bounded away from zero is

a controllability condition for the estimated plant. One

method for preventing from going through zero is to

modify the adaptive law as below. Such a modification

is achieved using the following a priori knowledge:

21

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC without Normalization

order 2, then and therefore converge to zero

exponentially fast.

22

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Direct MRAC with Normalization

Consider the same first-order plant:

Control law: or

as before

or :Reference model

B-SPM

23

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Direct MRAC with Normalization

normalizing signal:

adaptive law guarantees that:

24

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Direct MRAC with Normalization

We can use properties (i)-(ii) of the adaptive law to

first establish signal boundedness and then

convergence of the tracking error e to zero.

It can be follow in ref.

25

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC with Normalization

Consider the same first-order plant:

SPM

26

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC with Normalization

guarantee that does not become equal to zero.

Therefore, instead of above adaptive law we use

27

Simple MRAC Schemes

Scalar Example: Indirect MRAC with Normalization

As shown in last chapter, the above adaptive law

guarantees that

conclude that:

28

Simple MRAC Schemes

Vector Case: Full-State Measurement

Consider the nth-order plant

and is controllable.

The control objective is to choose the input vector

such that all signals in the closed-loop plant are

bounded and the plant state follows the state

of a reference model:

a bounded reference input vector. The reference model

and input r are chosen so that represents a desired

trajectory that has to follow. 29

Simple MRAC Schemes

Vector Case: Full-State Measurement

Control Law: If the matrices A, B were known, we

could apply the control law

(*)

Matching condition

30

Simple MRAC Schemes

Vector Case: Full-State Measurement

In general, no may exist to satisfy the matching

condition (*), indicating that the above control law may

not have enough structural flexibility to meet the

control objective.

In some cases, if the structure of is known, ,

may be designed so that (*) has a solution for .

the following control law to be generated by an

appropriate adaptive law.

31

Simple MRAC Schemes

Vector Case: Full-State Measurement

32

Simple MRAC Schemes

Vector Case: Full-State Measurement

we manage to get away with the unknown B by

assuming that its sign is known. An extension of the

scalar assumption to the vector case is as follows:

Let us assume that L* is either positive definite or

negative definite and where if L* is

positive definite and if L* is negative definite.

Then and above error dynamic becomes

33

Simple MRAC Schemes

Vector Case: Full-State Measurement

We propose the following Lyapunov function candidate:

Then

MRC for SISO Plants

In the general case, the design of the control law is not

as straightforward as it appears in last examples.

At firs we formulate the MRC problem for a general

class of LTI SISO plants and solve it for the case where

the plant parameters are known exactly.

The significance of the existence of a control law that

solves the MRC problem is twofold:

1)It demonstrates that given a set of assumptions

about the plant and reference model, there is enough

structural flexibility to meet the control objective

2) It provides the form of the control law that is to be

combined with an adaptive law to form MRAC schemes

in the case of unknown plant parameters.

35

MRC for SISO Plants

Problem Statement

Consider the SISO LTI plant

referred to as the high-frequency gain. The reference

model, selected by the designer to describe the

desired characteristics of the plant, is described by:

constant. 36

MRC for SISO Plants

Problem Statement

The MRC objective is to determine the plant input so

that all signals are bounded and the plant output, ,

tracks the reference model output as close as

possible for any given reference input . We refer to

the problem of finding the desired , to meet the

control objective as the MRC problem.

In order to meet the MRC objective with a control law

that is free of differentiators and uses only measurable

signals, we assume that the plant and reference models

satisfy the following assumptions. 37

MRC for SISO Plants

Plant assumptions:

38

MRC for SISO Plants

Remark:

Assumption P1 requires that the plant be minimum

phase and no assumptions about the location of the

poles of plant; i.e., the plant is allowed to have

unstable poles.

Note that we allow the plant to be uncontrollable or

unobservable, since, by assumption P1, all the plant

zeros are in LHP, any zero-pole cancellation can occur

only in LHP, which implies that the plant is both

stabilizable and detectable.

Assumption P1 is a consequence of the control

objective which is met by designing an MRC control law

that cancels the zeros of the plant and replaces them

with those of the reference model. For stability, such

cancellations should occur in LHP, which implies the39

assumption P1.

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

Let us consider the feedback control law as:

40

Structure of the MRC scheme

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

control law

41

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

The closed-loop plant should be equal with reference:

or

matching equation 42

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

sides, we can express it in terms of the algebraic

equation

43

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

44

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

45

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

We obtain the state-space representation of the overall

closed-loop plant by augmenting the state of the plant

with the states of the controller, i.e.,

46

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

47

reference model realization

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

state error:

48

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

Example: Let us consider the second-order plant

choosing

49

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

50

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

51

MRC for SISO Plants

MRC Schemes: Known Plant Parameters

52

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

the general class of plants where only the output is

available for measurement. The complexity of the

schemes increases with the relative degree n* of

the plant. The simplest cases are the ones where n*

= 1 and 2. Because of their simplicity, they are still

quite popular in the literature of continuous-time

MRAC and are presented in separate sections.

53

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 1

Plant: Model:

and satisfy assumptions P1-P4 and M1 and

M2, respectively. In addition is designed to be

SPR.

We have shown that the control law

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 1

estimate of

composite state-space of the plant and controller:

55

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 1

Add and subtract the desired input

where Ac is as before.

56

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 1

B-SSPM form

parametric model

57

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 1

The MRAC scheme is summarized by the equations

(i) All signals in the closed-loop plant are bounded, and the tracking

error converges to zero asymptotically with time for any reference

input .

(ii) If is sufficiently rich of order 2n, are

relatively coprime, then the parameter error and the

tracking error converge to zero exponentially fast.

58

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Example: Let us consider the second-order plant

reference model:

59

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

The adaptive law is given by

sufficiently rich of order 4. As an example, we select

For example, if r = constant in order to follow a

constant set point at steady state, then the use of a

sufficiently rich input r of order 4 will destroy the

desired tracking properties of the closed-loop plant. 60

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 2

Let us again consider the parameterization of the plant

in terms of , developed in the previous section, i.e.,

SPR, and therefore the last procedure fails to apply.

Instead, let us use the identity

61

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 2

62

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 2

63

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 2

As before

Adaptive law

64

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 2

The overall MRAC scheme is summarized as

65

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Relative Degree n* = 2

(i) All signals in the closed-loop plant are bounded, and the

tracking error converges to zero asymptotically.

then the parameter error and

the tracking error , converge to zero exponentially fast.

66

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Example: Let us consider the second-order plant

reference model:

67

Direct MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

where

chosen as

68

Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws

Let us use the MRC law

69

Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws

DPM

70

Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws

B-SPM

71

Direct MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Laws

(i) All signals are uniformly bounded.

(ii) The tracking error converges to zero.

(iii) If the reference input signal r is sufficiently rich of order 2n,

parameter error , converge to zero exponentially

fast.

72

Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

As in the direct MRAC case with unnormalized adaptive

laws, the complexity of the control law increases with

the value of the relative degree n* of the plant. In this

section we demonstrate the case for n* = 1.

The same methodology is applicable to the case of

n*>2 at the expense of additional algebraic

manipulations.

We propose the same control law as in the direct MRAC

case,

73

Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

where

plant parameters:

Controller parameters:

matching equations:

74

Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

75

Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

where

to be SPR. 76

Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

state-space

77

Indirect MRAC with Unnormalized Adaptive Laws

Indirect MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Law

Starting with the plant equation

the following plant parametric model:

is a Hurwitz polynomial

79

Indirect MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Law

control law:

calculated using the mapping .

The mapping is obtained by using the matching

equations

80

Indirect MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Law

If are the estimated values of the

polynomials , respectively, at each

time t, then are obtained as solutions to

the polynomial equations

81

Indirect MRAC with Normalized Adaptive Law

Summary:

Plant:

Controller:

82

Robust MRAC

In this section we consider MRAC schemes that are

designed for a simplified model of the plant but are

applied to a higher-order plant. We assume that the

plant is of the form

where,

is the modeled part of the plant

is an unknown multiplicative perturbation with stable poles

is a bounded input disturbance

are strictly proper.

We design the MRAC scheme assuming that the plant

model satisfies assumptions P1-P4. 83

Robust Direct MRAC

We first use an example to illustrate the design and

stability analysis of a robust MRAC scheme with a

normalized adaptive law. Then extend the results to a

general SISO plant with unmodeled dynamics and

bounded disturbances.

unknown and is a multiplicative plant uncertainty.

Let us consider the nonrobust adaptive control law

84

Robust Direct MRAC

estimate of designed for the plant model

introduces a disturbance term in the adaptive law that

may easily cause to drift to infinity and certain

signals to become unbounded. The above adaptive

control law is, therefore, not robust with respect to the

plant uncertainty . 85

Robust Direct MRAC

This adaptive control scheme, however, can be made

robust if we it with a robust one developed by

following the procedure of last Chapter as:

guarantees that 86

Robust Direct MRAC

Hence, we can combine normalization with any

modification, such as leakage, dead zone, or

projection, to form a robust adaptive law. Let us

consider the switching σ-modification, i.e.,

results in last chapter, the above robust adaptive law

guarantees that

87

Robust Direct MRAC

Using the properties of the norm, we have

which implies that

modeling error in m.s.s. where,

88

Robust Direct MRAC

summarized as follows:

satisfy the above inequalities for small

89

Robust Direct MRAC

90

different values of mu.

Robust Direct MRAC

General case

Let us now consider the SISO plant given by

function of the plant is strictly proper. The

multiplicative uncertainty satisfies the following

assumptions:

91

Robust Direct MRAC

Assumptions SI and S2 imply that defined as

be required to satisfy certain upper bounds. We should

note that the strict properness of the overall plant

transfer function and of imply that is a

strictly proper transfer function.

The control objective is to choose so that all signals

in the closed-loop plant are bounded and the output

tracks, as closely as possible, the output of the

reference model given by

92

Robust Direct MRAC

The transfer function of the reference model

satisfies assumptions Ml and M2.

We start with the control law

given by

93

Robust Direct MRAC

We can use a wide class of robust adaptive laws. For

example gradient algorithm as:

are analytic in This implies that

94

Robust Direct MRAC

The above adaptive law guarantees that

robust adaptive law form the robust direct MRAC

scheme whose properties are described by the

following theorem.

95

Robust Direct MRAC

Theorem Consider the MRAC scheme

the plant

disturbance . If

where

96

Robust Direct MRAC

is such that is analytic in

is an arbitrary constant, and denotes

finite constants, then all the signals in the closed-loop

plant are bounded and the tracking error satisfies

of order 2n and Zp, Rp are coprime, then the

parameter error and tracking error converge

exponentially to the residual set

97

Robust Direct MRAC

Remark1: it was shown that the projection

modification or switching σ-modification alone is

sufficient to obtain the same qualitative results as

those of Theorem. In simulations, adaptive laws using

dynamic normalization often lead to better transient

behavior than those using static normalization.

is tedious but possible. Because the constants, depend

on unknown transfer functions and parameters, the

conditions for robust stability are quite difficult to

check for a given plant. The importance of the

robustness bounds is therefore more qualitative than

quantitative.

98

Case Study:

Adaptive Attitude Control of a Spacecraft

We consider the control problem associated with the

descending of a spacecraft onto a landing site such as

Mars. The attitude of the spacecraft needs to be

controlled in order to avoid tipping or crash. Due to

the consumption of fuel during the terminal landing,

the moments of inertia Ix, Iy, and Iz are changing

with time in an uncertain manner. In order to handle

this parametric uncertainty we consider an adaptive

control design.

In next figure, are the body frame axes of

the spacecraft; X, Y, and Z are the inertial reference

frame axes of Mars; and O and C are the centers of

mass of the spacecraft and Mars, respectively.

99

Case Study:

Case Study:

The dynamics of the spacecraft are described by the

following equations:

the moments of inertia; and are the angular

velocities with respect to the inertial frame

Axes. Define the coordinates

rotation and φ is the angle of rotation with

are the quaternion angles of rotation. 101

Case Study:

By assuming a small angle of rotation, i.e.,

attitude spacecraft dynamics will be described as

102

Case Study:

time less than 0.6 s. and overshoot less than 5%.

These performance requirements are used to choose

the reference model as a second-order system with two

complex poles corresponding to a damping ratio

and natural frequency rad/sec, i.e., 103

Case Study:

so that each follows the output of

the reference model for any unknown moment of

inertia

104

Case Study:

where the controller parameters

are such that the closed loop transfer function in each

axis is equal to that of the reference model. It can be

shown that this matching is achieved if

the MRC law, we can express the overall MRC law in

the compact form

where,

105

Case Study:

I is the identity 3x3 matrix, and the design constant λ

is taken to be equal to 1. The relationship between the

desired controller parameters and unknown plant

parameters shows that if we use the direct MRAC

approach, we will have to estimate 12 parameters,

which is the number of the unknown controller

parameters, whereas if we use the indirect MRAC

approach, we estimate only 3 parameters, namely the

unknown inertias. For this reason the indirect MRAC

approach is more desirable.

Using the CE approach, the control law is given as

online adaptive law as follows. 106

Case Study:

We consider the plant equations

Filtering by

Define:

107

Case Study:

we obtain the SPMs

108

Case Study:

where

adaptive gains:

Case Study:

Next figure shows the tracking of the output qm of the

reference model by the three coordinates q1,q2,q3, as

well as the way the inertias change due to fuel

reduction and the corresponding estimates generated

by the adaptive law. It is clear that the control

objective is met despite the fact that the estimated

parameters converge to the wrong values due to lack

of persistence of excitation.

110

Case Study:

111

Simulation results of indirect MRAC.

THE END

112

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