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Managing Safety&Health in Construction

Bureau of Workers’ Compensation


PA Training for Health & Safety
(PATHS)

OSHA 1926.20, Subpart C

GENERAL SAFETY
&
HEALTH PROVISIONS

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Subpart C Sections

1926.20 General safety and health provisions


1926.21 Safety Training and Education
1926.23 First aid and medical attention
1926.24 Fire protection and prevention
1926.25 Housekeeping
1926.26 Illumination
1926.27 Sanitation
1926.28 Personal protective equipment

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Subpart C-General Safety & Health

OSHA Violations 2014


1. Fall Protection (1926.501) 6,143
2. Hazard Communication (1910.1200) 5,161
3. Scaffolding (1926.451) 4,029
4. Respiratory Protection (1910.134) 3,223
5. Lockout/Tagout (1910.147) 2,704
6. Powered Industrial Trucks (1910.178) 2,662
7. Electrical, Wiring Methods (1910.305) 2,490
8. Ladders (1926.1053) 2,448
9. Machine Guarding (1910.212) 2,200
10.Electrical-General Requirements
(1910.303) 2,056

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Subpart C-General Safety & Health

OSHA Top 10 Hazards 2015


 Scaffolding
 Fall Protection
 Hazard Communication
 Respiratory Protection
 Lockout/Tagout
 Electrical and wiring methods
 Powered Industrial Trucks
 Ladders
 Electrical-General Requirements
 Machine Guarding

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Definitions

Competent Person: Has authorization to take


corrective action & is able to recognize existing
and predictable hazards.
Authorized Person: A person assigned by the
employer to perform a duty or to be at a
particular jobsite.

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Definitions

Construction Work:
means work for
construction, alteration,
and/or repair, including
painting and decorating.

Employer: means
contractor or
subcontractor.

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Definitions

Qualified: means one who, by


possession of a:
 Recognized degree,
 Certificate, or
 Professional standing, or
 Who by extensive knowledge,
training, and experience, has
successfully demonstrated their
ability to solve or resolve problems
relating to the subject matter, the
work, or the project.

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1926.20 Contractor Requirements

Subpart C, 1926.20-35, General Requirements


No laborer or mechanic performing contract work
allowed to work under working conditions which
are:
Unsanitary
Hazardous
Dangerous

To their health or safety

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1926.20 Accident Prevention

Responsibility of the employer to initiate and


maintain programs necessary to comply (CFR
Part 1926 Construction Industry)

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Machinery and Tools

• Must be in compliance
with regulations
• Tools not in compliance
must be identified as
unsafe by:

 Tagging or locking
controls to render
inoperable
 Physically removed
from place of
operation

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Training and Experience

Employer shall permit


only those employees
qualified by training or
experience to operate
equipment or machinery

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Safety Training & Education

1926.21
• Instruct each employee
in the recognition and
avoidance of unsafe
conditions.
• Also All 29 CFR 1926
regulations that apply
to the work.
• Control or eliminate any
hazards or other
exposure to illness or
injury.

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Safety Training & Education

1926.21
Employees required to handle poisons, caustics &
other harmful substances shall be instructed in
such handling and use

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Safety Training & Education

1926.21

Instruction on avoiding
injury from plants &
animals where present &
first aid procedures to be
used in the event of injury

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Safety Training & Education

1926.21

• Employees required to enter confined spaces


instructed to nature of hazards involved

• Necessary precautions

• Use of PPE

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Safety Training & Education
1926.21
Confined space:
 Limited means of egress
 Subject to accumulation of hazardous
contaminants or,
 Oxygen deficient
atmosphere
 Tanks, bins, boilers, ducts,
pipelines, open-topped
spaces more than 4 feet deep
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1926.23 First Aid/Medical

Provisions made by employer


for every employee for:

• First aid,

• Medical attention,

• Emergency
facilities

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1926.24 Fire Protection

Employer responsible for the development and


maintenance of an effective program at the
jobsite throughout all phases of the construction,
repair or demolition work

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1926.24 Fire Protection

Ensure availability of fire protection equipment


as required by Subpart F of this part

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1926.25 Housekeeping

Form and scrap lumber with protruding nails and


all other debris kept cleared from work areas.
Combustible scrap removed at regular intervals

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1926.25 Housekeeping

Containers provided for collection of wastes


Covered for flammable, hazardous wastes

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1926.26 Illumination

Construction areas, aisles, stairs, ramps,


corridors, offices & storage where work is in
progress shall be lighted with natural or artificial
illumination

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1926.27 Sanitation

• Sanitation requirements
are found in Subpart D
(1926.51)
• Cover requirements
for drinking water
(potable).
• Water for other
purposes.
• Toilet requirements.
• Eating and drinking areas.
• Vermin control.

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Personal Protective Equipment

Employer is responsible for 1926.28


requiring the wearing of
appropriate personal
protective equipment in all
operations where there is
an exposure to hazardous
conditions

Includes fall protection.

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1926.29 Acceptable Certifications

 Pressure vessels

 Boilers

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Shipbuilding/Repairing

1926.30

Safety and health


regulations in part
1915 of this title,
Shipyard Employment
apply.

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Incorporation by Reference

1926.31

Only the mandatory provisions (containing the


word “shall”) of standards incorporated by
reference are adopted as standards under OSHA.

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Definitions 1926.32

ANSI: means American National Standards


Institute.

With reference to standards:

Shall: means mandatory.


Should: means recommended

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Medical Records Access

1926.33

The requirements applicable to


construction work under this
section are identical to those
set forth in General Industry
Standards 1910.1020

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Recordkeeping/Hazard Analysis

• First aid supplies and medical service available


• Employees informed of medical results
• Emergency procedures and training, where
necessary

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Egress 1926.34

• In every building or structure, free &


unobstructed egress from all parts, when
occupied
• No locks to prevent free escape (except mental
& penal institutions)
• Exits marked by readily visible
sign
• Means of egress continually
maintained

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Egress Maintenance

Correct hazardous conditions


before emergencies occur

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1926.35 Emergency Plans

 In writing

 Procedures and routes assigned

 Covers actions employees must take to protect


themselves from fire & emergencies

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Hidden Costs of Accidents

• Total Costs = Direct + Indirect Expenses


• Direct (insured) = e.g. wage loss, medical
• Indirect (uninsured, cost to company) = e.g.
downtime, property damage, morale of injured
worker and others in department, hiring,
training, possible OSHA citations

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Accident Categories

Contact (struck by, energy source(s), abrasion,


etc.
Caught (in, on, between, under)
Fall (from elevation or same level)
Electrocution

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Accident Categories

Exertion (stress or
strain)

Exposure (exposed to
fume, gas, mist,
chemical, etc...)

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Construction Safety Programs

• Although compliance with the


law, including specific OSHA
standards, is an important
objective, an effective program
looks beyond specific
requirements of law to address
all hazards.
• It will seek to prevent injuries
and illnesses, whether or not
compliance is at issue.

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Major Program Elements

 Management Commitment and Employee


Involvement

 Worksite Analysis

 Hazard Prevention and Control

 Safety and Health Training

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Management’s Role

Commitment and Leadership

 Policy statement: goals


established, issued and
communicated to
employees.

 Program revised annually.

 Participation in safety
meetings, inspections;
agenda items in meetings.

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Management’s Role

Commitment and Leadership

 Commitment of resources
is adequate

 Safety rules and


procedures incorporated
into site operations

 Management observes
safety rules

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Worksite Analysis

 Conduct comprehensive baseline worksite


surveys for safety and health

 Perform routine job hazards analyses.

 Assess risk factors of


ergonomics applications
to workers' tasks.

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Worksite Analysis

 Conduct regular site


safety and health
inspections.

 Provide a system for


employees to notify
management about
hazardous
conditions.

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Hazard Prevention/Control

 Use engineering techniques where feasible.

 Establish safe work practices.

 Provide personal protective equipment when


engineering controls are infeasible.

 Use administrative
controls reduce duration
of exposure.

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Hazard Prevention/Control

o Maintain the facility and


equipment to prevent
breakdowns.
o Plan and prepare for
emergencies, and
conduct training and
emergency drills.
o Establish a medical
program that includes
first aid onsite.

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Safety & Health Training

Ensure that all employees understand and are


aware of the hazards to which they may be
exposed and the proper methods for avoiding
such hazards.

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Safety & Health Training

• Maintain physical protection in their work


areas.
• Understand their safety and health
responsibilities.

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Safety & Health Training

• Limit certain job assignments to employees


who are "certified," "competent," or "qualified,"
meaning that they have had special previous
training.

• This should be an essential


part of every employer's
program for protecting
workers from accidents and
illnesses.

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Training & Education

 Supervisors receive
basic training

 Specialized training
taken when needed

 Employee training
program exists, is
ongoing, and is
effective

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Assignment of Responsibility

 Safety designee on
site, knowledgeable,
and accountable

 Supervisors (including
foremen) safety and
health responsibilities
understood

 Employees adhere to
safety rules

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Hazard Identification & Control

 Action taken to address hazards


 Safety Committee, where appropriate
 Technical references available
 Enforcement procedures by management

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S & H Program Review

 Hazard Analyses – assessment

 Hazard Prevention and control

 Policies and Procedures

 Employee training

 Follow-up Inspections (Audits)

 Enforcement (Discipline)

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Questions

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Contact Information

Health & Safety Training Specialists


1171 South Cameron Street, Room 324
Harrisburg, PA 17104-2501
(717) 772-1635
RA-LI-BWC-PATHS@pa.gov

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Bibliography

OSHA 1926.20, Subpart C, General Safety and


Health Provisions.

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