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REPRODUCTION & GROWTH

4.3 Early Development of a Human


Zygote
Ovulation
the release of ovum into the Fallopian tube
1st sperm that reaches the ovum will
penetrate it
Fertilisation
Occurs when the nucleus of the sperm that
penetrates the mature ovum in the Fallopian
tube fuses with the ovum nucleus
Middle piece & the tail of the sperm are left
outside
Fertilisation
Zygote forms fertilisation ‘membrane’
around itself
To prevent other sperms from penetrating it
again
Early Development of a Zygote
≈ 36 hours
after
fertilization,
zygote begins
to divide
repeatedly by
mitosis as it
travels along
the Fallopian
tube towards
the uterus
 The first division forms a two-celled EMBRYO
 Further division result in the formation of a solid mass of cells known as a MORULA
 ≈ 5th day,
morula is
a ball of
about 100
cells
known as
blastocyst
 Blastocyst
– outer
layer
(trophobl
ast); inner
cells
(inner cell
mass)
 Trophobl
ast –
develop
into
placenta
 Inner cell
mass –
dev into
embryo
Implantation :
7th day after fertilisation
Blastocysts firmly embedded into
endometrium
The Formation of Twins
Twins
• Two individuals born to the same mother
at almost the same time after the same
period of pregnancy

• Divided into 2 types:


– Identical (monozygotic twins)
– Fraternal (dizygotic twins)
Identical Twins
• One ovum + one
sperm = two foetuses
• Incomplete division
produced Siamese
twins
Identical Twins
• Identical twins:
– Same sex
– Share one placenta
– Genetically identical
– Almost identical physical features
– Same blood group
Conjoined Twins
Non Identical Twins
(Fraternal Twins)

• Two ova + two sperm =


two fetuses
• Each with its own
placenta
Non Identical Twins
(Fraternal Twins)
• Genetically different
• Same / different sex
• Different physical characteristics
The functions of the placenta in
foetal development
Placenta
Placenta
• Temporary organ of embryonic tissue
origin
• Develop in the endometrium
• Forms a selective barrier between
mother’s blood & foetal blood
• Umbilical cord connects the foetus to the
placenta
Functions of Placenta
 Allows the attachment of the embryo or
foetus to the mother’s uterine wall
 Transport nutrients such as glucose,
mineral salts, amino acids, vitamins, fatty
acid & glycerol from the mother’s blood
to the blood of the foetus
Functions of Placenta
 Removes excretory wastes from the
blood of the foetus
 Transport hormones & antibodies from
the mothers blood to the foetus
 Acts as an endocrine gland that secretes
estrogen & progesterone
UMBILICAL VEIN : UMBILICAL ARTERIES :
Carries oxygenated blood from the Carry deoxygenated blood from the
placenta to the foetus foetus to the placenta
THE ADVANTAGES OF HAVING SEPARATE
FOETAL & MATERNAL CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The Advantages Of Having Separate
Foetal & Maternal Circulatory System

 Prevents the mixing of blood groups of


the mother and the foetus which may be
incompatible
 Ensure that the fine blood vessels of the
foetus do not burst as a result of high
pressure caused by the flow of the
mother’s blood
The Advantages Of Having Separate
Foetal & Maternal Circulatory System

 Prevents certain harmful bacteria and


their toxins from entering the foetus
 Prevents the action of chemicals in the
mother’s blood from harming the
developing foetus
4.4 Appreciating the Contribution of
Science & Technology to Human
Reproduction
Contraception
• The practice of preventing pregnancy
• Involves the use of devices / methods to
prevent pregnancy
Contraception
• Methods used are based on the following
principles:
– Preventing ovulation (contraceptive pills)
– Preventing sperms from fertilizing the ova
(rhythm method, condoms, femidoms &
diaphragm)
– Killing the sperms (spermicides)
Natural Methods
1. Calendar / rhythm method
2. Temperature method
Physical (barrier) methods
• Condom
• The Diaphragm
• Intrauterine device (IUD)
Intrauterine device
Chemical method
• The contraceptive pill
• Spermicide
Sterilization method
• Tubal ligation
• Vasectomy
Tubal ligation
Vasectomy
Abortion
• Intended removal elimination of
embryo/foetus from the womb
• The longer the pregnancy the higher the risk
• Goes against religious belief & moral values
• Sometimes necessary for medical reason
Technology associated with
reproduction
Artificial insemination
• Used by a couple when the man is sterile
• Sperms from donor are injected into the uterus of
the woman during ovulation without involving sexual
intercourse
• Although donor’s identity is not known to the wife &
husband, the genetic background & health of the
donor are screened by specialist
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
Sperm Bank
• Specialized laboratory used to keep sperms
given by donors
• Frozen sperm are kept in sperm bank