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Car Parking Guard Circuit Using IR Sensor

Souradip Pal(150102076), Mahim Goyal(150108044), and Sahil Thandra(150108046)

Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, India

Abstract: There is always a possibility that a car might hit an obstacle while reverse-parking as the driver does not get the
full view of what is behind the car. Therefore, proximity sensors are necessary to alert the driver about the obstacles behind
the car while parking it. Our Carking Parking Guard Circuit is designed to solve this problem making use of Infrared
Sensors. By providing both visual (LED) and hearing aid (buzzer) to the driver, there is an increased possibility that the
driver manages to avoid an obstacle in almost all the circumstances.

1. INTRODUCTION  Using T-Flipflops connected in series, with the output of previous


connected to the clock of the next ,the frequency of pulse waveform
 The design of the circuit revolves around the concept of Infrared
is decrease to 50% and 25% of the original frequency.
rays transmission and reception, and the generation of potential
difference due to the varied intensity of Infrared rays captured.This  The appropriate frequency for the buzzer are selected using a
potential difference is manipulated so as to provide signals to the multiplexer whose inputs are the waveforms of different frequencies
driver. and selection signals are controlled by the comparator outputs .
 The Infrared receiver is an Infrared photodiode. The Infrared
photodiode is sensitive to the IR light emitted by the Infrared
Transmitter. The photodiode resistance and output voltage change in
proportion to the IR light received.
 The space behind the car was segmented into three regions bounded
by 30cm, 15cm and 7cm concentrically. These boundaries are so
specified in order to alert the driver accordingly.
 The driver is notified by a set of LEDs such that the number of
LEDs turned ON increases with the growing proximity of the
obstacle behind the car.
 The driver is also warned by a piezo-buzzer (whose frequency
increases with the reducing distance between the obstacle and the Figure : Circuit Diagram
car), thereby forcing him/her to take quick action in order to avoid
4. RESULTS
the obstacle.
 We accurately detected an obstacle within a range of 30 cm which is
2. METHODOLOGY enough distance between an obstacle and the car for the driver to
 Car Parking Guard Detector take necessary action.
 The entire circuit was built within a reasonable price and hence this
is a very cost effective implementation.

Figure : Sensor response when object is at 30 cm

3. EXPERIMENTATION
 The circuit contains two IR emitters with one IR receiver to measure
distance up to 30 cm with considerable changes in output of receiver.
 Two comparators were used to divide the observing range of distance
into subsections. Resistors are connected at its inverting terminal for Figure: Sensor response when object is at 15 Figure: Sensor response when object is at 7
adjusting reference voltage and IR receiver’s output is directly cm cm
connected at non-inverting pins of all comparators.
5. CONCLUSION
The circuit when assembled on a car would accurately detect an object
 Three different coloured LEDs are connected to the output of the within 30cm range and send audio-visual signal to the driver accordingly.
comparator which glow in sequence with increasing proximity of the This complete circuitry will be attached to the back bumper and placed at
obstacle. the centre so as to detect the object on the road just behind it. The buzzer
 To generate a pulse waveform of a particular frequency for sounding and led should be placed on the dashboard for visibility of light and
the piezo-buzzer, a pulse generator circuit was constructed using a hearing purpose for the driver. This arrangement solves the problem at
555 Timer hand in a very cost effective manner.