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Original Title: MECHANISM OF HEAT TRANSFER (hand-out).pptx

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OF

HEAT

TRANSFER

Mode of Heat transfer

• Conduction

• Convection

• Radiation

CONDUCTION

Heattransfer between two bodies in

contact or from one point of a body to

another point of the same body. Atoms in

hotter regions have more kinetic energy

which they transfer to neighboring atoms.

TH TC

Heat, Q

TH TC

Heat, Q

Consider a conductor of length L and cross-

section A. If one end of the conductor is at high

temperature TH and the other end at a lower

temperature Tc, then the heat current H, is

defined as the rate of heat flow through the

conductor

Q TC

TH A

L In case of Rods

TH TC

In case of Walls/Plates

A

Q

L

RADIATION

Heattransfer by electromagnetic wave

(through empty space).

e - emissivity (ranges from 0 to 1)

H - Heat Current (rate at which an object radiates or

emits radiant energy (J/s or W)

T – Absolute temperature (K)

ΔH = Aeσ(T4S-T4body)

e - emissivity (ranges from 0 to 1

ΔH - Net Rate of Heat loss or gain of energy by

radiation(J/s or W)

Tbody – Absolute temperature of the radiating body

TS – Absolute temperature of surroundings

Ex:

Tair = TS

TH

Tbody

SAMPLE PROBLEM

1) The rod is made of copper is 45 cm long and has a cross

sectional area of 1.25 cm2. Let TH = 100oC and TC =

0oC. (Use thermal conductivity of copper =

385W/m.k)

a) What is the final steady-state temperature

gradient along the rod?

b) What is the heat current in the rod in the final

steady state?

c) What is the final steady-state temperature at a

point in the rod 12 cm from its left end?

2) One end of the insulated metal rod is maintained at

100oC, and the other end is maintained at 0oC by an ice-

water mixture. The rod is 60 cm long and has cross-

sectional area of 1.25 cm2. The heat conducted by the

rod melts 8.50 g of ice in 10 min. Find the thermal

conductivity k of the metal.

3. A long rod, insulated to prevent heat loss along its

sides, is in perfect thermal contact with boiling water

(at atmospheric pressure) at one end and with an ice-

water mixture at the other end. The rod consists of 1

m long copper (one end in boiling water) with the other

end joined end to end to a length L2 of steel (one end in

ice-water). Both sections of the rod have cross-

sectional areas of 4 cm2. The temperature of the

copper-steel junction is 65oC after a steady state has

been set-up.

K cu = 385 W/m.K

K steel = 50.2 W/m.K

a) How much heat per second flows from the steam bath

to the ice-water mixture?

b) What is the length L2 of the steel section?

c) Find the mass of ice melted in one hour.

4) An insulating wall consists 2 layers with the 1st layer

4 cm thick whose thermal conductivity K= K1 and a

2nd layer 8.0 cm thick whose conductivity K2 = 4K1.

The innermost and outermost surfaces are kept at -

10˚C and 76 ˚C respectively. Calculate the

temperature of the interface.

about 5800 K. Taking the radius of the sun to be

equal to 6.86 X 108 m, calculate the energy radiated

by the sun each day. (Assume e = 1)

6) An aluminum kettle (K al = 238 W/m.C°) has a

circular cross-section and is 8 cm in radius and 0.3

cm thick. It is placed on a hot plate and filled with

1 kg of water. If the bottom of the kettle is

maintained at 101°C and the inside at 100°C, find

(a) the rate of heat flow into the water and (b) the

time it takes for all the water to boil away. (Neglect

heat transferred from the sides.)

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