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FUZZY SYSTEM

PART 2

Fuzzy Logic Controller

FUZZYCONTROL

Rule Justification

DE(k) = E(k) - E(k-1)

Rule Justification (Cont’d)

Rule Justification (Cont’d)

Mc Vicar-Whelan Fuzzy Rule Matrix

Machine Interaction",Int. J. Man-Mach.

Studies,vol. 8, pp. 687-697, 1976.

FLC using MATLAB

Steps

• In Matlab command window type “fuzzy”

• Add input and output variables

• Setup membership functions for each

variables

• Creates fuzzy rules

• “Export To File” (means save the FIS to a file)

and/or “Export To Workspace” (means we

want to use FIS right now for simulation)

Creating Fuzzy Inference System File

Using .fis file in Simulink

Using .fis file in Simulink

1

Step -K-

s2 +2s+5

Gain Transfer Fcn Scope

Fuzzy Logic

Controller

with Ruleviewer

Memory

Creating From m-files

• Discretize the system

• Create a system with negative feedback. FLC is in

forward path.

• Use the following commands:

– readfis (‘filename’) to call .fis file

– evalfis([input],fis_variable) to use .fis file

– To add fuzzy rule:

ruleList=[

11111

1 2 2 1 1];

a = addrule(a,ruleList);

Fuzzy Control for Tank Level Control

PID

PID

Mux animtank

Controller

1

-1 WATER

VALVE Mux2

Constant TANK S-Function

const

Mux Switch Subsystem

tank 2

Sum1 error

Mux1 Scope4

Scope1

Fuzzy Controller 0.5

Signal with Ruleviewer Scope2

Generator tank max

inflow

change

scope

du/dt

Try the demo

"sltank2" change Derivative

FLC using Scilab

Steps

• In Scilab command window type “editfls”

• From “File”menu click “New fls” then select

between Mamdani and Takagi-Sugeno

• From right side tab edit “description”, Add input

and output variables

• Setup membership functions for each variables

• Creates fuzzy rules

• “Export To File” (means save the FLS to a file)

and/or “Export To Workspace” (means we want

to use FLS right now for simulation)

Editing FLS

Plotting Variables

Usual way to use Xcos for control

Using .fls file in XCos

Creating From sci-files

• Discretize the system

forward path.

• Use the following commands:

– importfis (‘filename’) to call .fls file

– evalfls([input],fls_variable) to use .fls file

ANFIS:

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference

Systems

Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic

• Neural networks and fuzzy logic are two

complimentary technologies

• Neural networks can learn from data and

feedback

– It is difficult to develop an insight about the

meaning associated with each neuron and each

weight

– Viewed as “black box” approach (know what

the box does but not how it is done

conceptually!)

Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic (cont’d)

• Fuzzy rule-based models are easy to

comprehend (uses linguistic terms and the

structure of if-then rules)

• Unlike neural networks, fuzzy logic does not

come with a learning algorithm

– Learning and identification of fuzzy models

need to adopt techniques from other areas

• Since neural networks can learn, it is natural

to marry the two technologies.

Neuro- Fuzzy System

Neuro-fuzzy system can be classified into

three categories:

1. A fuzzy rule-based model constructed using a

supervised NN learning technique

2. A fuzzy rule-based model constructed using

reinforcement-based learning

3. A fuzzy rule-based model constructed using

NN to construct its fuzzy partition of the

input space

ANFIS: Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy

Inference Systems

• A class of adaptive networks that are

functionally equivalent to fuzzy inference

systems.

• ANFIS architectures representing both the

Sugeno and Tsukamoto fuzzy models

A two-input first-Order Sugeno

Fuzzy Model with two rules

Equivalent ANFIS architecture

ANFIS Architecture

Assume - two inputs X and Y and one output Z

Rule 1: If x is A1 and y is B1,

then f1 = p1x + q1y +r1

Rule 2: If x is A2 and y is B2,

then f2 = p2x + q2y +r2

ANFIS Architecture: Layer 1

O1,i = Ai (x), for i = 1,2,..., number of Fuzzy set of 1st input

and

O1,j = Bj (y), for j = 1,2,..., number of Fuzzy set of 2nd input

Where x (or y) is the input to node i and Ai (or Bi) is a linguistic

label

** O1,i is the membership grade of a fuzzy set and it specifies the

degree to which the given input x or y satisfies the quantifies

ANFIS Architecture: Layer 1

(cont.)

fuzzy set can be any parameterized

membership function, such as triangle,

trapezoidal, Gaussian, or generalized Bell

function.

Parameters in this layer are referred to as

Antecedence Parameters

ANFIS Architecture: Layer 2

output is the product of all the incoming signals:

O2,i = Wi = min{Ai (x) , Bi (y)}

i = 1,2,..., node number in Layer 2

Each node output represents the firing strength of a rule.

ANFIS Architecture: Layer 3

Every node in this layer is a fixed node labeled N. The i-th node

calculates the ratio of the i-th rule’s firing strength to the sum

of all rule’s firing stregths:

O3,i = 𝑊𝑖 = Wi /(σ𝑖 𝑊𝑖 ) , i =1,2,..., node number in Layer 3

ANFIS Architecture: Layer 4

function

𝑂4,𝑖 = 𝑤𝑖 𝑓𝑖 = 𝑤𝑖 (𝑝𝑖 . 𝑥 + 𝑞𝑖 . 𝑦 + 𝑟𝑖 )

Consequent parameters

ANFIS Architecture: Layer 5

computes the overall output as the summation of all

incoming signals:

𝑂5,1 = 𝑓 = σ𝑖 𝑤𝑖 𝑓𝑖

ANFIS Architecture: Alternate

model, weight normalization is

performed at the very last layer

ANFIS Architecture: Tsukamoto

model

Tsukamoto fuzzy model

ANFIS Architecture:

2 input Sugeno with 9 rules

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