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You are on page 1of 47

Hemangi (R2)

-Dr. Ruju (R1)

Contents:

Introduction

Parametric test

t test

Z test

ANOVA

References

STATISTICS

According to Karl Pearson, statistics is a grammar of science.

collection, compilation, presentation, analysis and logical

interpretation of biological data affected by multiplicity of

factors”.

This appears to be a comprehensive definition encompassing

health, medical and vital statistics together with statistical

methods encountered.

HYPOTHESIS AND STATISTICAL TEST

Many times it is required to make decision about population on

the basis of sample information. Such decisions are called as

statistical decisions.

assumptions about the population involved.

Statistical Hypothesis.

Null

hypothesis

Hypothesis

Alternative

hypothesis

Statistical test

A statistical test is a way to evaluate the evidence the data

provides against a hypothesis.

distribution of one or more populations should be rejected or

accepted.

These may be:

Statistical

test

Parametric

test

Non-

parametric

test

Uses of statistical test:

These tests the statistical significance of the:-

4) Difference in proportions between sample and population

populations

Parametric Tests

Parametric test is a test whose model specifies certain condition

about the parameters of the population from which the samples

are drawn.

Parametric test is used when:

Data is Quantitative.

measurement.

Data should follow normal distribution

Comparison between parametric

and non-parametric test:

Parametric Test Non-Parametric test

Normally distributed.

p-value associated to a P-value associated with non-

parametric test will be lower. parametric test will be higher than

parametric ones.

parametric test is more able to test is less able to lead to a rejection

lead to a rejection of Null of Null Hypothesis.

Hypothesis.

Parametric test will have more Less statistical power.

statistical power.

Types of Parametric Test:

T test

Z test

ANOVA

T-test/ Students t-test

Developed by Prof W.S Gossett in 1908, who published

statistical papers under the pen name of ‘Student’. Thus the test

is known as Student’s ‘t’ test.

Common Applications :

mean.

Assumptions

1. Samples are randomly selected

2. Data utilised is Quantitative

3. Variable follow normal distribution

4. Sample variances are mostly same in both the

groups under the study

i.e :σ12=σ22=σ32

5. Samples are small (n < 30)

T test

t-test t-test

Paired t-test

Unpaired t-

test

One sample t-test

In one sample t-test , we know the population mean.

compare the sample mean with the population mean and

make a statistical decision as to whether or not the sample

mean is different from the population.

To test the difference between sample mean and population

mean:

S= sample SD

µ=Population mean

n= number of observations

Now we compare calculated value with table value at certain

level of significance (generally 5% or 1%).

reject the null hypothesis and if it is less than table value, the

null hypothesis may be accepted.

Example

Research Problem : Comparison of mean dietary intake of

a particular group of individuals with the recommended

daily intake.

DATA: Average daily energy intake (ADEI) over 10 days

of 11 healthy women

SUB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

ADEI 5260 5470 5640 6180 6390 6515 6805 7515 7515 8230 8770

(KJ)

Mean ADEI value = 6753.6

When can we say about the energy intake of these women in relation

to a recommended daily intake of 7725 KJ ?

So defining the hypothesis:

H0 = there is no difference between population mean and sample

mean

OR

H0 : μ = 7725 KJ

H1 = there is a difference between population mean and sample

mean

OR

H1 : μ ≠ 7725 KJ

Set the level of significance (α = .05, .01 or .001)

6753.6 – 7725/1142.1 √11 = -0.2564

In the above example we have seen

t=- .2564 which is less then 2.23

P value suggests that the dietary intake of these women was

significantly less than the recommended level (7725 KJ)

Two sample t-test

Used when the two independent random samples come

from the normal populations having unknown or same

variance.

Unpaired Two sample ‘t’- test

Unpaired t- test is used when we wish to compare two

means

Used when the two independent random samples come

from the normal populations having unknown or same

variance

We test the null hypothesis, that the two population

means are same i.e μ1= μ2 against an appropriate one

sided or two sided alternative hypothesis

Assumptions

The samples are random & independent of each other

To calculate unpaired t-test:

PAIRED TWO-SAMPLES T-TEST

Used when we have paired data of observations from one

sample only, when each individual gives a pair of

observations.

circumstances- measurements made on the same people

before and after interventions.

Assumptions

The outcome variable should be continuous

The difference between pre-post measurements should be

normally distributed.

Formula for paired t-test:

Z-test

Z-test is a statistical test where normal distribution is

applied and is basically used for dealing with problems

relating to

large samples when the frequency is greater than or equal

to 30.

It is used when population standard deviation is known.

Indications

To compare sample mean with population mean

To compare two sample means

To compare sample proportion with population

proportion

To compare two sample proportions

Formula for z-test:

If the calculated value of Z < table value of Z at 5% level

of significance, H0 is accepted and hence we conclude that

there is no significant difference between the population

mean and the one specified in H0 as μο.

Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient

Correlation is a technique for investigating the

relationship between two quantitative, continuous

variables

Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient(r) is a measure of the

strength of the association between the two variables.

Assumptions

Subjects selected for study with pair of values of X & Y

are chosen with random sampling procedure.

Both X & Y variables are continuous(e.g when we

compare weight and height)

Both variables X & Y are assumed to follow normal

distribution

Formula:

Types of correlation

Perfect Positive Correlation r=+1 (height and age)

pulse rate)

Perfect negative correlation r=-1 (pressure and volume of

gas)

Partial negative correlation 0>r>-1 (age and vital capacity)

ANOVA

Given by Sir Ronald Fisher

The principle aim of statistical models is to explain the

variation in measurements.

If there are more than two groups, the appropriate

statistical model is Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Assumptions for ANOVA

Sample population can be easily approximated to normal

distribution.

Independent samples

ANOVA compares variance by means of a simple ratio,

called F-Ratio:

likely to reject the null hypothesis.

the null hypothesis is accepted.

In ANOVA, the F test is used to establish whether a

statistically significant difference exists in the data being

tested.

One-way

ANOVA

ANOVA

Two-way

ANOVA

One Way ANOVA

If the various experimental groups differ in terms of only

one factor at a time- a one way ANOVA is used

e.g. A study to assess the effectiveness of four

different antibiotics on staphylococcus aureus.

Two Way ANOVA

at a time, then a Two Way ANOVA is performed

antibiotics on staphylococcus aureus in three different age

groups.

Summary:

CONCLUSION

Tests of significance play an important role in conveying

the results of any research & thus the choice of an

appropriate statistical test is very important as it

decides the fate of outcome of the study.

Hence the emphasis placed on tests of significance in

clinical research must be tempered with an understanding

that they are tools for analyzing data & should never be

used as a substitute for knowledgeable interpretation of

outcomes.

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