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‫الر ِحمم‬

‫الر ْح نَم ِِ ه‬ ‫ِب ْس ِم ه‬


‫َّللاِ ه‬
SOCIOLOGY
Group # 1
GROUP MEMBERS

 TUBA SHEHWAR BB15154


 ANOOSHA ANEES BB15147
 FATIMA DAR BB15135

“OBSERVATION METHODS”
By
Robert v. kozmets
contents

 DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION OF


OBSERVATION METHODS IN MARKETING
RESEARCH

 ORIGIN OF OBSERVATION METHODS

 PROCEDURES AND EXAMPLES OF OBSERVATION


METHODS

 VIDEOGRAPHY
DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION OF
OBSERVATION METHODS IN MARKETING
RESEARCH

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF OBSERVATION:

 From over a half century marketers


are interested in understanding the
base of brand loyalty.

 Development of methods and


techniques.
DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION OF
OBSERVATION METHODS IN MARKETING
RESEARCH

MOTIVATION RESEARCH:

 1930s to 1960s “mr” – extremely important set


of techniques – to give a competitive edge
for differentiation.

 Gives an understanding about how do


customers interact and feel about products
and services.
DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION OF
OBSERVATION METHODS IN MARKETING
RESEARCH

MOTIVATION RESEARCH:

 Recognition to competitive and proactive


marketing management

 This realistic understanding requires an


“ORIENTATION” – USAGE OF PRODUCT AND BRAND
IN A NATURAL, HOLISTIC AND CULTURAL
CONTEXT.
DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION OF
OBSERVATION METHODS IN MARKETING
RESEARCH

DEFINITION OF OBSERVATION METHODS:

 Qualitative marketing research methods.


 Direct market-related activity in which
researchers view, record and then analyze
the manifest actions of consumers.
 Range of observations and data is
considerable.
 Observation methods cover large groups of
anonymous people.
DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION OF
OBSERVATION METHODS IN MARKETING
RESEARCH

 Placement of cameras in public or private


places.
 Analysis OF DATA ENCOMPASSES A CONSIDERABLE
VARIETY OF FORMS RANGING FROM AUTOMATIC
COUNTERS CALCULATING BASIC BEHAVIOURS TO
EXTREMELY INTIMATE INVESTIGATIONS WHERE
RESEARCHERS INTRUSIVELY LIVE WITH CONSUMERS
IN ORDER TO CAREFULLY OBSERVE AND RECORD
THEIR BEHAVIOURS.
ORIGIN OF OBSERVATION
METHODS

 OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH AND ITS METHODS


ORIGINATED FROM ANTHROPOLOGICAL METHOD
OF ETHNOGRAPHY.

ETHNORAPHY:

ANTHROPOLOGICAL METHOD THAT STUDIES


MEMBERS OF A CULTURE IN DEPTH THROUGH THE
TECHNIQUES OF PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
ORIGIN OF OBSERVATION
METHODS

 ETHNOGRAPHERS – CONDUCT NATURALISTIC


RESEARCH, RESEARCH THAT IS DONE IN A
NATURALLY OCCURING CONTEXT.
 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AND “PEN-AND-
PENSIL” SURVEYS AND TESTS WOULD NOT BE
CONSIDERED NATURALISTIC.
 AN ETHNOGRAPHER’S INSIGHTS ARE GATHERED
FROM “IN-THE-FIELD” OBSERVATIONS OF PEOPLE AS
THEY GO ABOUT THEIR DAILY LIVES.
ORIGIN OF OBSERVATION
METHODS

 APPLIED TO PRIMITIVE TRIBES AS WELL AS URBAN


CULTUES IN EARLY DECADES OF TWENTIETH
CENTURY.
 OM IN MR THUS SPECIALIZE, ADAPT AND THEN
APPLY THE OBSERVATIONAL TECHNIQUES
DEVELOPED BY ANTHROPOLOGISTS.
 LEVEL OF CLOSENESS TO THE CONSUMER OFFERS
INVALUABLE INTELLIGENCE FOR MARKETERS.
ORIGIN OF OBSERVATION
METHODS

 IT’S BETTER TO OBSERVE THEM RATHER ASK THEM


HOW THEY BEHAVE OR INTEND TO BEHAVE.
 CONSUMER MEMORIES, RECOLLECTIONS AND
MEASUREMENTS ARE UNRELIABLE.
EXAMPLE:
IF WE ASK AN AMERICAN FAMILY HOW MANY
CEREALS ARE IN THERE KITCHEN CUPBOARDS WE
WOULD BE EXTEMELY UNLIKELY TO GET AN
ACCURATE ANSWER.
ORIGIN OF OBSERVATION
METHODS

 IN ADDITION TO THESE QUESTIONS MARKETERS


GAIN ACCESS TO THE CONSUMERS’ HOMES TO
ACTUALLY BURROW THROUGH THEIR KITCHEN
CABINETS,BATHROOM COUNTERS, BEDROOM
CLOSETS AND EVEN GARBAGE CANS LOOKING FOR
THE DETAILS AND CLUES ABOUT WHAT PRODUCTS
ACUALLY HAVE BEEN PURCHASED.
PROCEDURES AND EXAMPLES OF
OBSERVATION METHODS

 The company trying to make a decision about


which location to lease to open a new
restaurant.
An example would be to hire someone who
simply stood by counter and stopwatch and
manually counted the number of cars that
passed by particular intersection of city.
Moving from one intersection to other and
sampling several times of the day would yield
comparsions that could help the company
choose the right location.
PROCEDURES AND EXAMPLES OF
OBSERVATION METHODS

 A researcher using observation method would


simply head to parking lot.

 Observations methods can also involve the


installation of cameras or the use of existing
cameras.

For Example:

Closed circuit television cameras (CCTV)


PROCEDURES AND EXAMPLES OF
OBSERVATION METHODS

 Observations method can involve an in-


home interviews and observational session
or sessions.

 Such interviews will take place in a


naturalistic setting that is familiar to the
consumer.
PROCEDURES AND EXAMPLES OF
OBSERVATION METHODS

 Observations methods can be conducted as


team. Usually a small team of marketing
and research practitioners enter the house
of a small number of research participants.

 Usually there are 20 to 30 participants


scheduled for such study.
PROCEDURES AND EXAMPLES OF
OBSERVATION METHODS

 Another common observations method to


audit and research retailers is the use of
mystery shopping or the mystery consumer.

 In mystery shopping methodology,


researcher enter a retail environment
posing as ordinary consumer.
VIDEOGRAPHY

 This is digital technology and also gaining


acceptance and popularity.
 Videography allows marketers to access,
analyze and research the actual actions of
consumers as they go about their
consumption.

Here are two Common uses of videography;


1: videotaped - powerful advantage
2: Naturalistic observation
VIDEOGRAPHY

 As we know from many statistical studies,


consumers, memories and recollections about
their behavior are un-rEliable as are
measurements of their intentions.

EXAMPLE:
With important corporate decisions on
the line , observation methods can be an
extremely powerful tool for revealing actual
behavior.

THANK YOU!