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1st law of Thermodynamics

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THERMODYNAMI

CS

Alexander Louis Solis

Sharmaine Palatones

King James Land Pader

Norman Padua

THERMODYNAMICS

relationship between heat and other forms of

energy, such as work. It is frequently

summarized as three laws that describe

restrictions on how different forms of energy

can be interconverted. Chemical

thermodynamics is the portion of

thermodynamics that pertains to chemical

reactions.

THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

created nor destroyed.

Second law: In an isolated system, natural

processes are spontaneous when they lead to

an increase in disorder, or entropy.

Third law: The entropy of a perfect crystal is

zero when the temperature of the crystal is

equal to absolute zero (0 K).

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

heat is a form of energy, and thermodynamic

processes are therefore subject to the principle

of conservation of energy. This means that heat

energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can,

however, be transferred from one location to

another and converted to and from other forms

of energy.

THE SYSTEM AND SURROUNDINGS

idea that we can arbitrarily divide the universe into

a system and its surroundings. The boundary

between the system and its surroundings can be as real

as the walls of a beaker that separates a solution from

the rest of the universe.

“The First Law says that the internal energy of a

system has to be equal to the work that is being

done on the system, plus or minus the heat that

flows in or out of the system and any other work

that is done on the system," said Saibal Mitra, a

professor of physics at Missouri State University.

"The change in internal energy of a system is

the sum of all the energy inputs and outputs to

and from the system similarly to how all the

deposits and withdrawals you make determine

the changes in your bank balance.”

INTERNAL ENERGY

its internal energy, E, which is the sum of the kinetic

and potential energies of the particles that form the

system. The internal energy of a system can be

understood by examining the simplest possible system:

an ideal gas. Because the particles in an ideal gas do

not interact, this system has no potential energy. The

internal energy of an ideal gas is therefore the sum of

the kinetic energies of the particles in the gas.

FORMULAS

Change in internal energy= heat exchange + work done

ΔU= Q + W

ΔU = the total change in internal energy of a system,

Q = the heat exchanged between a system and its surroundings,

and

W = is the work done by or on the system.

Example:

Q= 1544 Joules, W= -506.65 joules

ΔU= 1544 joules + (-506.65joules)

ΔU= 1037.35 joules

Heat transfer = (mass)(specific heat)(temperature change)

Q = mcΔT

Q = heat content in Joules

m = mass

c = specific heat, J/g °C

T = temperature

ΔT = change in temperature

Heat Transfer Formula Questions:

1) How much energy is transferred if a block of copper with a mass

of 50 g is heated from 20°C to 100 °C? The specific heat of copper,

Cu, is c = 0.386 J/g°C.

Answer: The temperature change Δ T = 100 °C - 20 °C = 80 °C.

The mass, m = 50 g. Use the formula for Heat Transfer.

Q = mcΔT

Q = (50 g)(0.386 J/g°C)(80 J/g°C)

Q = 1544 Joules

Work done = (Pressure) ( change in volume)

W= -PΔV

W- Work done V- Volume

P- Pressure

Example:

Pressure = 5 atm

Volume = from 2 liters to 3 liters

Solution:

W = (-5atm)(3L – 2L)

= (-5atm)(1L)

= -5L atm

We need to convert the answer into joules to be able to find the internal energy.

Conversion factor:

1 L atm = 101.33 joules

W= -5 L atm · 101.33joules/1L atm

= -5 · 101.33joules

Why/How is the equation of the first law of

thermodynamics in physics differ from

chemistry??

ΔU= q + w (chemistry)

ΔU= q – w (physics)

this equation is that, scientist focuses on

the systems point of view while engineers

focuses on the view point of the

surroundings.

Note:

If the total amount of the change of the internal

energy is negative then it is done by the system

If the work done is negative, then it is done by

the system and vice versa.

Heat is negative if it is exothermic and positive

if it is endothermic.

SYSTE SURROUNDINGS

M

100 ºC

Endothermic 25ºC

Exothermic

2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

TERMS

In chemistry, entropy is represented by the capital letter

S, and it is a thermodynamic function that describes the

randomness and disorder of molecules based on the

number of different arrangements available to them in a

given system or reaction.

WHAT IS THE 2 LAW OF

ND

THERMODYNAMICS???

states that the state of entropy of the

entire universe, as an isolated system,

will always increase over time. The

second law also states that the changes

in the entropy in the universe can never

be negative.

DERIVATION AND EXPLANATION

is important to recognize that two changes in entropy

have to considered at all times. The entropy change of

the surroundings and the entropy change of the system

itself. Given the entropy change of the universe is

equivalent to the sums of the changes in entropy of the

system and surroundings:

In an isothermal reversible expansion, the heat q

absorbed by the system from the surroundings is:

qrev=nRT ln V2/V1

Since the heat absorbed by the system is the amount lost by the

surroundings, qsys=−qsurrqsys=−qsurr.Therefore, for a truly

reversible process, the entropy change is

If the process is irreversible however, the entropy

change is:

both types of processes, we are left with the second law of

thermodynamics,

ΔSuniv=ΔSsys+ΔSsurr≥0

where ΔSunivΔSuniv equals zero for a truly reversible

process and is greater than zero for an irreversible

process. In reality, however, truly reversible processes

never happen (or will take an infinitely long time to

happen), so it is safe to say all thermodynamic processes

we encounter everyday are irreversible in the direction

they occur.

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