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Symbol recovery
Communication system examples

14 - 2
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[nown as K-level PAM or K-PAM for short
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Bit rate is  , where symbol rate  = 1 /  
Uniformly spaced amplitudes && R
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· å1, ...,0 , ..., '& R
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Multiple ways to map symbols to amplitudes  R
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Pulse
Serial/ Map to PAM mpulse
1 Parallel constellation 
modulator
shaper = |
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Summation has finite number of terms
Related to discrete-time convolution
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| (#  
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(utputs input sample followed by -1 zeros
Upsampling by converts symbol rate to sampling rate
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þills in zero values generated by upsampler
Multiplies by zero most of time (-1 out of every times)
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! 

nput to Upsampler by 4
16 bits 28 bits
44.1 kHz 4 16 bits þR þilter
176.4 kHz
176.4 kHz

0 1 2
Digital 4x (versampling þilter
(utput of Upsampler by 4

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(utput input sample followed by 3 zeros 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

þour times the samples on output as input (utput of þR þilter

ncreases sampling rate by factor of 4 !

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Lowpass filter with stopband frequency 6 R  / 4


þor sampling = 176.4 kHz, 6=  / 4 corresponds to 22.05 kHz
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    14 - 8
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Split the long pulse shaping filter into  short polyphase filters
operating at symbol rate
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Transmit
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þirst extract clock information from received signal
Then either adjust analog-to-digital converter or interpolate
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Receive BPþ
() Squarer PLL
„(6) (6)
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%  6   1  · %  6  
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Receive BPþ
() Squarer PLL
„(6) (6)
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Choose „(6) to pass  ½6 R  'except = -1, 0, 1

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Choose (6) to pass 6sym R i = 0 except = -1, 1
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  2 cos(6   )

‡ 6  %  %6 " -<6 
‡ 6  "  %  76 
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Receive BPþ
() Squarer PLL
„(6) (6)
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