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   { Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008. © 1993-2007
Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
* |  8 
•he richly decorated interior of the
5th-century Galla Placidia mausoleum
in Ravenna, Italy, contrasts with the
plain brick exterior. •his contrast is
typical of Early Christian architecture.
•he mosaic from the entrance wall
features Jesus Christ as the good
shepherd.
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@  ! { Corporation. All rights reserved.

   
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•his early-12th-century
illuminated manuscript
illustration depicts Moses
expounding the law. •he piece
is divided into two scenes, the
upper showing Moses and
Aaron delivering the law to the
Israelites, and the lower
showing Moses distinguishing
between the clean and unclean
beasts. •he illustration serves
as the frontispiece for a Bible
from the Abbey of Bury Saint
Edmunds in England.

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•he most celebrated work by Italian artist Duccio di Buoninsegna was


the Maestà (1308-1311), a huge altarpiece for the cathedral of Siena.
•he Madonna enthroned and surrounded by angels, saints, and
apostles appears on the front of the altarpiece, shown here. •he
passion of Christ was illustrated on the back.
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Italian painter Simone


Martini introduced the
fresco technique to the
Sienese school during
the 14th century. In
his masterpiece
Annunciation (1333),
Martini depicts the
angel Gabriel's visit to
the Virgin Mary. •he
painting hangs in the
Uffizi Gallery in
Florence, Italy.
  
 
    
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Expulsion from Paradise (about


1427) is one of six frescoes painted
by Masaccio for the Brancacci
Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine,
Florence, Italy. •he fresco was
influential for its realism, especially
the simplicity and three-
dimensionality of the figures, and
for the dramatic depiction of the
plight of Adam and Eve.

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Madonna with Saints


(1505, San Zaccaria,
Venice), by Renaissance
artist Giovanni Bellini, is an
oil painting on wood
transferred to canvas. •he
altarpiece was done late in
the artist¶s life, when his
sense of composition and
ability to render
perspective were at their
peak. It is a large painting,
measuring 4.92 m by 2.32
m (16 ft 5 in by 7 ft 9 in).
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Mona Lisa (1503-1506, Louvre, Paris),


Leonardo da Vinci¶s world-famous
portrait, was the artist¶s favorite
painting; in fact, it went everywhere with
him. Although there have been many
theories about the origin of the
inexplicable smile on the woman¶s face,
it was probably just the result of
Leonardo¶s interest in natural chiaroscuro
(the effect of light and shadow on the
subject).
- "
 



Completed in 1508 in Florence, La


Belle Jardinière is one of the most
famous Madonna portraits of
Italian Renaissance painter
Raphael. Raphael studied the
works of Leonardo da Vinci while
in Florence and applied some of
Leonardo¶s techniques to his own
painting. Raphael¶s use of
contrasting lights and darks, and
the relaxed, informal pose of the
Madonna illustrate Leonardo¶s
influence on La Belle Jardinière.
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Active mainly in Venice,


Italian painter •intoretto is
noted for his dramatically
lit works with dynamic
compositions. •his painting
depicts the Old •estament
story of Susanna, a woman
unjustly accused of
adultery by her scorned
admirers. Created after
1560, Susanna Bathing is
in the Kunsthistorisches
Museum in Vienna, Austria.

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Italian baroque painter


Caravaggio painted scenes of
realism and drama, often
selecting lofty, religious themes
and depicting them with lower-
class characters and settings with
dramatic spotlighting. With its
unidealized characters and focus
on the horse¶s body, his
Conversion of Saint Paul seems to
record a stable accident, not a
miraculous conversion by God.
•his work was painted in 1601
and is in the Cerasi Chapel, Santa
Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy.

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Painted in 1659, Moses


Smashing the Commandments
is a late work by Rembrandt. It
demonstrates his ability to
create a sense of drama through
the skillful use of chiaroscuro
(contrasts of light and dark).
Light seems to be radiating from
Moses and the tablets.

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•he Asam Brothers, Egid


and Cosmas, were masters
of illusionistic rococo
architecture and sculpture.
•hey designed the Church
of the Ascension (1717-
1725) in Rohr, Germany.
•he church¶s altarpiece
shows the Virgin Mary
ascending to heaven.

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Jean-Antoine Watteau¶s
•he Embarkation for the
Island of Cythera, (1717)
is one of the best surviving
examples of French rococo
painting. Watteau¶s
delicate, ethereal style,
influenced by Peter Paul
Rubens and the Venetian
school, was well suited for
paintings of fêtes galantes
at which the French upper
classes socialized in the
open air.

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French painter Jacques-Louis


David was a leading
proponent of neoclassicism.
Sympathetic to the aims of
the French Revolution, he
painted many images of its
heroes. Death of Marat is a
portrait of a revolutionary
martyr who was killed in his
bathtub by a political enemy.
Painted in 1793, it is in the
Musées Royaux des Beaux-
Arts, Brussels, Belgium.

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English painter William


Hogarth became famous
with a series of paintings
entitled A Rake's Progress.
•he painting shown here,
•he Rake at the Rose
•avern, is part of that series
and was painted in 1735. It
is in the Sir John Soane
Museum in London,
England.

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French romantic painter


•héodore Géricault painted
Raft of the Medusa (1818-
1819, Musée du Louvre, Paris,
France), a realistic portrayal of
men suffering at sea on a
makeshift life raft. Géricault
modeled the painting after a
tragic incident in which a
French government ship, the
Medusa, foundered off the
coast of West Africa with
hundreds of men on board.

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French romantic painter


Eugène Delacroix was
inspired to paint Liberty
Leading the People after the
Revolution of 1830, when
Parisians took up arms in
hope of restoring the
republic created after the
French Revolution of 1789 to
1799. Although the
Revolution of 1830 failed to
restore the republic, it
ended France's absolute
monarchy and brought in a
parliamentary monarchy.

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French artist Jean François


Millet focused on painting
scenes of rural life, a famous
example being •he Gleaners
(1857). His work has ties to
the Barbizon school of artists,
who aimed to naturalistically
depict landscapes. Millet is
also considered a member of
the 19th-century realism
movement because his works
generally depict unidealized
subjects.

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