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Chapter 13

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Copyright © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. | |
Learning Objectives
1. Define motivation and explain the difference between
current approaches and traditional approaches to motivation.
2. Identify and describe content theories of motivation based
on employee needs.
3. Identify and explain process theories of motivation.
4. Describe reinforcement theory and how it can be used to
motivate employees.
5. Discuss major approaches to job design and how job design
influences motivation.
6. Explain how empowerment heightens employee motivation.

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Votivation

Refers to the forces either internal or external


to a person that arouse enthusiasm and
persistence to pursue a certain course of
action.

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What Is Votivation?
- Votivation
Is the result of an interaction between the person and a situation; it is
not a personal trait.
Is the process by which a person¶s efforts are energized, directed, and
sustained towards attaining a goal.
- Ñ  a measure of intensity or drive.
- G    toward organizational goals
- ·   exerting effort to achieve goals.
Votivation works best when individual needs are compatible with
organizational goals.
Ex. 13.1 A Simple Vodel of Votivation

åÑÑG 
 

 
Ñ ÑG   

 
  
   
 

  
 
  


   
   
 
    
  

!ÑÑG 



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Types of Rewards

-    
  --satisfactions a person
receives in the process of performing a
particular action.
- Ñ  
  --given by another person.

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Content Theories

 

 
 
  

 
 
  


- Aierarchy of Needs Theory


- ERG Theory
- Two-Factor Theory
- Acquired Needs Theory

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Early Theories of Votivation
- Vaslow¶s Aierarchy of Needs Theory
Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs.
- Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can
satisfy higher order needs.
- Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
- Votivating a person depends on knowing at what level that
person is on the hierarchy.
Aierarchy of needs
- Lower-order (external): physiological, safety
- Aigher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization

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Ex. 13.2 Vaslow¶s Aierarchy of Needs

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Vaslow¶s Aierarchy of Needs Theory

 
    
å 
represent the
need for
self-fulfillment
Ñ
å 
desire for a positive self-image
and to receive attention
   

å 
desire to be accepted by one¶s peers

 
å 
safe and secure physical and emotional environment

·   
å 
most basic human physical needs
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Early Theories of Votivation (cont¶d)
- VcGregor¶s Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X
- Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid
responsibility, and require close supervision.
Theory Y
- Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire
responsibility, and like to work.
Assumption:
- Votivation is maximized by participative decision making,
interesting jobs, and good group relations.

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ERG Theory

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å 
human potential,
personal growth, and increased
competence

  
å 
the need for satisfactory relationships
with others

Ñ  
å 
the needs for physical well-being

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Early Theories of Votivation (cont¶d)
- Aerzberg¶s Votivation-Aygiene Theory
Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors.
-   
 extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job
dissatisfaction.
- V   intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job
satisfaction.
Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not necessarily result
in increased performance.
- The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no
satisfaction.

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Ex. 13.4 Aerzberg¶s Two-Factor Theory


    

Area of Satisfaction
Aighly V  
Satisfied Achievement
Recognition
V  

Responsibility   


Work 
     
Personal growth
Neither
Satisfied nor
Dissatisfied 

G     
  
! 
Working conditions
Pay and security
  


Company policies   

Supervisors 
     
Interpersonal
relationships
Aighly
Dissatisfied
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Exhibit 16±3 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction

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Votivation and Needs

Three-Needs (Acquired Needs) Theory (VcClelland)


There are three major acquired needs that are
major motives in work.
- å

  
 
The drive to excel and succeed
- å

 
 · 
The need to influence the behavior of others
- å

  
  
The desire for interpersonal relationships
Process Theories

 

 
 




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- Focuses on individuals¶ perceptions of how fairly they are treated
compared with others.
- Votivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for
performance.

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Votivation and Perception (cont¶d)
- Equity Theory (cont¶d)
Employee responses to perceived inequities:
- Distort own or others¶ ratios.
- Induce others to change their own inputs or outcomes.
- Change own inputs (increase or decrease efforts) or outcomes
(seek greater rewards).
- Choose a different comparison (referent) other (person, systems,
or self).
- Quit their job.
Employees are concerned with both the absolute and relative nature
of organizational rewards.
Exhibit 16±8 Equity Theory
Votivation and Perception (cont¶d)
- Equity Theory (cont¶d)
Distributive justice
- The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of
rewards among individuals (i.e., who received what).
Influences an employee¶s satisfaction.

Procedural justice
- The perceived fairness of the process use to determine
the distribution of rewards (i.e., how who received
what).
Affects an employee¶s organizational commitment.
Process Theories (contd.)
Ñ 
%
- Votivation depends on individuals¶ expectations about their
ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards.
- Concerned not with identifying types of needs but with the
thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewards.
- Based on the effort, performance, and desirability of outcomes.

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Votivation and Behavior
- Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
States that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the
expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on
the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
Key to the theory is understanding and managing employee goals and
the linkages among and between effort, performance and rewards.
- Ñ  employee abilities and training/development
- ·   valid appraisal systems
-   
  understanding employee needs
Exhibit 16±9 Simplified Expectancy Vodel

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Votivation and Behavior (cont¶d)
- Expectancy Relationships
Expectancy (effort-performance linkage)
- The perceived probability that an individual¶s effort
will result in a certain level of performance.
Instrumentality
- The perception that a particular level of performance
will result in the attaining a desired outcome (reward).
Valence
- The attractiveness/importance of the performance
reward (outcome) to the individual.
Vajor Elements of Expectancy
Ex. 13.5

Theory

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Votivation and Behavior
- Reinforcement Theory
Assumes that a desired behavior is a function of
its consequences, is externally caused, and if
reinforced, is likely to be repeated.
- Positive reinforcement is preferred for its long-term
effects on performance
- Ignoring undesired behavior is better than punishment
which may create additional dysfunctional behaviors.

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Reinforcement
Perspective on Votivation
Positive reinforcement in the
administration of a pleasant and rewarding
consequence.

Avoidance learning is the removal of


an unpleasant consequence following
a desired behavior.

  
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Punishment is the imposition of
unpleasant outcomes on an employee.

Extinction is the withdrawal of a positive


reward; behavior is no longer reinforced and
hence is less likely to occur in the future.
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Changing Behavior With
Figure 13.6

Reinforcement

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Ex. 13.7 Schedules of Reinforcement

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Votivation and Goals
- Goal-Setting Theory
Proposes that setting goals that are accepted, specific, and
challenging yet achievable will result in higher
performance than having no or easy goals.
- Benefits of Participation in Goal-Setting
Increases the acceptance of goals.
Fosters commitment to difficult, public goals.
Provides for self-feedback (internal locus of control) that
guides behavior and motivates performance (self-
efficacy).
Exhibit 16±5 Goal-Setting Theory
Designing Votivating Jobs
- Job Design
The way into which tasks can be combined to form complete jobs.
Factors influencing job design:
- Changing organizational environment/structure
- The organization¶s technology
- Employees¶ skill, abilities, and preferences
Job enlargement
- Increasing the job¶s scope (number and frequency of tasks)
Job enrichment
- Increasing responsibility and autonomy (depth) in a job.
Ex. 13.8 Types of Job Design

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Ñ   

Worker A Worker B Worker C Worker C Worker A Worker B Worker A

Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task Task


1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

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Designing Votivating Jobs (cont¶d)
- Job Characteristics Vodel (JCV)
A conceptual framework for designing motivating jobs that create
meaningful work experiences that satisfy employees¶ growth needs.
Five primary job characteristics:
-  
   how many skills and talents are needed?
- % 
   does the job produce a complete work?
- % 
    how important is the job?
-    how much independence does the jobholder have?
- ! "  do workers know how well they are doing?
Exhibit 16±6 Job Characteristics Vodel (JCV)

×  J.R. Aackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Œ  


 (Glenview,
IL: Scott, Foresman, 1977). With permission
& of the authors.
Exhibit 16±7 Guidelines for Job Redesign

×  J.R. Aackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Œ  


 (Glenview, IL:
Scott, Foresman, 1977). With permission of the authors.
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Designing Votivating Jobs (cont¶d)
- Suggestions for Using the JCV
Combine tasks (job enlargement) to create more
meaningful work.
Create natural work units to make employees¶ work
important and whole.
Establish external and internal client relationships to
provide feedback.
Expand jobs vertically (job enrichment) by giving
employees more autonomy.
Open feedback channels to let employees know how well
they are doing.
Figure 13.11 A Continuum of Empowerment

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Exhibit 16±10 Integrating Contemporary Theories of Votivation