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Introduction

Network

Source Destination
Computer Network?
o “interconnected collection of autonomous
computers”
o What is the Internet?
– “network of networks”
– “collection of networks interconnected by routers”
– “a communication medium used by millions”
– Email, chat, Web “surfing”, streaming media
o Internet  Web
o Distributed system
The Big Picture of Networks
Why network?
Before networks:
– One large computer (mainframe) used for all
processing in businesses, universities, etc.

Smaller, cheaper computers…


– Personal computers or workstations on desktops
– Interconnecting many smaller computers is
advantageous! Why?
Why network?
Resource sharing!
– Hardware: printers, disks, terminals, etc.
– Software: text processors, compilers, etc.
– Data.
Robustness
– Fault tolerance through redundancy
Load balancing
– Processing and data can be distributed over the network
Location independence
– Users can access their files, etc. from anywhere in the
network
Problems?
Security!

 It’s much easier to protect centralized resources than


when they are distributed.
 Network itself as the target..
Applications
o WWW
o Instant Messaging (Internet chat, text messaging
on cellular phones)
o Peer-to-Peer
o Internet Phone
o Video-on-demand
o Distributed Games
o Remote Login (SSH client, Telnet)
o File Transfer
Applications

• Business Applications
• Home Applications
• Mobile Users
• Social Issues
Business Applications of Networks

A network with two clients and one server.


Business Applications of Networks (2)

The client-server model involves requests and replies.


Home Network Applications

• Access to remote information


• Person-to-person communication
• Interactive entertainment
• Electronic commerce
Home Network Applications (2)

In peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers.


Home Network Applications (3)

Some forms of e-commerce.


Mobile Network Users

Combinations of wireless networks and mobile computing.


Major Trends in Computing
The Wider Agenda
log (people per computer)

Number Crunching
Data Storage
Mainframe

Minicomputer Productivity
Workstation
Interactive
PC
Streaming
Laptop
Information
PDA
to/from Physical
World
year
Various Rates of Improvement
Networking Scenario: Present
Networks today
Clients

Routers

Web servers
Networking Scenario: Future

Clients

Audio Video

Sensors Wireless Devices

Routers Mobile users

Web servers
Computers of the Future
Computers are integrated
– small, cheap, portable, embedded

Technology is in the background


– computer are aware of their environment and adapt (“location awareness”)
– computer recognize the location of the user and react appropriately (e.g., call
forwarding, fax forwarding, “context awareness”)

Advances in technology
– more computing power in smaller devices
– flat, lightweight displays with low power consumption
– new user interfaces due to small dimensions
– more bandwidth
– multiple wireless interfaces: wireless LANs, wireless WANs, regional wireless
telecommunication networks etc. (“overlay networks”)
Broadcast Networks

Types of transmission technology


• Broadcast links
• Point-to-point links
Broadcast Networks (2)

Classification of interconnected processors by scale.


Local Area Networks

Two broadcast networks


(a) Bus
(b) Ring
Metropolitan Area Networks

A metropolitan area network based on cable TV.


Wide Area Networks

Relation between hosts on LANs and the subnet.


Wide Area Networks (2)

A stream of packets from sender to receiver.


Wireless Networks

Categories of wireless networks:


• System interconnection
• Wireless LANs
• Wireless WANs
Wireless Networks (2)

(a) Bluetooth configuration


(b) Wireless LAN
Wireless Networks (3)

(a) Individual mobile computers


(b) A flying LAN
Home Network Categories
• Computers (desktop PC, PDA, shared peripherals
• Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camera, stereo, MP3)
• Telecomm (telephone, cell phone, intercom, fax)
• Appliances (microwave, fridge, clock, furnace, airco)
• Telemetry (utility meter, burglar alarm, babycam).
Architecture of the Internet

Overview of the Internet.


Ethernet

Architecture of the original Ethernet.


Wireless LANs

(a) Wireless networking with a base station.


(b) Ad hoc networking.
Wireless LANs (2)

The range of a single radio may not cover the entire system.
Wireless LANs (3)

A multicell 802.11 network.


IEEE 802 Standards

The 802 working groups. The important ones are


marked with *. The ones marked with  are
hibernating. The one marked with † gave up.