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In linguistics, an accent is a pronunciation characteristic of a particular group of


people relative to another group.
Accent should not be confused with dialect (q.v.), which is a variety of language
differing in vocabulary and syntax as well as pronunciation.
Dialects are usually spoken by a group united by geography or class.

Clarity in speech achieved through Accent Reduction is actually the first step
to reducing a foreign accent. An important part of clarity is to make sure the
syllable count of each word is accurate.
For example, the word "cooperation" consists of 5 syllables: co-o-pe-ra-tion.
Most non-native speakers of English who have a heavy accent and who have
not taken Accent Modification, say only 4 syllables, which makes the word
sound like cor-po-ra-tion. Obviously this mispronunciation leads to distortion
and mis-understandings
jEnglish is a musical language, as is Italian, Chinese, Portuguese,
and many other languages.
jThe trick to speaking English with clarity and impact, is
understanding the melody and rhythm that is specific to English, but
differs in other languages.
jTherefore, without the music of the English language,
pronunciation is a mistake.
jFirstly, English is a swinging language, more like a jazz or rock
group than a classical orchestra.
jEnglish sounds are big, loud, and emphatic, and our melody is bold
and dance-worthy.
jThere are three major components that make up an accent: Sounds
(consonants and vowels), Rhythm (stressed and unstressed words),
and Intonation (the rise and fall of pitch in a sentence).
jLet's take as an example, a native American speaker pronounce
the word "coffee", they pronounce it as "Kofi" with a quick "O"
sound as in the word "Coke".
jThere are two things that keep the listener from processing the
word that she/he is trying to say. The first is the length of the
vowel;
jIn English we have stressed vowels that hold like a half note,
instead of a quarter note, for example. The second problem is the
articulation of the vowel.
jIndians tend to have a tight jaw when speaking, which inhibits
proper pronunciation of the English open-vowel sounds such as in
the words "coffee," "politics," and "options".

jWe create impact and emotion in our vowel sounds. So not only
is it necessary for the sake of proper articulation, but it is also a
leveraging point for powerful speakers.

jIn the Indian languages, each syllable and word in a sentence


should get equal emphasis. Conversely, in English, we not only
stress certain syllables, but we stress certain words
jTypically, we stress nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and
question words (content words), and we de-emphasize articles,
prepositions, auxiliary verbs, and "to be" verbs (structure words).

jThis allows certain words to jump out at the listener, avoiding a


stream of words that become jumbled together. So, with the
implementation of rhythm, we can transform ourselves from a
crowd sleeper to a crowd pleaser.

Last, but not least, we have the component of Intonation. Intonation


is the overall melody of a song or a sentence. It allows the listener
to determine the mood and the intention of the sentence.
For example, Indians, who leave a rising intonation at the end of
sentences. This makes us look unsure of ourselves our statements
are delivered as questions.
Indian¶s biggest challenge is overcoming working in English
speaking industry. Therefore, helping ourselves control our
intonation patterns is a first step in creating a better clarity and a
more positive perception in the workplace.

This is just one example of how intonation can affect the delivery
of a speech.
As in music, the more dramatic the change from high to low pitch,
the more intense the delivery of a thought becomes. of the English
language.
This can be used not only for clarity, but also for persuasiveness
and emphasis. Intonation sets the tone, so it is extremely
important for a non-native English speaker to understand the
intonation patterns

Úoes and Úon'ts


1. Speak slowly! This action alone will eliminate many miscommunications.

2. Watch out when you say words that begin with a /w/ or a sound the letter /w/
makes, such as, the word /one/. If you pucker your lips like a fish, and your
lips don't touch any of your teeth, the correct /w/ sound will come out.
Practice the basic words you say on a continual basis - what, where, when,
why, which, etc.
þ. When you say words that being with /v/, make sure that you are making the right
sound by putting your upper teeth on your lower lip and then saying the words -
vintage, village, voice, VC, Silicon Valley, and so on.

4. Don't speak through your teeth -open your mouth so that sounds can come out
clearly.

5. Put your tongue between your teeth when you say a word with a /th/ in it - the
sound /d/ for /th/ doesn't sound educated. For example, say /then/ instead of /den/ or
/though/ instead of /dough/.

6. The long vowels in English take longer to say than the short ones - i.e., there is a
distinct difference between /bet/ and /beat/. Therefore, if you hold that word with
the long vowel for just another moment when you say it, /take/ not /tek/ - people can
figure out to which word you are referring.
Ö. Don't swallow words that don't carry the main meaning in a sentence.

For example, all words should be enunciated clearly in "this is a great


opportunity," including the (main) word /opportunity/, which in American English
has five syllables.

8. Take care with the short /o/ sound, so it is a /caller/ not a /color/.

9. Learn which parts of a word take the stress and which ones don't -profile,
percentage, permanent, additional, etc.

Usually, if the word is a noun, the beginning letters will be stressed. If it is a verb,
the stress is on the end syllable. Examples: the record - to record, the project - to
project. There are web sites which can teach you the rules, or come and see me
and I can practice the intonations/stresses with you.
10. Avoid using the words /basically/ and /so/ all the time. I know these are nice
fillers and give you time to think, but it's just as bad as if you were starting
every sentence with /eh/ or /um/.
ëen ëips for Accent Reduction

ëip 1:
Observe the mouth movements of native speakers and try to imitate them
When you are watching T.V. look at the mouth movements of the speakers.
Repeat what they are saying, imitating the intonation and rhythm of their speech.

ëip 2:
Until you learn the correct intonation and rhythm of English, slow down
your speech
If you speak too quickly with the wrong intonation and rhythm, native speakers
will have a hard time understanding you. Don¶t worry about your listener getting
impatient with your slow speech ± it is more important that everything you say
be understood. .
ëip 3:
Listen to the ³music´ of English
Don¶t use the music of your native language when you are speaking English.
Each language has its own way of ³singing .

ëip 4:
Use your dictionary
ecome familiar with the phonetic symbols of your dictionary and look up the
correct pronunciation of words that are hard for you to say
ëip 5:
Make a list of frequently used words that are difficult for you to pronounce
and ask a native speaker to pronounce them for you
Record these words, listen to them and practice saying them

ëip 6:
Buy books on tape
Listen and read at the same time. Record yourself reading some sections of the
book. Compare the sound of your English with that of the speaker from the book
on tape.
ëip Ö:
Pronounce the ending of each word
Pay special attention to ³s´ and ³ed´ endings.

ëip 8:
Read aloud in English for fifteen to twenty minutes each day
This will help you strengthen the mouth muscles that you use when you speak
English. Research has shown that it takes about three months of daily practice to
develop strong mouth muscles for speaking a new language
ëip 9:
Record your own voice and listen for pronunciation mistakes.
Many people hate to hear the sound of their voice and avoid having to listen to
themselves speaking. However, this is a very important exercise because doing it
will help you become conscious of the mistakes that you are making.

ëip 10:
Be patient.
You can change the way you speak but it won¶t happen overnight. People often
expect instant results and give up too soon. You can change the way you sound if
you are willing to put some effort into it
11 Ways to Improve Communication Skills at Work
Communicate more effectively and you will be an even more valuable employee
in your company. Here are eleven tips that anyone can easily apply!

Step1: On the telephone

Make sure to slow down and speak clearly. Compensate for the lack of
clarity on every telephone land line or mobile phone connection. Remember
also that nobody can see your smile when you speak on the telephone.
Therefore, let your words and voice convey your friendliness and
professionalism.
Step2: Keep your voice healthy

Salespeople, teachers, and others who speak all day need to be especially
mindful. ³Easy does it´ is the best advice. Speak with a relaxed voice and drink 8
glasses of water daily to keep your throat hydrated and your vocal cords in good
form.

Step3:Use a downward inflection

At the ends of your sentences to convey a sense of authority and certainty.

Step4 : Be an active listener

Why? When you hear what others have to say, you will speak more directly to
the concerns of your clients, customers, and colleagues.
Step5: Adjust the loudness and speed

Adjust the loudness and speed of your speaking according to the situation.
Speaking over noise or over a distance may require you to speak more loudly
and to slow down. When you speak one-to-one, privately, in quiet you may
need to lower your voice.

Step6: Highlight the key word

In each thought by raising the pitch of your voice on that word. Then, let your
voice drop in pitch until the end of the thought. People listening to English
unconsciously listen for these pitch changes.
Step7: Silence can be golden

Strategic pauses give your listener a chance to hear each of the important points
you are making. Have you ever tried asking a question, even when you do not
expect an answer? (Do you see? We just did it!) This can be an excellent way to
pause briefly and let you and your listener ³breathe´ a little.

Step8: Face your listener

Face your listener and establish good eye contact. You will convey the right attitude
and will be more sensitive to subtle signs of feedback from your listener.
Step9: Use a microphone

For groups of more than twenty people. Even if it may not seem necessary for
everyone, remember that one of every ten people between the ages of 18 and
64 has a hearing loss. Many people with a hearing loss choose not to mention
it, so you may never know!

Step10:Watch your language!

Some of your most valued customers, clients, and colleagues may speak English
as a second language or come from another culture. Sometimes, it is most
appropriate to speak simply and directly, avoiding idioms and figures of speech
that may not be understood. For example, if you use expressions like ³go into a
huddle,´ ³Strike three!´ or ³Swish!´ listeners lacking an intimate understanding
of American sports may fail to understand you.
Step11:Improve your pronunciation and voice
If English is not your first language, you can learn how to say each
of the consonants and vowels correctly.
Equally important, try to speak with the changes in voice pitch that
are so characteristic of English speakers around the world.
Pay close attention to the way native English speakers say words
and common expressions. If you can hear the difference between
them and yourself, your are well on your way to changing the way
you speak
ëongue ëwisters , may help you to pronounce clearly
Practice these everyday«..

Who slit the sheet, the sheet is slit. Who ever slit the sheet is a good
sheet slitter.
Red Leather Yellow Leather
Red Lorry Yellow Lorry

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.


Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled peppers?
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
etty otter had some butter,
"ut," she said, "this butter's bitter.
If I bake this bitter butter,
It would make my batter bitter.

ut a bit of better butter--


That would make my batter better."
So she bought a bit of butter,
etter than her bitter butter,
And she baked it in her batter,
And the batter was not bitter.
So 'twas better etty otter
ought a bit of better butter
She sells sea shells by the sea shore.
The shells she sells are surely seashells.
So if she sells shells on the seashore,
I'm sure she sells seashore shells

A Tutor who tooted a flute


Tried to tutor two tooters to toot.
Said the two to their tutor,
"Is it harder to toot
Or to tutor two tooters to toot?"
Say these fast...

Double bubble gum bubbles double.

Guts, Greed & Glory

She said she should sit.

If you notice this notice you will notice that this notice is not worth noticing.

Real weird rear wheels.


Tomorrow is the third Thursday of this month.
Crisps crusts crackle and crunch.

The sixth sick sheik¶s sixth sheep is sick.


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