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Calcium is required for vascular contraction and
vasodilation, muscle function, nerve transmission,
intracellular signaling and hormonal secretion,

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M cessively high levels of calcium in the blood
known as hypercalcemia can cause renal
insufficiency, vascular and soft tissue calcification,
hypercalciuria (high levels of calcium in the urine)
and kidney stones

However, hypercalcemia rarely results from


dietary or supplemental calcium intake; it is most
commonly associated with primary
hyperparathyroidism or malignancy

High calcium intake can cause constipation. It


might also interfere with the absorption of iron
and zinc, though this effect is not well established .
High intake of calcium from supplements, but not
foods, has been associated with increased risk of
kidney stones
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Because of the potential for side effects and
interactions with prescription and non-
prescription medications, dietary supplements
should be taken only under the supervision of a
knowledgeable health care provider.
uoo much phosphate can be to ic. It can cause
diarrhea and calcification (hardening) of organs
and soft tissue, and can interfere with the body's
ability to use iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc.
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magnesium is found in the enzyme reactions in
our body.

Foods rich in magnesium include:


Nuts soybeans cocoa

magnesium is involved in essential metabolic reactions,


some of which are;
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Õymptoms of magnesium deficiency include:

Hypere citability, muscle weakness and fatigue.


Õevere magnesium deficiency can cause
hypocalcemia, low serum potassium levels
(hypokalemia), retention of sodium, low circulating
levels of PuH (!   
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and muscular symptoms (tremor, muscle spasms,
tetany), loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting,
personality changes and death from heart failure.
magnesium plays an important role in
carbohydrate metabolism and its deficiency may
worsen insulin resistance, a condition that often
precedes diabetes, or may be a consequence of
insulin resistance.
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Chloride is found in our cells, but most is present


in the e tracellular fluid in the body.

Foods rich in Chloride include:

table salt
tomatoes
olives
Celery

Chloride is a soluble mineral. Deficiencies in


Chloride can contribute to leg cramps.
uoo little chloride in the body can occur
with fluid loss. uhis may be due to
e cessive sweating, vomiting, or
diarrhea. medicines such as diuretics can
also cause a chloride deficiency. Õuch
loss can lead to dehydration, loss of
potassium in the urine, and a condition
called alkalosis.

Alkalosis is disturbance of acid-base


balance and water balance, characterized
by an e cess of alkali or a deficiency of
acids.
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Hyponatremia

The normal concentration of sodium in the blood plasma is


136-145 mM. Hyponatremia occurs when sodium falls
below 130 mM. Plasma sodium levels of 125 mM or less
are dangerous and can result in seizures and coma.

Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte


disorder. Its frequency is higher in females, the
elderly, and in patients that are hospitalized

Symptoms of hyponatremia include nausea and


vomiting, headache, confusion, lethargy, fatigue,
appetite loss, restlessness and irritability, muscle
weakness, spasms, or cramps, seizures, and
decreased consciousness or coma.
Too low a concentration of sodium, or hyponatremia,
can be corrected either by increasing sodium or by
decreasing body water.

The existence of separate mechanisms that regulate


sodium concentration account for the fact that there
are numerous diseases that can cause hyponatremia,
including diseases of the kidney, pituitary gland, and
hypothalamus.

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Severe hyponatremia can be treated by infusing a


solution of 5% sodium chloride in water into the
bloodstream. Moderate hyponatremia due to use of
diuretics or an abnormal increase in vasopressin is
often treated by instructions to drink less water
each day. Hyponatremia due to adrenal gland
insufficiency is treated with hormone injections.
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Hyponatremia is just one manifestation of a variety of


disorders. While hyponatremia can easily be corrected,
the prognosis for the underlying condition that causes it
varies.

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Patients who take diuretic medications must be


checked regularly for the development of
hyponatremia.
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     develops gradually and usually begins
with a negative iron balance, when iron intake does not
meet the daily need for dietary iron.

      is an advanced stage of iron


depletion. It occurs when storage sites of iron are
deficient and blood levels of iron cannot meet daily
needs.

             


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Women with heavy menstrual losses can lose
a significant amount of iron and are at
considerable risk for iron deficiency

Adult men and post-menopausal women lose


very little iron, and have a low risk of iron
deficiency.

Individuals with kidney failure, especially those


being treated with dialysis, are at high risk for
developing iron deficiency anemia. This is
because their kidneys cannot create enough
erythropoietin, a hormone needed to make red
blood cells. Both iron and erythropoietin can be
lost during kidney dialysis.

Individuals who receive routine dialysis


treatments usually need extra iron and
synthetic erythropoietin to prevent iron
deficiency .
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Iron deficiency is uncommon among adult men and
postmenopausal women. These individuals should only take
iron supplements when prescribed by a physician because of
their greater risk of iron overload.

  
            
             

  

Iron overload is associated with several genetic diseases


including hemochromatosis (the abnormal accumulation of
iron in parenchymal organs, leading to organ toxicity. It is the
most common inherited liver disease)


        

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Öinc
An essential mineral that helps boost the immune
system. It is important for proper glandular function
and reproductive health.

It also works as an antioxidant and is needed to


maintain the right levels of Vitamin E and absorb
Vitamin A.

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Signs of zinc deficiency include hair loss skin lesions,
diarrhea, and wasting of body tissues. It is rarely
recognised that lack of zinc can contribute to acne
Eyesight, taste,smell and memory are also connected
with zinc. A deficiency in zinc can cause malfunctions
of these organs and functions.

One easily recognized sign which may be caused by


zinc deficiency is white spots, bands, or lines on
fingernails (leukonychia). An occasional white spot is
usually evidence that the immune system overcame a
bacterial or some other systemic infection, and is a
positive, not negative sign.
Excess zinc is toxic. Too much zinc will interfere with
the metabolism of other minerals in the body,
particularly iron and copper.

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Iodine prevents the development of simple goiter.


Iodine plays a role in the development of hair, fingernails,
skin and teeth.

 !  '    People lacking in iodine may


have an enlarged thyroid gland called goiter

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°  or      is a disorder
which may cause increased dental caries and
possibly osteoporosis due to a lack of fluoride in
the diet
Excessive fluoridation of teeth has resulted in a condition
called mottle enamel, which is characterized by discolored
enamel. Extremely high fluoride intake has been known to
result in death.
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opper is a mineral stored primarily in the liver, with


small amounts in all tissues in the body.

Although only a small amount is needed, copper is an


essential nutrient that plays a role in the production of
hemoglobin (the main iron component of red blood
cells), myelin (the substance that surrounds nerve
fibers), collagen (a key component of bones and
connective tissue), and melanin (a dark pigment that
colors the hair and skin).

opper also works with vitamin  to help make a


component of connective tissue known as elastin.
°oods that contain copper include oysters, organ meats
(especially liver), whole grain breads and cereals, shellfish, dark
green leafy vegetables, dried legumes, nuts, and chocolate.

Signs of possible copper deficiency include


anemia, low body temperature, bone fractures and
osteoporosis, low white blood cell count (the cells that help
fight infection), irregular heartbeat, loss of pigment from the
skin, and thyroid disorders.

Gastrointestinal disease or surgery is a common


cause of copper deficiency.

Infants who do not have enough of this mineral


tend to have poor feeding habits and lack proper growth
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excess of copper in the body. opper toxicity can occur
from eating acid food that has been cooked in un-
coated copper cookware, or from exposure to excess
copper in drinking water or other environmental
sources.

Acute symptoms of copper poisoning by ingestion


include vomiting, hematemesis (vomiting of blood),
hypotension (low blood pressure), melena (black
"tarry" feces), coma, jaundice (yellowish
pigmentation of the skin), and gastrointestinal
distress
hromium is known to enhance the action of insulin.
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Selenium is an antioxidant (scavengers of free-radicals)
and a component of several essential enzymes. Health
benefits of selenium are partly explained by its antioxidant
effect. Selenium may delay or prevent the onset of cancer
and also have anti-aging effect. Selenium is also an
important mineral needed for proper thyroid function. It also
promotes immunity system.

Selenium deficiency is associated with reduced immune cell


counts and higher risk of death for HIV patients.

Natural food sources high in selenium include


cereals (eg. corn, wheat, and rice), nuts (brazil nuts
and walnuts), legumes (soybeans), animal products
(beef, chicken, egg, cheese), seafood (tuna).
If selenium is consumed in overdose, it may
have toxicity effect

Some of the symptoms of selenium toxicity are


fatigue, hair loss, and white blotchy nails.

Deficiency symptoms would include


muscle pain and weakness.
EATING THE RIGHT KIND
O° °OOD WILL GIVE YOU
AN AMPLE DOSE O° ALL
THE MARO AND
MIRONUTRIENTS