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TEORI & 

MODEL 
KEPIMPINAN
Definition
 Leadership is a complex process having 
multiple dimensions.
 Defined in terms of group processing, 
personality, behavior and power.
 An instrument of goal achievement.
 A process in which an individual 
influences other individuals to 
achieve one or more goals.
 Relationship of leader and followers.
Characteristics
 Innate or inborn traits vs. learned 
behaviors.
 Assigned vs. emergent position of 
leadership.
 Position power vs. personal power
 Coercion with threats vs. positive 
motivation.
 Leadership vs. management.
5 SOURCES OF POWER

 REWARD
 COERCIVE
 LEGITIMATE
 REFERENT
 EXPERT
LEADERSHIP VS.
MANAGEMENT
 LEADERSHIP’S
PRIMARY FUNCTION
IS TO PRODUCE
CHANGE/MOVEMENT

 MANAGEMENT’S PRIMARY
FUNCTION IS TO PRODUCE ORDER
AND STABILITY
Parting Thought………….

“Managers are people who do


things right and leaders are
people who do the right thing.”

~ Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus


Trait Theory
OBJECTIVE
 To identify personality characteristics 
that can be used to define a leader.
Description
 Early 1900s, leadership traits were 
studied to determine what made certain 
people great leaders. 
 ‘Great man’ theories
 Focused on innate qualities and 
characteristics held by great men and 
women (e.g. Abraham Lincoln & 
Mahatma Gandhi).
 Believed that people were born with 
traits & only great people have them.
 Mid­1900s, trait approach was challenged.
 The traits of one leader may not be those of 
other leaders.
 Traits such as intelligence, self­confidence, 
determination, integrity and sociability.
 Leadership was reconceptualized as a 
relationship between people in a social situation
 Personal factors continued to be important but 
they are to be considered as relative to the 
requirements of the situation.
 Traits most valued in one situation may not be 
valued in other situations.
 Currently, it has shifted back to reemphasize the 
critical role of traits in effective leadership.
Application
 Focused exclusively on the leader & not on 
the followers /the situation – more straight 
forward that other approaches.
 Focused on leaders & their traits – what traits 
& who has them?
 Having a person with a specific set of  traits is 
crucial to effective leadership.
 Suggests that organizations work better if 
managers have designated leadership 
profiles (e.g. personality assessment 
instruments).
 A trait profile is used to determine if a  person 
fits a certain job.
Application…
 Also used for personal awareness & 
development – managers can 
determine own strength and 
weaknesses.
 People with gifts that can do 
extraordinary things.
 Can be open to a subjective selection of 
personality characteristics
Strengths

 Appealing
 Century of research as backing
 Highlights the leader in the
leadership process
 Provides benchmarks of what to
look for in leaders
Criticisms
 No definitive list of traits
 Fails to take situations into account
 Highly subjective list of “important”
leadership traits
 Failure to look at traits in relationship
to leadership outcomes
 Not a useful approach for training &
development
Usefulness
 Still provides valuable information about
leadership
 Can be used by individuals at all levels & in
all types of organizations
 Does provide direction regarding which traits
are good to have if one aspires to take a
leadership position.
 Individuals can gain insight into whether or
not they have important select traits
Style Approach
OBJECTIVE
 To integrate the two major behavioral 
aspects of the leader, task and 
relationship, in order to influence 
subordinates to reach a predefined 
goal.
Definition
 Focus is on the behavior of the individual in 
terms of what leaders do and how they act.
 Includes the actions of leaders toward 
subordinates in various contexts.
 Concentration on 2 general kinds of 
behaviors: 
– the integration of task (initiating) and
– relationship (consideration) behavior to influence 
others to reach their goals.
 Maximize the impact on the satisfaction and 
performance of followers.
 Task behaviors – help group members to
achieve objectives
 Relationship behaviors – help subordinates
feel comfortable with themselves & others
 The main purpose of the style approach –
explains how leaders combine these 2 kinds
of behaviors to influence subordinates to
reach the goal.
Research Studies

 The Ohio State Studies:


 Task and relationship separate
 LBDQ-XII developed by Stodgill
most widely used
 Task: organizing, defining responsibilities,
scheduling
 Relationship: respect, trust, camaraderie
Research Studies
 Michigan State Studies: employee
orientation/ production orientation
 Initially viewed as on continuum, then
separate, looking for universal theory
 Employee Orientation: human relations
 Production Orientation:technical
aspects
 Studies inconclusive
Managerial (Leadership) Grid

 Concern for production/concern for


people
 Joins the two on a grid creating 5 styles
 Authority-Compliance (9,1): controlling,
demanding, hard driving
 Country Club Management(1,9):

agreeable, eager to help, comforting


Blake and Mouton Styles

 Impoverished Management (1,1):


resigned, apathetic, indifferent
 Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)

expedient, soft-pedals disagreement


 Team Management (9,9):

open-minded, determined, likes


participation, follows through
 Blake and Mouton Grid
            9   1, 9                                                     9,9
            8   Country  Club                                Team
    P      7  
    E      6
    O      5                            5, 5
    P      4                          Middle
    L      3
    E      2  Impoverished        Authority­Compliance
             1 1,1                                                       9,1
             1      2      3       4       5       6      7     8      9
    
                             R   E   S   U   L   T   S   
Blake/Mouton Added….

 Paternalism/Maternalism:
“benevolent dictator” uses 1,9 and
9,1
 Opportunism: combination of 5
styles for purpose of personal
advancement
Strengths
 Marked major shift in research
 Studies validate basic ideas
 Increased understanding of
task/relationship as core to leadership
process
 Hueristic, provides a broad conceptual
map to understand complexities of
leadership
Criticisms
 Does not adequately show how
leader style affects outcomes
 Failed to find universal style
effective in almost every situation
 Implies that most effective style is
high-high, research does not
support this conclusion
Application
 Suggests that leaders should modify 
their behavioral style in order to 
increase their effectiveness.
 People sometimes use different styles 
just to get what they want at that  point 
in time.
 Trade­off between task and relationship 
is not the same for all situations.
 Employee satisfaction is not always the 
best measurement of leadership.