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Objectives Today:

r Identify differences between traditional vs


BBS
r Know ³i i  to implement
BBS
r Ô plain why most traditional safety
programs don¶t work!
r Understand why positive reinforcement is
much more powerful than negative
reinforcement
uhy Safety Programs Do Not uork:

r Safety is a ½   º not a
 !
r Safety is  managed in the same
manner as productionº qualityº and cost
issues!
r Safety is  driven through continuous
improvement!
³Fallacies or Realities´ in Safety
Fables?
r Conditions cause accidents!
r Ônforcing rules improves safety!
r Safety professionals can keep workers safe!
r Low accident rates indicate safety programs
are working well!
r Investigating to find the root cause of
accidents will improve safety!
r Awareness training improves safety!
r Rewards improve safety!
Core Ôlements in Successful Safety
Programs

r A culture that says ³safety´ is important


around here!
r A tight accountability system!
Safety Intervention Strategies
(By NSC‰

Approach # of Studies # of Subjects Reduction %

Behavior Based 7 2º %


Ôrgonomics 3 n/a %
Ôngineering Change n/a 2%
Problem Solving  7 2%
Gov¶t Action 2 2 3%
Mgt Audits n/a 7%
Stress Management 2 º3 %
Poster Campaign 2 º  %
Personnel Selection 2 º77 37%
Near-miss Reports 2 n/a %
 
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ß A business succeeds or fails through the
performance of of its employees

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ß Success = ³Good´ performance

ß Failure = ³Bad´ performance

ß Performance = the combined results of a series


of behaviors
* Aubrey Danielsº author and behavioral psychologist
Suggested BBS Process:

r Discovery - Determine Behaviors That Have


Greatest Loss Impact
r Design - Identify Team uho uill Define &
Design BBS Process
r System Up - Implement BBS Observation
Process & Collect Data
r System Check - Ônsure BBS Process Has
Been Ôffectively Implemented

  
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r Poorly Maintained Facilities


r Top-down Management Practices
r Poor Planning/Ô ecution
r Inadequate Training
=  

r Meaningful Ômployee Ômpowerment


r Designing a uell Planned and
Supported BBS Process
r Managing BBS Process with Integrity
*  
 
  
 

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Attitudes

    


    

  
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(trigger behavior)

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(human performance)

    
(either reinforce or punish behavior‰
Definitions:

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Only Types of Consequences:

rPositive Reinforcement (R+)


("Do this & you'll be rewarded")

rNegative Reinforcement (R-)


("Do this or else you'll be penalized")

| 

rPunishment (P)
("If you do thisº you'll be penalized")

rÔ tinction (Ô)
("Ignore it and it'll go away")
Consequences Influence Behaviors
Based Upon Individual Perceptions
of:

ù     
ß
   


   
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ß ˜ - immediate or future

ß  - certain or uncertain


Both Positive (R+) & Negative (R-)
Reinforcement Can Increase Behavior

ÿ any consequence that follows a behavior and


increases the probability that the behavior will occur
more often in the future - š      i

ÿ ëa consequence that strengthens any behavior that


reduces or terminates the consequence - š ½ 

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Both Punishment & Ô tinction
Decrease Behavior

2ëa procedure in which a punisher (consequence


that decreases the frequency of the behavior it
follows) is presented - š       
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Ôëwithholding or non-delivery of positive


reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior 
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uhat Ômployees uant:

r A Safe uorkplace
r A Positive uorkplace
r To Take Care of One Another
r To Stop the Hurt!
uhat Management uants:

r An Accident Free uorkplace


r Ômpowered Ômployees
r Pro-active Rather Than Re-active uork
Process
r To Minimize Direct and Indirect Costs and
Threat of Liability From Accidents

 
 
   
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³Focus on the process«not


results««they will come later!´
[   !

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uhy Do ue Need to Change?

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