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The origin of music, beginning with some primeval song around


Ancient campfire, is impossible to date. There is evidence to
suggest that instruments existed as early as 13000 BC. The
understanding of music and consonance dates back at least
To 3000 BC, when the Chinese philosopher Fohi wrote two
Monographs on the subject.

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The Greeks due to their democratic form of government


Built some of the earliest outdoor amphitheaters.
The seating plan was in the shape of a segment of a
circle, slightly more than 180 degrees, often on the
side of a hill facing the sea.
Example: Greco-Hellenistic theater built at Epidaurus
In the northeastern Peloponnese in 330 BC. The
Slope is 2:1, with 17000 seats

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Followed Greek seating pattern.
Limited seating arc to 180 degrees.
They added: stagehouse behind the actors, raised
acting area, and hung awnings overhead to shade
The patrons.
The chorus spoke from a hard-surfaced circle (orchestra)
At the center of the audience.
Romans were better engineers than Greeks, and due to
Their development of arch and vault, were not limited
To building these structures on the natural hillsides.

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This period is dated from Roman emperor Constantine
To the coronation of Charlemane in 800.

Example: the basilican church of St. Peter in 330

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     -domed roof to cover square


or polygonal floor plans. This form was combined
with classical Greek columns supporting the upper
walls with a series of roof arches.
Example: St. Sophia (532-537) ʹ Hagia Sophia, or
Divine wisdom in Constantinople.

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Romanesque style is characterized by rounded arches


and domed ceilings that developed from the spherical
Shape of the east into vaulted structures in the west.
The narrow upper windows, used in Italy to limit sunlight
Lead to larger openings in the north to allow the light,
And the flat roofs of the south were sharped in the north
To throw off rain and snow.
They are massive structures until the introduction of
Buttresses, which allowed the walls to be lightened.
Construction materials were brick and stone and pottery.
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Exception was St. Mark͛s Cathedral
In Venice

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Norte Dame Cathedral, Paris


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Started in Italy.
Development of new music.
Construction of churches.
Michelangelo.
Starting construction of theaters.

Example:

Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza, Italy.

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30 years war (1618-1648)- weakening of Hapsburg empire


And rise of France.
Italy became a center of art and music.
In northern Italy a style, which became as the Baroque (after
the Portuguese ÷  a term meaning a distorted pearl
of irregular shape), grew out of the work of a group of
Flouentine scholars and musicians known as the   
(from the Italian camera, or chamber).
Construction of Baroque theaters.
Construction of Italian Opera Houses.

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Theatro Farnese, Parma, Italy

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Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Voltaire reacted to social
Conditions and establish universal right of man.
Classical music by Bach͛s son, Joseph Hyden, Mozart,
and Beethoven. They composed pieces with formal
Concert hall performance in mind.

In London Hanover Square Room was built and Hyden


Conducted his London Symphonies in it.

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Hanover Square Room, London

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At that time the center of music was shifted from
Italy to London, Paris, Mannhein, Berlin, and Vienna.
Concert halls in these cities were available
To composers from all nationalities.
In Italy, opera was the cultural center of the world and
Opera-house design had developed slowly over two
Centuries. In 1778 La Scalla opened in Milan.

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La Scala Opera
House in Milan

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La Scala Opera
House in Milan

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Romantic music is more personal, emotional, and poetic


Than the Classical and less constrained by a formal style.
The Romantic composers wanted to describe thoughts,
Feelings, and impressions with music, sometimes even
Writing music as a symphonic poem or other program to
Tell a story.
As musical instruments increased in loudness they could
Be heard by larger audiences, which in turn encouraged
Larger concert halls and the use of full orchestra.

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Wagner͛s Opera House was built in 1876 in Germany


The Festspielhaus in Bayreuth.
It was the first theater to be built in close cooperation
Between the composer and the architect.
The auditorium is rectangular but it contains a
fan-shaped seating area.

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Wagner͛s Opera House

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Wagner͛s Opera House

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The nineteenth century produced the beginnings of the
Study of acoustics as a science and its dissemination in the
Published literature via technical books and journal.
ù Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) published his book
͞Sensations of Tone͟ in 1860, thus established acoustics
As science.
ù In 1877 John W. Strutt, Lord Rayleigh published the first of
ù His two volume set, Theory of Sound.
ù In 1874 Siemens patented the moving coil transducer,
which led to today͛s loudspeaker.
* Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

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ù In 1877 thomas Edison invented the phonograph,
and in 1891 invented a motion picture.
ù In early twentieth century, the theorical beginnings
of architectural acoustics were started by W.C. Sabine.

He started his work to solve difficulties in the then new


Fogg Art Museum auditorium. This led to a well-known
Formula called Sabine Formula for the calculation of
Reverberation Time.

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If
By definition:
Where: N = antilog
b = base
X = logarithm
The followings are valid:

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Logarithm to base 10 is called common logarithm

Logarithm to base ̖ is called natural logarithm.

By definition the dB always describes a ratio of


Two quantities that are most often related to power

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