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Palayamanan: Diversified

Integrated Rice-Based
Farming Systems
Concepts, Principles & Applications

Rizal G. Corales
Supervising Science Research Specialist
Agronomy, Soils & Plant Physiology Division
PhilRice, Maligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva
Ecija
What is Palayamanan?
Palay
Palayamanan
Kayamanan

• Synergistic mix of farming enterprises


• Implemented by the farm family
• Depending on their resources
• Based on the existing environments
• Attainment of family goals and aspirations

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Palayamanan

Revival of “Bahay
Kubo”
Concept
Givin
g it
with
a new
TWI
ST

Uplifting it from subsistence to


Entrepreneurial Level
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Palayamanan…
Palayamanan blends the right mix of farm
components like crops, trees, livestock &
fish, and the integration of waste
management to fully utilize the resources
and maximize the benefits that can be
generated from the farm

With Palayamanan, the farm is not just rice.


It is about food security, livelihood and
empowering farmers to become better
decision makers
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“BE RICH”
RICH
Principle of Palayamanan
Better resource Enhance
allocation biodiversity &
ecological balance

CROPS
120,000
100,000

Pe sos
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
2002 2003 2004
gross income expenses net income

ANIMALS
140,000
120,000

Pe sos
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
0
2002 2003 2004
gross income expenses net income

Reduce prod’n Higher income &


risks profit

Increased cropping Continuous food


intensity, supply
productivity,
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PALAyamanAN
PALA Hard work

Knowledge & Skills


KAALAMAN HalamanAN
Farming PaghahayupAN
ventures PalaisdahAN
KABUHAYAN KakahuyAN
Iba pang PangkabuhayAN

KAYAMANAN Prosperity
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Inter-conectivity of the farm
components
PALAYAMANAN
PALAYAMANAN Components
Components &
& Strategies
Strategies

RICE
1 Crop
Production
CASH CROPS HIGH VALUE CROPS

VEGETABLES

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Strategies for Crop
Diversification
Relay/Sequential
cropping

Simultaneous
cropping

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Strategies for Crop Production

Popular varieties
Special purpose
Aromatic

Rain shelters

High-value vegetables

Off-season

Permanent
beds

Continuous
cropping
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Cost efficient practices for
upland crop production
Organic Mulching
Permanent
beds fertilizer
Controlled
Cover plants irrigation

Microbials
Botanicals
Mixed crops

Pyramid Fruit
trellis wrapping

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2 Livestock
Production

BAKA/KALABAW MANOK

KAMBING/TUPA BIBI/PATO
BABOY

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Multi-Animal Single Roof
System
Compact DUCKS

Easy to maintain CHICKEN

Organic fertilizer generator GRAZING

CHICKENS PIGS

COWS

GOATS

Legend
Fence area
Shade area

Area: 50m2
Figure 1. Layout of the multi-animal single roof shed.

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Cost efficient practices
for animal production

Mulch beddings Feed supplement

Free range
Cut and Carry

Automatic waterer
/Feeder Grazing Microbial inoculant
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3 Aquaculture

Fish culture

Fish-Snail/Clam culture

Shrimp culture

Crab fattening

Rice-Fish culture
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Strategies for Aquaculture

Rice-Fish Pond refugeRice-Gabi-Fish Pond refuge

SFR
Fish cage Fish pond
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4 Fruit & Forest
Tree Production

Fruit trees

Forest trees

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5 Other Farming Ventures
st i ng
po
m i -c om Pla
Ver n t pr
op a
Mushroom culture ga t
ion
B
io
-b

Food Processing
a se
d

Marketing
P
ro
du
ct
s

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6 Biomass Recovery System

Fermented kitchen garbage

MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY Composting

Residue In situ
Incorporation composting

Organic fertilizer production


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Criteria in Establishing a
Palayamanan Food Plan

• It must be simple and manageable


• It must supply the family’s minimal dietary requirements
•It must provide economic incentive, so that income will, at a
minimum, meet the family’s basic needs
•It must be labor intensive and provide meaningful
employment and involvement for the farm family.
•All the components of the food production strategy must be
complementary and integrated.

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Considerations in Selecting the
Palayamanan Components
• Grain crops should be main food for both human & livestock
& adaptable to the locality
• Small livestock may include poultry, rabbits, goat, pigs, and
other animals adopted to the region. The animals provide
the family with a constant supply of quality protein, Vitamin
B12, and other vitamins and available minerals.
• A food legume such as dry beans, pigeon pea, cowpea, soy
beans to provide additional protein base for human diet &
livestock.
• Vegetable garden to provide minerals and vitamins
(particularly vitamin A & C)
• Revenue source either food or non-food or livestock solely
for cash purposes. This creates some of the income for the
family and become an economic driver of the Palayamanan.
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Palayamanan Farm Model
• Homestead
• Diversified Integrated Farming Systems Components
Legend
Kubo
PALAYAMANAN NORTH
MODEL FARM DESIGN
Livestock
Trees 12.5

Rice area
Fish pond AREA: 18,338.8 m2
Vegetable garden
Road 104 PalayCheck System
Fish Pond 95
NIA canal
Drainage canal
N 3159.1
Irrigation canal 7424.5

51

12 31.1
23.6

Rice + Duck
Fish Pond
38 38
Rice Production Area 32.9

Vegetable Area
456 1181.8 1651.6
81 48
2438.4

411 Rice + Fish


10 32.2
Residential Area
78 1616.4
41.1 50.2

Motor pool
Considerations in Establishing Palayamanan
Model Farm
Careful planning and prioritization
• existing conditions
• family resources Each model is unique
• no replica
• depends on local factors
• resources of the farm family

Biological diversity of farm


components
• interconnectivity
• harvest security
• nutritional balance
• economic stability
• sustainability
Factors to consider

Capital Labor

Crop suitability
Landscape

Market

Security
Soil Type Water Resources
PALAYAMANAN Village Model

• Diversification in a
Village context

• Give more freedom


for farm families to
choose farm
enterprises that they
can integrate to their
farming systems
• Encourage
participation of more
farm families

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Palayamanan Domain
Unfavorable or
Food Insecure
Areas
• Rainfed lowland
• Upland areas
• Areas with partial
irrigation or tail end of
irrigation systems
• Saline prone areas
• Cool-elevated areas
• Fusion of irrigated and
rainfed lowland or
upland areas
• Indigenous
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Goal
Goal

To transform
To transform rice-based
rice-based farming
farming systems
systems domains
domains into
into
economically productive,
economically productive, competitive
competitive and
and sustainable
sustainable
agricultural systems
agricultural systems …… Agribusiness
Agribusiness Enterprises
Enterprises

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Framework & Scheme

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Social Mobilization

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Process
Process of
of Implementation
Implementation

Technical Briefing
• Provide information to local
partners
• Assess willingness and
commitments of local partners

Site Validation
• Technical feasibility &
representativeness
• Accessibility & Visibility

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Forge partnerships and linkages c ial
U p in
ov l
r
Pooling and sharing of resources u t& g P ve
O li n l Le
c a i pa
s un
i c
Efficient delivery of services M vel
Le
i l ot e
P la g
Sense of ownership Vil del
Mo
n
at io
b iliz
Mo
s &
E er
R IC r m n s
IL Fa ic zati o
PH v
Ci gani
O r
l
o ca ent
/ P L rnm
ate ons M ove n t
i v ti G s r e
Pr titu Unit the rnm ns
In s O ve io
t
Go titu
Ins
Cs
Execution of Memorandum of
SU Agreement (MOA)
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Benchmark Data Gathering
Identify resources, opportunities, and
problems
Identify interventions
Basis for impact assessment
SecondaryData
Secondary Data (Barangay/Municipal
(Barangay/MunicipalProfile)
Profile)

ConductParticipatory
Conduct ParticipatoryRural
RuralAppraisal
Appraisal
(PRA)
(PRA)
•• FGD
FGD
•• PNOA
PNOA
•• SWOT
SWOTAnalysis
Analysis
Mapping (Transect
Mapping (Transect map,
map, Resource
Resource map,
map, GIS
GIS
map)
map)

Interview
Interview

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Selection of Farmer Partners OUTSCALING
FFS
> 100
FFS Farmer
Partners in
25 30 FFS 2 years
Farmer Partners
FFS

15 Core Farmers Conduct PTDs


FFS 1 Palayamanan
Model Farm
Farmer Leaders

Increase
Increase number
number of
of farmer
farmer partners
partners over
over time
time as
as more
more FFS
FFS will
will
be
be conducted
conducted

Farmer
Farmer Leaders
Leaders can
can be
be trained
trained and
and serve
serve as
as FFS
FFS Facilitators
Facilitators

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Participatory Planning & Assessment

• Develop work plan


• Assess progress

Planningworkshop
Planning workshop

ProjectReview
Project Review

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Capacity Enhancement

 Improve technical and managerial


skills
 Change attitude
 Better decision making

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Capacity Enhancement

Farmers’ Field School

Learning field Experiential & Discovery-Based


Learning Process
 Enlist 25-30 Farmer-partners
 Weekly half-day learning
AESA  Field as a learning material
 Response to what is happening
 Share of experiences
 Based from what farmers want &
needs
Info process  Discover, evaluate and
understand
Critical evaluation
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Capacity Enhancement

Support System

 School on the Air Program


 Training, Seminars
 Field Days
 Field Walks, Techno Klinik
 Cross Visits
 Farmers’ Congress, Fora
 Dap-ayan
 ICT, Text Center

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Participatory
Participatory Technology
Technology Development
Development (PTDs)
(PTDs)

 Develop location specific


technologies & farming
models
 Serve as Learning Fields for
FFS

Promote
Promote only
only technologies
technologies
adaptable
adaptable to
to the
the local
local
condition
condition based
based on
on PTD
PTD
results
results

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Enterprise Development

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Ragiwdiw Handicraft

Bibiron, San Fernando, Camarines Sur

 Sea grass a prevalent weeds in rice areas


 Sea grass as raw materials for handicraft
 Before the monthly income was
P10,500/month
 Braids bought at P0.60/m. Daily income
of P120.00/individual
 Assistance from DA-BES, PhilRice, DTI
 The business now has P
50,000.00/month income
 Source of additional income from more
than 100 households

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Coccina de Palayamanan

Poblacion, San Fernando, Camarines Sur

 Partners: DA-BES, LGU, PhilRice & DTI

 80 housewives ; 20 engaged in
production

 Bicol recipes such as bicol express, laing,


sweet potato cookies, vegetable pickles,
atsara, salted eggs, pulvoron, cassava
cookies, yema and salabat

 Additional income: P900.00-


P1,500.00/month

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Institutional Infrastructure

Community Seed Bank

Planting Materials

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Establishment of On-Station & In-
Campus Palayamanan Model Farms

• Source of plant & animal


stocks
• Income generating activity
• Learning center
• Demo-Farm

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Community Seed Banks

CSU, Sanchez Mira Cagayan 30 Palayamanan Model


ISU, Roxas, Isabela
ISU, Echague, Isabela
Farms established
CVIARC, Ilagan, Isabela
PhilRice, San Mateo, Isabela Camp Martillana, Pili, Camarines Sur
ISCAF, Lamut, Ifugao BES/BIARC, Pili, Camarines Sur
CLSU, Munoz, Nueva Ecija SDF, Sorsogon City, Sorsogon
PhilRice, Maligaya, Munoz, Nueva EVIARC, Babatngon, Leyte
Ecija CCJ, Calbayog City, Northern Samar
NEUST, Gabaldon, Nueva Ecija DA-ROS, San Jorge, Northern Samar
TCA, Camiling, Tarlac CapSU, Capiz
SPES, San Pascual, Tarlac City WESVIARC, Jaro, Iloilo
BASC, San Ildefonso Bulacan NESCA, Cauayan, Negros Occidental
PAC, Magalang, Pampanga PhilRice, Murcia, Negros Occidental
BPSU, Abucay, Bataan PhilRice, RTR, Agusan del Norte
RMTU, San Marcelino, Zambales USM, Cabacan, North Cotabato
RMTU, Botolan, Zambales PhilRice, Midsayap, North Cotabato

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Financing Scheme

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Capital Roll-over & Build-up Scheme
Ensure the sustainability of the
activities beyond the project span

Roll
Roll over
over seed
seed fund
fund to
to increase
increase the
the number
number of
of
farmer
farmer partners
partners

Eliminate
Eliminate the
the “dole-out”
“dole-out” mentality
mentality

 Capital Build-up
 Loan Assistance
Technical Assistance

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Monitoring & Evaluation
• Assess progress
• Provide technical assistance
• Direction and guidance

Consultation
Consultation

Field
Field Monitoring
Monitoring

Regional
Regional Meetings
Meetings
Resource
Resource person
person
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Feedback Mechanism
• Gather information on the
performance of technologies
• Enhance promotion or
commercialization or
technologies
Forum/Congress

Consultation Meetings Field day

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Several Palayamanan Models

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Palayamanan for Rainfed
Kinalangay Nuevo, Malinao, Aklan
Rice
Rice ++ Vegetable
Vegetable ++ Livestock
Livestock System
System

 Rice Production: 3.05t/ha (1.0t/ha increase)


 Vegetable production: P20,000.00
 Livestock: P5,000.00
 Dispersal program: swine (25 recipients);
Darag Chicken (35 recipients) & tilapia (5
recipients)
 Palayamanan Village Model was adopted
by Aklan State University as “Social
Laboratory”
 14 students of ASU conducted thesis,
practicum for other students

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Palayamanan Model for Upland

Agdanganan, Baao, Camarines Sur

Diversified
Diversified Upland
Upland Crops
Crops ++
Livestock
Livestock System
System

Integrated Farming Model Farm (Dry Season, 2008)


_______________________________________________
Capital Amount (P)
Land Preparation 1, 320.00
Farm Inputs (Fertilizer) 600.00
Yield
Sweet Corn (109 kls@35/kl) 3, 815.00
Cucumber (51 kls@20/kl) 1, 020.00
Upland Rice (1.5 tons) 27, 000.00
Profit 29, 115.00
________________________________________________
Note: Poultry component is on going. (100 heads)

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Palayamanan in Saline-prone Areas
Camanhagay, San Sebastian, Samar

Rice
Rice ++ Vegetables
Vegetables ++ Livestock
Livestock System
System

Component Yield Gross Income Expenses Net Income


(kg) (P) (P) (P)

Crops
Rice 2,400.00 19,800.00 8,659.17 11,140.83
Vegetables 11,681.03 148,247.13 94,965.00 53,281.61
Coconut 393.33 7,303.33 1,133.33 6,170.00
Sub total 14,474.36 175,350.46 104,758.02 70,592.44
Livestock
Swine 3 heads 16,000.00 7,978.50 8,021.15
Chicken 10 heads 1,500.00 854.25 645.75
Turkey 5 heads 1,500.00 936.75 563.25
Sub total 19,000.00 9,769.50 9,230.15
GRAND TOTAL: 194,350.46 114,527.52 79,822.59

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Palayamanan for Flood-prone
Bibiron, San Fernando, Camarines Sur

Rice+Vegetable+Livestock/Fish
Rice+Vegetable+Livestock/Fish System
System

 Rice : PSB Rc84, 86, 88; average yield


4.5t/ha
 Vegetable : Food + P800/wk
 Fish : Golden apple snail feed
supplement; 2,500 stock, Net income
P18,000.00
 Duck : 200 heads; 150 eggs/day; Income
P 5,000.00/wk

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Palayamanan Model in Flood-prone Areas
Cuyapon, Kabakan, North Cotabato
Rice+Livestock+Vegetable
Rice+Livestock+Vegetable System
System

• Mr. Ambatang earned average


P500/week from vegetables, 5 initial
duck stocks now 67 heads; income
from eggs P200/wk.
• Pstr. Soriano seed produced and
multiplied his vegetables and are now
planted in the barangay and Church
gardens
• Mr. Andingil is selling duck at P100/kg;
eggs at P4 each (eggs & ducks
produced about P17,000 in 5 months)
• Bucks dispersed are now used to
breed with native does in the barangay
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Palayamanan sa Paaralan
San Pascual Elementary School, Tarlac City, Tarlac

Waste
Waste Management
Management cum
cum Food
Food Production
Production System
System

Food Production
Rice 4,500m2 2,500 kg 26,000.00
Squash 300m2 3.0 kg 90.00
Okra 7.0 kg 175.00
Eggplant 5.0 kg 150.00
Ampalaya 5.0 kg 150.00
Sili 2.0 kg 50.00
Total P 26,615.00
Learning center for school children
Support the Feeding Program
Children to establish vegetable home
gardens
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Palayamanan sa Bilanguan
Calbayog City Jail, Calbayog City, Northern Samar
Food
Food Plan
Plan and
and Livelihood
Livelihood System
System

Production system
Rice Seed Production (0.50) 62 bags P55,000.00
Hybrid Rice 7.2t P40,000.00
Vegetable Assorted 6,432.00
Tilapia 103kg 6,180.00
Chicken 38 heads
90eggs
Pineapple just planted
Total P113,612.00

15 attended FFS rice; 25 FFS vegetable


6 hours/day out of cell
Food supply & extra income
Outstanding warden & AT
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Palayamanan in Insurgency Rehabilitation Areas
Lidong, Polangui, Albay Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance and
and Development
Development
Program
Program
Variety Trial: PSB Rc3 (2.11 t), Rc5 (3.15t), Rc7 (3.08t), NSIC Rc9 (4.17t),
Rc11 (4.01t), Basmati (4.55t)
Basmati Production: 17 farmers, Average Income: P65,000.00/ha
Vegetable Production: Home consumption
Military FFS on rice production
Lead implementer of Palayamanan
Established Palayamanan Model Farm inside
military camp (For food & support villages)
Learning center for soldiers

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Palayamanan in Autonomous Region of Muslim
Mindanao (ARMM)
Inug-ug,
Inug-ug, Pagulungan,
Pagulungan,
Maguindanao
Maguindanao
Food
Food For
For Peace
Peace Program
Program

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Palayamanan for Indigenous People
Upian, Davao

Community
Community Food
Food Plan
Plan

• Communal Vegetable Production:


Income used for weekly “Pahina”
• Backyard Vegetable Production: For
family consumption
• Backyard Animal Production: Duck
eggs used for family consumption
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A new day… A new hope begins

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A new day… A new hope begins

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Saganang
Pagkain Po!