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2 Demographic/Socioeconomic
’ Age, Sex, Income, Marital Status, Occupation
2 Psychological/Lifestyle
’ Activities, Interests, Personality Traits
2 Attitudes/Opinions
’ Preferences, Views, Feelings, Inclinations
2 Awareness/Knowledge
’ Facts about product, features, price, uses
2 Intentions
’ Planned or Anticipated Behavior
2 Motivations
’ Why People Buy (Needs, Wants, Wishes, Ideal-Self)
2 Behavior -Purchase, Use, Timing, Traffic Flow
Primary Data Can Be Gathered By:
2 Communication Methods
’ Interacting with respondents
’ Asking for their opinions, attitudes, motivations,
characteristics
2 Observation Methods
’ No interaction with respondents
’ Letting them behave naturally and drawing
conclusions from their actions
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2 Methods include:
’ Surveys
’ Focus Groups
’ Panels
2 Highly versatile in terms of types of data
2 Generally more speedy
2 Typically more cost effective
’ Electronic media have made observation cheaper
’ Activities, Interests, Personality Traits
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2 Delatively fast 2 Does not handle long


2 Delatively strong response interviews well
rates, but getting worse 2 Cannot use visuals
2 Sequence of questions can 2 Difficult to contact business
be easily changed respondents
2 Data entry at time of 2 Unlisted numbers make
completion is possible sample frame questionable
2 Ability of supervisor to
oversee interviewers
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2 Easy to generate stratified 2 Little control over exactly


sample frame who completes survey
2 No interviewer bias 2 Low response rate
2 Assures anonymity of 2 Long response time
respondent 2 No ability to probe on open-
2 Wide distribution ended questions
2 Best for sensitive or 2 Cannot change sequence of
personal questions questions
2 Generally least expensive
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2 Probably highest response 2 Generally narrow


rate distribution
2 Allows any type of 2 Typically most expensive
questions/questionnaires method
2 Easy to ensure 2 Often tough to gain identity
representative sample of respondent
2 Know who is completing 2 Can be time consuming in
questionnaire the case of in-home
2 Mall intercept can be 2 Tough to supervise
relatively quick
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2 Typically low cost, 2 Limited sample frame


especially marginal cost of ’ representative
additional responses ’ ability to locate
2 Wide distribution possible 2 Expense of infrastructure
2 Very quick (15 minutes-2 and expertise
days) 2 SPAM backlash
2 Fairly decent response 2 Legal problems
rates
2 Easy point-of-purchase
feedback
2 Automatic data entry
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2 Prenotification letters
2 Cover letters/purpose statements
2 Incentives
’ Money
’ Donations to charity
’ Gifts
2 Postage-paid returns
2 Follow-ups
2 Call sheets/call backs
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2 Physical Actions
’ Shopping behavior, response latency, service quality,
television viewing habits
2 Verbal Behaviors
’ Sales conversations, opinion leadership, tone of voice
2 Expressive behaviors
’ Facial expressions, body posture
2 Locations
’ Traffic patterns, store layout, efficiency
2 Temporal Patterns
’ Amount of time spent shopping, service time
2 Physical Evidence
’ Amount and type of food consumed, media read
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2 Methods include:
’ Direct observation
’ Contrived observation (laboratory)
’ Content Analysis
’ Physiological measurement
’ Electronic methods
2 Greater objectivity
’ less researcher bias
2 More accurate
’ less ͞response tendency͟ or ͞demand effects͟
2 Limited in terms of what can be observed