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Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
` °bjectives:
Introduction
Types
Prose-fiction
Elements of prose-fiction
Teaching Strategies for Prose

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
` from Latin —    straightforward
discourse´
` written or spoken language in its ordinary
form, without metrical structure
` written in full sentences, which then
constitutes paragraphs
` commonly used, in newspapers, magazines,
encyclopedias, broadcasting, film, history,
philosophy and many other forms of
communication Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
PR°SE TYPES
  

` This can also be called informational´ material. It provides


information that is factual. Nothing is make-believe in these
types of materials. It has some practical utility. More specific
examples of this genre would be . . .

Ú Ñ  
: w e acco of a eo life ie
comoed o odced by ao
e

Ú  !  
" ›
e bioga
y of a eo ie by 
a
eo

Ú ÿ
 
" w c
oological ecod of a eve ad
develome ec
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
PR°SE TYPES
Ñ  
` Itis partly or totally imaginatively contrived.
However, authors can also choose to include factual
information in a made-up story. It is often referred to
as     
-prose which tells a story. Its
different types include;

Ú ÿ
 # "The story takes the reader back
to a particular time period where they learn about the
everyday life of a person or group of persons. The
character may interact with actual historical
characters, but usually, the main character is not based
on a real person.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
PR°SE TYPES
(Fiction Continued)
Ä @ #
 "The story usually presents a
problem to be examined that could be from
anybody¶s life. They may cover such topics as
family situations, peer relationships, and cultural
differences etc.
Ä    " This is a type of modern fantasy.
It explores scientific fact and can pose ethical
questions about current scientific trends and
predictions. The author focuses on the adventure
of exploring the unknown and the wonder of
discovering new worlds and people.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG
Jahanzeb College Swat.
PR°SE TYPES
(Fiction Continued)

Ú Œ
" There are different types of mystery
stories, but usually a crime has been committed
and the reader wants to try to figure out
whodunit´. There is usually a great deal of
suspense and intrigue abounds.

Ú Œ  " It self-consciously and


systematically draws attention to its status as an
artifact in order to pose questions about the
relationship between fiction and reality.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
PR°SE TYPES
(Fiction Continued)

Ú @$ "It represents a chivalric theme


or relates improbable adventures of
idealised characters in some remote or
enchanted setting.

Ú    " It is marked by relative


shortness and density, organised into a plot
and with some kind of denouement at the
end. It can be read in a single sitting.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
PR°SE TYPES
(Fiction Continued)

`  #"It is an extended work of prose fiction


which tells a story of considerable length.
Ú It shows characters and their actions in what is
recognizably everyday life. In novel unlike
short-story characters and plot are fairly
developed.
Ú It has a number of sub-genres depending upon
the content and the method of execution.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
%& '
@@ (@'
` Theorists are in agreement that there are at least
two levels in a narrative text: something happens
(What is told?) and this something is related in a
certain way (How is it told?).
   ) 
 #þ 

` In structuralist terminology the [  of the


narrative is called
 , the [ is called
þ

.
   ) 
 #þ 
`   
*

 ÿ
  #þ 
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
@@ (   
` Story consists of  
(
ig 
a
ae) and so-
called +

(c
aace ad eig o 
om ad 
ee

ig
ae).

`  
can be either brought about actively, in which
case they are called  
(oe c
aace kill ao
e)
or they just   naturally ( omeoe die of a
ea
aack).

` +

are the  
that make things happen
or have things happen to them and
, meaning
the place or space where things happen.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
@@ (   

` Most stories involve a sequence of events


rather than just one event. Manfred Jahn
thus gives the following definition of story:
Ú w eqece of eve ad acio ivolvig
c
aace ve geeally iclde aal ad
o-aal
aeig like flood o ca
accide acio moe ecifically efe o
illfl ac by c
aace  a
 

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
@@ (   
Actions
Events
Happening
Story
Characters
Existents Space
/Setting
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
@@ ( *


` It comprises various elements of transmission
` Elements of discourse determine our perception
of the story (what actually´ happened).
` In the analysis of discourse we try to determine
how certain effects are achieved.
` The focus of analysis are questions such as:
Ú [
a i 
e aaive iaio
Ú [
oe oi of vie i eeed
Ú [
ic
aaive mode ae emloyed
Ú o ae 
e 
og
 of c
aace amied
Ú o i 
e c
oology of eve deal i

Ú o i yle ed
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
@@ ( *


` The analysis of the elements of discourse reveals
how the reader is manipulated´ into forming
certain views about the story.

` Analysis of the elements of discourse include an


analysis of plot, narrative voice, focalisation,
theme, representation of consciousness, time, and
the type of language used in a work of literature.

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
@@ ( *



Focalisation Language
Discourse (who sees?) (Diction & Syntax)

Representation
Plot of
Consciousness

arrative
voice Time
(who spea s?)

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
%'
` Plot is the literary element that
describes the structure of a story.

` It is the story arc which holds all the


events of a story in an orderly way.

` plot is the casual and logical structure


which connects events ~E.M.
Forster`s Aspects of the novel 1927~
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
 
 # ,

 þ#
` The basic triangle-shaped plot structure was
described by Aristotle in 350 BCE. Aristotle
used the beginning, middle, and end
structure for a story that moved along a
linear path.
` Aristotle's plot (mythos) follows a chain of
cause and effect as it works toward the
solution of a conflict or crisis.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
 
 # ,

 þ#
Middle

Beginning End

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
˜
  ,

#   

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Plot Structure
` Narratives can have different plot structures
depending upon the nature and number of
conflicts.

` Single Plot vs. Multiple Plot narratives

` Closed structure (tightly plotted) vs. Loosely


plotted (episodic) or open-ended plot
narratives

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
SPACE/SETTING

` Space in discourse is the spatial dimensions


of the medium: length of the book, size of
the pages, empty spaces etc. this aspect is
very rarely considered in traditional literary
analysis.
` Space or setting on the level of story is an
important component in the creation and
communication of meaning.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
SPACE/SETTING
`  #
 þ #
 "
Ú In narrative space has to be presented verbally.
It thus exists only in the reader`s imagination.
Ú Readers create their notions of fictional space
from their own experience in the real world.
Ú Description of spatial dimensions serve to
increase the narrative`s authenticity, and
provides a link to the reader`s reality.
Ú Readers tend to imagine the characters moving
through µreal¶ space, as they do themselves.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
SPACE/SETTING
`   þ$ "
Ú Space or setting gives additional meaning to a narrative by
providing either correspondences or contrasts to the plot or
the characters. These aspects in particular should be noted:
 Atmosphere
 Space and character
 Space and plot
 Symbolic space
Ú Theories of sociology suggest that character is determined
by social background, by $# .

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
CHARACTERISATI°N

`  
"
Ú The people in the narrative are called characters
Ú Constructed by an author to fulfill a certain function in
a certain context.
Ú Unlike real people they do not exist independently of
their narrative context.
Ú We form a mental construct of characters from the
information given in the text as well as from our own
experience and imagination.
Ú Character analysis in a narrative focus on  

   and    
.

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
TECHNIQUES °F
CHARACTERISATI°N
` In the techniques of characterization the following
six aspects are to be considered:
Ú How is the character described
Ú By whom is the character described
Ú How is the characterisation distributed throughout
the text
Ú How reliable is the source of information
Ú What do we know about a characters inner life
Ú In which arrangements of contrasts and
correspondences is the character depicted

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
CHARACTER FUNCTI°NS

` Characters in the narrative are responsible for taking the


plot forward as the events occur to them or through
them. The function of a character depend on the role and
relationship of that character in relation to other
characters.

` Œ-  #
$ 
: dominate the narrative
by their frequent appearance and participating in most
events of the story. If main character is only one, then
he/she is referred to as  
(+ve main character)
while, the influential opponent is the  
(-ve
main character). Major characters are often $# 
þ$ 
#, þ$ and þ characters.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
CHARACTER FUNCTI°NS

` Π 
"have limited or
stereotypical role in the narrative. They may
serve as  


, # 
, or
þ
. They do not develop and are
often reduced to types, representatives of
single stereotyped character category: the
wicked step-mother, faithful servant,
miserly old man, etc. Minor characters are
$þ$ 
# and
  in nature.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Narrators and Narrative Situation

`    " The one who tells a story, the


speaker or the µvoice¶ of an oral or written
work. Two aspects of narrator are
considered:     (who speaks?)
and #
  (who sees?). These two
aspects together are also called    

  

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Narrative Situation
Narrative Voice
` The voice that tells the story. The question µwho speaks¶ is
asked of the narrative as a whole.

` Narrator can report on other characters` conversation without


changing the narrative situation, as it is still the narrator who
speaks.

` ÿ$þ     "narrator who is also a character in the


story. Protagonist as narrator is called  þ     .

` ÿ þ     : narrator who is not a character in the


story but in a way hovers above it and knows everything about
the story.

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Narrative Situation
Communication Model

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Narrative Situation
Focalisation
` Focalisation means the
  from which the story is told
irrespective of the narrative voice. Sometimes a narrator adopts
the limited point view of a character and tells the story from that
character`s perspective. Focalisation may shift many times
during the course of the narrative.

` External focaliser is external to the story and is called    


#


` Internal focaliser is a character in the story with limited


perception of the story and is called   #

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Narrative Modes

` The kind of utterances through which a narrative is


conveyed.

` Plato distinguishes between two main types:




 (the direct representation of speech and
action) and  (the verbal representation of
events)

` Narrative modes adopted during the course of a


narrative may include: —, — , þ
  ,
and $$  .
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
REPRESENTATI°N °F
C°NSCI°USNESS
` Thoughts of characters are presented, just like
speech, using direct or indirect discourse.

` Three major methods of thought depiction


have been identified, depending on the level of
noticeable narrator interference. (Cohn`s distinction 1978)
Ú   $#
Ú 
  
Ú   þ$#   þ  þ


Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
REPRESENTATI°N °F
C°NSCI°USNESS
` Interior monologue is the direct presentation of thought
as in direct speech. This narrative technique tries to
reproduce non-orderly and associative patterns of
thought. This process of thought presentation is called
 
 .

` Psycho narration reports the thoughts of the character via


a heterodiegetic narrator. Character is referred to in the
third person and the narrator remains in the foreground.

` Narrated monologue is a mixture between psycho


narration and interior monologue. Dual voice is heard
TIME (Narrative Tense)
` Two aspects of time are considered in the analysis
of narrative prose:
Ú the use of tense in the narrative
Ú the arrangement and presentation of time sequences

`     
"most narratives are told in the
past tense, referred to as the   — The
tense of the narrative is determined by the tense of
the full verbs. Some narratives are written in the
  —  also.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Narrative Tense (Õoied 

` The use of the narrative present gives the


reader an impression of immediacy, while the
use of narrative past has a more distancing
effect.
` If there is a  from narrative past to
narrative present for making statements of
general application, then, this use of present
tense is called 
— .

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Time Analysis
` Time in narrative is analyzed on story and
discourse level
`  
 is the sequence of events and the
length of time that passes in the story.
` i 
 covers the length of time that
is taken up by the telling (or reading) of the
story.
` The use of time in narrative centers around
three aspects:   ,  , and 
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Time Analysis
` *  " it is time consumed during the course of
a story or its discourse, which is seldom the same.
story time often exceeds discourse time.

Ú There are five possible relations between story and


discourse time:  

    

— 
 —

Ú Stenches and pauses slow thing down, while, scene


and ellipsis give the impression of things happening
quickly.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Time Analysis
` °rder: is the arrangement of the story events on the
basis of time.
Ú A story is said to be in  

order if its
events are occurring in ABCD«order and in
 

order if the events are arranged in
any other way.
Ú In the absence of chronological order, certain
techniques (like, — 
— and 
—) are
employed to reveal the whole story.
Ú A story may begin in   ,
  , or 


 depending on the arrangement of events.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Time Analysis
` Frequency: relates to the references which are
made at the discourse level to any given event
on the story level. There are three possibilities:
Ú #  " an event takes place once and is
referred to once.
Ú @   " an event takes place once but is
referred to repeatedly.
Ú   " an event takes place several times
but is referred to only once.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
` The author Leif Danielson states, "As an
overall teaching strategy: You should create
the conditions that will elicit the behavior that
you want from your class or an individual
student."
` Teaching prose focuses on increasing student's
comprehension of the material and establishing
a personal connection to it.
` The key is to use a variety of strategies to keep
students interested and involved.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Read:
Ú Encourage students to read the material
several times as repeated observation reveals
what they may have missed the first time.
Ú First, teach them to observe what is on the
page -- the facts and answers to "who, what,
when, where, and how."
Ú Then encourage them to notice patterns,
connections, repetitions or contradictions.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Ú Tell them to question everything and explain
that a situation or item wouldn't be in the text
if there wasn't a reason for it.
Ú Lastly, teach students to discover the theme of
the text -- what the author intended for the
reader to understand.
Ú They will need to know what the fiction
elements are (point of view, character, setting,
plot, structure and theme) and why writers use
them.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
)  :
Ú °ne of the best ways for students to increase
comprehension is to write about the story they've read.
Ú Require students to keep a journal during the course and
have them brainstorm, list or free-write a paragraph
immediately after completing the reading. Depending on
the level of the class, create a form with questions to
answer as homework.
Ú Writing assignments enhance creative and critical
thinking. Ask students to write a continuation of a short
story and imagine what would happen next.

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Ú Have them rewrite the ending of a short story,
choosing a point in the action and changing the
direction of the plot. You can also require that
they change the gender, age, race or sexual
orientation of a character from a story and
rewrite the story or a selected scene.
Ú Assign the students a character and have them
write a letter to him or her or have the students
write a letter to the author and tell him /her
what they think of the story.

Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
*


"
Ú Creating a discussion involves students more
effectively.
Ú Hearing another point of view challenges them to
comprehend the material deeper.
Ú During class, ask questions. Effective teaching involves
asking appropriate questions at appropriate times and
helping students ask their own questions.
Ú Small group discussion gives shy students an
opportunity to relate one-on-one.
Ú Group four or five students together and give them a
question to discuss.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
    #:
Ú Integrate technology into your teaching strategies.
Ú After reading and discussing a work, watch the
movie version in class and if a movie hasn't been
made of that book, watch a similar one to compare
or contrast.
Ú View author broadcasts reading their own work or
commenting on it.
Ú Students develop comprehension and increase
learning while researching characters, stories and
plots in the digital media.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.
Rozi Khan
The Department of English, Govt. PG Jahanzeb College Swat.