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Introduction

Socialization, training and development are all used to help new employees adapt to their new organizations and become fully productive. Ideally, employees will understand and accept the behaviors desired by the organization, and will be able to attain their own goals by exhibiting these behaviors.

The Insider-Outsider Passage


Socialization
A process of adaptation to a new work role. Adjustments must be made whenever individuals change jobs The most profound adjustment occurs when an individual first enters an organization.

The Insider-Outsider Passage


The assumptions of employee socialization:
Socialization strongly influences employee performance and organizational stability Provides information on how to do the job and ensuring organizational fit. New members suffer from anxiety, which motivates them to learn the values and norms of the organization.

The Insider-Outsider Passage


The assumptions of employee socialization:
Socialization is influenced by subtle and less subtle statements and behaviors exhibited by colleagues, management, employees, clients and others. Individuals adjust to new situations in remarkably similar ways. All new employees go through a settling-in period.

The Insider-Outsider Passage


The Socialization Process
Prearrival stage: Individuals arrive with a set of values, attitudes and expectations which they have developed from previous experience and the selection process.

The Insider-Outsider Passage


The Socialization Process
Encounter stage: Individuals discover how well their expectations match realities within the organization. Where differences exist, socialization occurs to imbue the employee with the organizations standards.

The Insider-Outsider Passage


The Socialization Process
Metamorphosis stage: Individuals have adapted to the organization, feel accepted and know what is expected of them.

The Insider-Outsider Passage


A Socialization Process

The Purpose of New-Employee Orientation


Orientation may be done by the supervisor, the HRM staff or some combination. Formal or informal, depending on the size of the organization. Covers such things as:
The organizations objectives History Philosophy Procedures Rules HRM policies and benefits Fellow employees

The Purpose of New-Employee Orientation


Learning the Organizations Culture
Culture includes long-standing, often unwritten rules about what is appropriate behavior. Socialized employees know how things are done, what matters, and which behaviors and perspectives are acceptable.

The Purpose of New-Employee Orientation


The CEOs Role in Orientation Senior management are often visible during the new employee orientation process. CEOs can:
Welcome employees. Provide a vision for the company. Introduce company culture -- what matters. Convey that the company cares about employees. Allay some new employee anxieties and help them to feel good about their job choice.

The Purpose of New-Employee Orientation


HRMs Role in Orientation Coordinating Role: HRM instructs new employees when and where to report; provides information about benefits choices. Participant Role: HRM offers its assistance for future employee needs (career guidance, training, etc.).

Employee Training
Definitions
Employee training a learning experience designed to achieve a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on the job. Employee development future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee.

Employee Training
Determining training needs Specific training goals should be based on:
organizations needs type of work to be done skills necessary to complete the work

Indicators of need for more training:


drops in productivity increased rejects inadequate job performance rise in the number of accidents

Employee Training
Determining training needs
The value added by training must be considered versus the cost. Training goals should be established that are tangible, verifiable, timely, and measurable.

Employee Training
Determining Training Needs

Employee Training
On-the-job training methods
Job Rotation Understudy Assignments

Off-the-job training methods


Classroom lectures Films and videos Simulation exercises Vestibule training

Employee Development
This future-oriented set of activities is predominantly an educational process. All employees, regardless of level, can benefit from the methods previously used to develop managerial personnel.

Employee Development
Employee development methods
Job rotation involves moving employees to various positions in the organization to expand their skills, knowledge and abilities. Assistant-to positions allow employees with potential to work under and be coached by successful managers.

Employee Development
Employee development methods
Committee assignments provide opportunities for:
decision-making learning by watching others becoming more familiar with organizational members and problems

Lecture courses and seminars benefit from todays technology and are often offered in a distance learning format.

Employee Development
Employee development methods
Simulations include case studies, decision games and role plays and are intended to improve decision-making. Outdoor training typically involves challenges which teach trainees the importance of teamwork.

Organization Development
What is change? OD efforts support changes that are usually made in four areas:
The organizations systems Technology Processes People

Organization Development
Two metaphors clarify the change process.
The calm waters metaphor describes unfreezing the status quo, change to a new state, and refreezing to ensure that the change is permanent. The white-water rapids metaphor recognizes todays business environment which is less stable and not as predictable.

Organization Development
OD Methods Organizational development facilitates long-term organization-wide changes. OD techniques include:
survey feedback process consultation team building intergroup development

Organization Development
Survey feedback assesses organizational members perceptions and attitudes. The summarized data are used to identify problems and clarify issues so that commitments to action can be made.

Organization Development
Process consultation uses outside consultants to help organizational members perceive, understand, and act upon process events.

Organization Development
Team building may include:
goal setting development of interpersonal relationships clarification of roles team process analysis

Team building attempts to increase trust, openness, and team functioning.

Organization Development
The Learning Organization Values continued learning and believes a competitive advantage can be gained from it. Characterized by:
capacity to continuously adapt employees continually acquire and share new knowledge collaboration across functional specialties teams are an important feature

Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness


Evaluating Training Programs: Typically, employee and manager opinions are used,
These opinions or reactions are not necessarily valid measures Influenced by things like difficulty, entertainment value or personality of the instructor.

Performance-based measures (benefits gained) are better indicators of trainings costeffectiveness.

Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness


Performance-Based Evaluation Measures
Post-training performance method. Employees on-the-job performance is assessed after training. Pre-post-training performance method . Employees job performance is assessed both before and after training, to determine whether a change has taken place.

Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness


Performance-Based Evaluation Measures Pre-post-training performance with control group method.
Compares the pre-post-training results of the trained group with the concurrent job performance of a control group, which does not undergo instruction. Used to control for factors other than training which may affect job performance.

International Training and Development Issues


Cross-Cultural Training Necessary for expatriate managers and their families:
before assignments (to learn language and culture) during, and after foreign assignments (to adjust to changes back home).

International Training and Development Issues


Cross-cultural training is more than language training Involves learning about the cultures:
History Politics Economy Religion Social climate Business practices

May involve role playing, simulations and immersion in the culture.

International Training and Development Issues


Development Often, organizations do not do a good job of planning for the return of overseas managers. Leads to the managers being frustrated Returning expatriates can:
be assigned a domestic position prepare for a new overseas assignment retire or be terminated