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# RELATED RATES

PROBLEMS
If a particle is moving along a
straight line according to the equation of
, motion since the velocity may
be interpreted as a rate of change of
, distance with respect to time thus we have
shown that the velocity of the particle at
time t is the derivative of s with
. respect to t
) t ( f s
There are many problems in which we are
concerned with the rate of change of two or
, more related variables with respect to time
in which it is not necessary to express each
of these variables directly as function of
. , time For example we are given an equation
, involving the variables x and y and that
both x and y are functions of the third
, . variable t where t denotes time
Since the rate of change of x and y with
, respect to t is given by and
, respectively we differentiate both sides of
the given equation with respect to t by
applying the chain rule.
, When two or more variables all functions of
, , t are related by an equation the relation
between their rates of change may be
obtained by differentiating the equation
. with respect to t
dx
dt
dy
dt
A Strategy for Solving Related Rates
( . ) Problems p 205
Example 1
. A 17 ft ladder is leaning against a wall If the
bottom of the ladder is pulled along the ground
away from the wall at the constant rate of 5
/ , ft sec how fast will the top of the ladder be
moving down the wall when it is 8 ft above the
ground?
( )
( )
( )
wall the from away
ground the along pulled is ladder the of bottom the since sec time t
instant any at ground the from ladder the of top the of ft distance y
instant any at wall the from ladder the of bottom the of ft distance x Let

sec
ft
5
dt
dx

x

.
1
7
f
t
?
dt
dy
ft 8 y

y
: Note
Values which changes as time changes are denoted by
. variable
The rate is positive if the variable increases as
time increase and
is negative if the variable decreases as time
. increases
( )
( )
sec
ft
375 . 9
8
5 15
dt
dy
15 8 17 x 8 y when

y
dt
dx
x
y 2
dt
dx
x 2
dt
dy
0
dt
dy
y 2
dt
dx
x 2
Equation Working 17 y x
2 2
2 2 2

+
+
Example 2
A balloon leaving the ground 60 feet from an
, observer rises vertically at the rate 10
/ . ft sec How fast is the balloon receding from
the observer after 8 seconds?
( )
( )
( ) ground the from rise to starts balloon the since sec time t
instant any at observer the from balloon the of ft distance L
instant any at ground the from balloon the of ft height h Let

Viewer
60 feet
h
L
sec
ft
10
dt
dh

?
dt
dL
sec 8 t

( )
( ) Equation Working 3600 h L
60 h L : figure the In
2
2
2 2
+
+
3600 h
dt
dh
h
dt
dL
3600 h 2
dt
dh
h 2
dt
dL
2
2
+

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

( ) . ft 80 sec 8
sec
ft
10 h
sec 8 t and
sec
ft
10
dt
dh
, Since

,
`

.
|

( ) ( )
( )
sec
ft
8
100
800
dt
dL
000 , 10
800
3600 6400
800
dt
dL
3600 80
10 80
dt
dL
2

Example 3
As a man walks across a bridge at the rate of
/ , 5 ft sec a boat passes directly beneath him
/ . at 10 ft sec If the bridge is 30 feet above
, the water how fast are the man and the boat
separating 3 seconds later?
sec
ft
5
sec
ft
10
( )
( )
instant any at boat the and
man the between ft distance s
bridge the cross to
starts man the sec time t Let

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 2
2
t 125 L
t 10 t 5 L
t 10 t 5 L
sec 3 t when
dt
ds
: Find

+
+

( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
t 125 900
t 125
dt
dS
t 125 900 2
t 2 125
dt
dS
: t time wrt WE the of sides both ate Differenti
Equation Working t 125 900 S
t 125 900 S
t 125 L but L 900 S
L 30 S
+

+
+
+
+
( )
( )
( ) ( )
sec
ft
. 833 or
sec
ft
3
25
45
3 125
dt
dS
3 125 900
3 125
dt
ds
sec 3 t when
2

+

S
L
5
t
3
0

3
0
10t
sec
ft
10
sec
ft
5
R
sec
ft
4
dt
dR

x
20ft
Example 4
A man on a wharf of 20 feet above the water
, , pulls in a rope to which a boat is attached at
/ . the rate of 4 ft sec At what rate is the boat
approaching the wharf when there is 25 feet of
rope out?
( )
( )
( ) instant any at out rope the of ft length R
instant any at wharf the from boat the of ft distance x
wharf the approach to starts boat the since sec time t Let

## ) Equation Working ( 400 R x

400 R x
20 x R
ft 25 R when
dt
dx
Find
2
2 2
2 2 2

+

400 R
dt
dR
R
400 R 2
dt
dR
R 2
dt
dx
400 R x
2 2
2

( )
( )
sec
ft
3
20

dt
dx

15
4 25

400 25
4 25
dt
dx
sec
ft
4
dt
dR
and
ft 25 R When
2

Example 5
Water is flowing into a conical reservoir 20
, feet deep and 10 feet across the top at the
rate of 15 ft
3
/ . min Find how fast the surface is
rising when the water is 8 feet deep?
5 feet

2
0
f
e
e
t
h
r
10
feet
min
ft
15
dt
dV
3

( )
instant any at water the of (ft) height h
instant any at surface water the of (ft) radius r
reservoir the o int flows water the ce sin min time t Let

( ) h r
3
1
Bh
3
1
V
deep ft 8 is water the when
dt
dh
Find
2

h
4
1
r
h
r
20
5
proportion and ratio By

( )
( )
( )
min
ft
1.194 or
min
ft
4
15
8
15 16
h
dt
dV
16
dt
dh

dt
dh
h
16 dt
dh
h 3
48 dt
dV
Equation Working h
48
V
h h
4
1
3
1
V , Thus
2 2
ft 8 h
2 2 3
2

,
`

.
|

]
]
]

,
`

.
|

]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

Example 6
Water is flowing into a vertical tank at the
rate of 24 ft
3
/ . min If the radius of the tank
, is 4 feet how fast is the surface rising?
h
4 feet
min
ft
24
dt
dV
3

( )
( )
( ) instant any at water he t of ft volume V
instant any at water the of ft height h
tank the into flows water the since min time t Let
3

( )
( ) ( ) Equation Working h 16 h 4 V
ft 4 r constant, is r But
h r h r V
Bh V From
ft. 4 is tank the of radius the when
dt
dh
Find
2
2 2

min
ft
2
3
16
24
16
dt
dV
dt
dh
dt
dh
16
dt
dV
ft 4 r

Example 7
, A triangular trough is 10 feet long 6 feet
, . across the top and 3 feet deep If water
flows in at the rate of 12 ft
3
/ , min find how
fast the surface is rising when the water is
6 inches deep?
min
ft
12
3
h
6
feet

1
0
f
e
e
t

3
f
e
e
t
x
( )
( )
( )
( ) instant any at water he t of ft volume V
instant any at end
triangular the at water the of ft width horizontal x
instant any at water the of ft height h
trough the into flows water the since min time t Let
3

## ( ) ( ) Equation Working 10h h 2h 5 5xh V Thus,

h 2 x
3
6
h
x
, proportion and ratio y B
h 5x 10 h x
2
1
V
Bh V From
deep. inches 6 is water the when
dt
dh
Find
2

,
`

.
|

min
ft
2 . 1
in 12
ft 1
in 6 20
12
h 20
dt
dV
dt
dh
dt
dh
h 20
dt
dV
in 6 h

]
]
]

,
`

.
|

Example 8
, , A train starting at noon travels at 40 mph
. , going north Another train starting from the
: . same point at 2 00 pm travels east at 50 mph
Find how fast the two trains are separating
: . at 3 00 pm

8
0
m
i
l
e
s
x
2pm
B
C
D
A
L
y
3pm
3pm
hr
mi
40
dt
dy

hr
mi
50
dt
dx

12pm
2pm
( ) miles 80 2 40 B A
mph 40
dt
dy
and mph 50
dt
dx
Since
1hr. t en wh
dt
dL
Find

( )
( ) ( ) Equation Working y 80 x L
y 80 x L : figure the From
2
2
2
2 2
+ +
+ +
2 2
) y 80 ( x 2
dt
dy
) y 80 ( 2
dt
dx
x 2
dt
dL
+ +
+ +

( ) ( )
( ) ( )

'

miles 40 hr 1 mph 40 y
miles 50 hr 1 50mph x
hr 1 After
2 2
) 40 80 ( ) 50 (
) 40 )( 40 80 (( )) 50 )( 50 (
dt
dL
+ +
+ +

400 , 14 500 , 2
800 , 4 500 , 2
dt
dL
+
+

2 2
) y 80 ( x
dt
dy
) y 80 (
dt
dx
x
dt
dL
+ +
+ +

130
300 , 7
900 , 16
300 , 7
dt
dL

hr
mi
15 . 56
dt
dL

Example 9
A billboard 10 feet high is located on the
. edge of a building 45 feet tall A girl 5
feet in height approaches the building at
. / . the rate of 3 4 ft sec How fast is the angle
subtended at her eye by the billboard
changing when she is 30 feet from the
billboard?
x
sec
.
ft
4 3
45
10
5
( )

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

'

x
40
x
50
1
x
40
x
50
tan
x
40
tan and
x
50
tan , but
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan
tan tan
: g sin U
: figure the In
ft 30 x en wh
dt
d
Find

( ) ation WorkingEqu
2000 x
x 10
tan
2000 x
x 10

x
2000 x
x
10
tan
2
1
2
2
2
]
]
]

( )
2
2
2
2
2
2000 x
dt
dx
) x 2 ( x 10
dt
dx
) 10 )( 2000 x (
2000 x
x 10
1
1
dt
d
+
+

]
]
]

+
+

( ) Equation Working
2000 x
x 10
tan
2
1
]
]
]

( )
( )
2
2
2
2 2
x 100 2000 x
dt
dx
x 20 000 , 20 x 10
dt
d
+ +
+

( )
( )
2
2
2
2
x 100 2000 x
dt
dx
x 10 000 , 20
dt
d
+ +

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
30 100 2000 30
4 . 3 30 10 000 , 20
dt
d
+ +

( ) ( )
000 , 500 , 8
4 . 3 000 , 11
dt
d

sec
0044 . 0
dt
d

## . 1 What number exceeds its square by the maximum amount?

. 2 . The sum of two numbers is K find the minimum value of

. the sum of their squares
. 3 A rectangular field of given area is to be fenced off
. along the bank of a river If no fence is needed along
, the river what are the dimensions of the rectangle
that will require the least amount of fencing?
. 4 A Norman window consists of a rectangle surmounted by a
. semicircle What shape gives the most light for a
given perimeter?
. 5 . A cylindrical glass jar has a plastic top If the
plastic is half as
, expensive as the glass per unit area find the
. most economical proportions for the glass
. 6 Find the proportions of the circular cone of maximum
volume
. inscribed in a sphere
. 7 . . A wall 8 feet high and 24 5 feet from a house Find the
shortest
ladder which will reach from the ground to the
house when
leaning over the wall
EXERCISES: