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Presented by R. SUBALAKSHMI (2009262018) M.

E - IWRM

Supervisor Mr. V. LENIN KALYANA SUNDARAM Assistant Professor

Groundwater has become an essential resource over the past few decades due to the increase in its usage for drinking, irrigation and industrial uses etc. The quality of groundwater is equally important as that of quantity. Rising population density will continue to have an impact on the quality and quantity of local water resources. Urbanisation reduces infiltration rate of groundwater and increased runoff.

The scope of the study is how ground water quality, quantity and livelihood of the people are change due to urbanisation. Urbanisation affects land, groundwater and peoples livelihood. The over extraction of water and improper drainage leads to depletion of water resources, deterioration of water quality and loss of livelihood of the people

To delineate the land use changes for different periods using satellite imagery. To study the impact of urbanisation on ground water quality and quantity. To assess the environmental changes which affects the livelihood of people through questionnaire survey.

Land use changes

Jaiswal et. al, (1999) detected the change in land use mid-western part of Gohparu Block, Shahdol district, Madhya Pradesh.
From visual analysis of satellite imagery and reconnaissance survey, major vegetation types and land cover classes were mapped. Analysed post-classification comparison techniques

Hameed et. al, (2010) has assessed Evaluating Raw and Treated Water Quality of Tigris River within Baghdad by Index Analysis.
The study monitored the groundwater quality. In this paper, the data considered from 2002 to 2008. Raw and treated water samples were collected and analysed for pH, Turbidity, TH, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, Iron Alkalinity, Dissolved solids, Ammonia, Fluoride and Aluminium. Water Quality Index (WQI) was calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The WQI was calculated based on the Weightage factor and quality rating.
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Lenters (2001) studied the Long term Trends in the Seasonal Cycle of each of the Great Lakes, water levels from 1860 -1998.
The study focused on the observations of L (monthly changes in water level) and addressed how the monthly changes in the Great Lakes water level varied over the period since 1860. The monthly changes were calculated as the difference of the monthly mean lake level of the current month and that of the following month. The monthly changes in water level L were calculated for all the months from the year 1860 -1998 and plotted against time
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Mandere et. al, (2010) assess the livelihood change and household income in Nyahururu, Kenya.
Assess the impact of the peri-urban development dynamics to household income. Identify and measures of household land use changes leading to declining significance of agriculture, adoption of new non-farm activities, and improvement livelihood and income They conducted the household survey and focus group discussion with all communities. From the result, they see that there more than 10% of households connected in high income productivity.
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Karapakkam
District Taluk Coordinates Area Population Government well Panchayat well Soil type = Kancheepuram = Sholinganallur = 1254'51.01"N latitude and 8013'45.77"E longitude = 244.48ha = 7565 (Census of India, 2009) =1 =9 = brown clayey soil

No Agricultural activities

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Primary data Water level and water quality data for 2010-2011 Walk-through survey Focus Group Discussion Questionnaire Survey Secondary data Survey of India topomap No:66 D/1 and D/5 Village map obtained from Karapakkam Panchayat office 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 images are downloaded from Google earth Previous year well data collected from Central Groundwater Board.

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Study area visit Survey of India toposheet No: 66D/1 and D/5 Village map Study area delineation Image

Collection of well water Samples

Land use changes

Water level fluctuation method

Analyses of Water Quality Parameters

Groundwater Quality

Groundwater Quantity

Groundwater Quality Index Map

Focus Group Discussion Questionnaire survey Measures for livelihood changes

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Survey of India toposheet No: 66

Village Map

Image

Geo referencing

Field visit and mark control points for the current year

Geo referencing and create Base map

Delineate the land use changes

Superimposing Map

Land use map change for different periods

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Eleven observation wells was selected in Karapakkam village. Groundwater samples were collected during the month of September 2010, January, February and March 2011. Samples were analysed physical and chemical parameters, such as pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, CO3, HCO3, TH, Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, SO4 and NO3. Water quality index was calculated based on water quality parameters.

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The WQI is computed by adopting the following formula, (Landwehr 1974)


WQI =
n aiTi ( pi ) i =1

where,
ai = the weight of the ith parameter, Ti = a function that transforms the measured value of ith parameter into a quality rating, Pi = measured value of ith parameter

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Water Quality Index 0-25 26-50 51-75 76-100 >100

Description Excellent Good Poor Very Poor Unfit for drinking

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Water level was monitored from the observation well during the month of January, February and March 2011. GPS was used to find the elevation of the well to calculate groundwater quantity. To study the changes in the water level the procedure followed by Lenters (2001) L = Lt+1 Lt Where,
Lt - Monthly water level of the current month (m) Lt+1 - Monthly water level of the following month (m)
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Theissen polygon was created to find out the Influence area of well (m2) Groundwater quantity is calculated by water level fluctuation method adopting the following formula, Q = A*L*Sy Where, Q = Volume of water (m3) A = Influence area of well (m2) L = Water level fluctuation (m) Sy = Specific yield of the well (6% for clayey soil according to Report of The Groundwater Resource Estimation Committee, 2009).
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Focus Group Discussion and questionnaire survey was conducted to analyse the livelihood changes. In questionnaire survey around 53 people were surveyed. The questionnaire addresses the following aspects:
Sources of domestic water including drinking water. Economic status of the people. About the groundwater quality and quantity conditions in the wells. Health problem in the area due to urbanisation, land use changes, deterioration of water quality, drainage facilities, etc., Agricultural status.

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Land use categories

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

Area (ha) Area (%) Area (ha) Area (%) Area (ha) Area (%) Area (ha) Area (%) Area (ha) Area (%)

Agricultural land Aquifer recharge zone Fallow Land Buckingham canal Cemetery Collage Grass land Industries Pond Residential Area School Small industries Temple Total Area

93.24 24.59 12.15 10.24 1.85 1.26 7.01 11.72 1.17 11.03 0.71 0.26 0.74 244.48

38.14 10.06 4.97 4.19 0.76 0.52 2.87 4.80 0.48 4.51 0.29 0.11 0.30

80.47 24.59 13.64 6.86 1.85 1.41 4.32 14.22 1.18 12.82 0.71 0.35 0.77 244.48

32.92 10.06 5.58 2.81 0.76 0.58 1.77 5.82 0.48 5.24 0.29 0.14 0.31

74.39 24.59 16.56 6.86 1.85 1.41 3.29 14.46 1.62 15.42 0.71 0.44 0.82 244.48

30.43 10.06 6.78 2.81 0.76 0.58 1.35 5.91 0.66 6.31 0.29 0.18 0.33

19.10 24.59 70.24 5.40 1.85 1.41 2.65 20.50 2.43 18.58 4.03 0.50 0.86 244.48

7.81 10.06 28.73 2.21 0.76 0.58 1.08 8.38 0.99 7.60 1.65 0.20 0.35

0.00 24.59 87.99 5.10 1.85 2.01 2.10 25.22 1.84 25.52 4.03 0.55 0.92 244.48

0.00 10.06 35.99 2.09 0.76 0.82 0.86 10.31 0.75 10.44 1.65 0.23 0.38
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Land use Maps


Land use Map -2002

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Land use Maps


Land use Map -2006 Land use Map -2008

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Land use Map

From the land use map,


Industrial area, Residential Area, Schools and colleges are identified.

Land use Map -2010

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In 2002, Karapakkam village have 37% of agricultural land. Due to urbanisation these agricultural lands was turned into built-up area and fallow land.

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Due to urbanisation the land value has increased. So the land owners was sold the land. Percentage of residential area increased due to urbanisation.

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Groundwater quality parameters were analysed in the laboratory for four month. Bicarbonates, Nitrates Sulphates and Turbidity were found to be within the permissible limits. High concentration of Total Hardness was found in Rangasamy street, Indragandhi street and Near Okkium Maduvu. High concentration of Chloride was found Near Okkium Maduvu, Mahatma Gandhi Street and Sadagopan Street.

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WQI was computed by Landwehr (1974) was used for assessing the suitability of groundwater for drinking purposes. The estimated quantitative values of water quality parameters and their standards are used to calculate water quality index.

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Parameters pH TDS (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) HCO3 (mg/l) Ca (mg/l) Mg (mg/l) Cl (mg/l) Na (mg/l) K (mg/l) SO4 (mg/l) NO3 (mg/l)

BIS Standards Weighting factor (ai) 8.5 500 50 500 75 30 250 200 20 250 45 0.24 0.0041 0.41 0.0041 0.027 0.0681 0.0082 0.0102 0.102 0.0082 0.045
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ID Well 1

Name Renganathan street Near Okkium Maduvu Indragandhi street Kupusamy street Kalaimagal nagar Government well Muthamil nagar

Latitude and Longitude 12 55' 14.74"N, 80 13' 51.09"E 12 55' 7.07"N, 80 14' 2.33"E 12 55' 1.01"N, 80 13' 55.37"E 12 54' 54.04"N, 80 14' 2.15"E 12 54' 48.69"N, 80 14' 4.60"E 12 54' 50.47"N, 80 13' 55.19"E 12 54' 54.05"N, 80 13' 42.17"E 12 54' 43.34"N, 80 13' 48.06"E 12 54' 42.43"N, 80 13' 56.11"E

WQI (Sep) WQ Rating WQI (Jan) 95.8 Very poor 61.84

WQ WQI (Feb) Rating Poor 113

WQ Rating Unfit for drinking purposes Unfit for drinking purposes Very Poor Poor Good Poor Very Poor

WQI (Mar) WQ Rating 125 Unfit for drinking purposes Unfit for drinking purposes Very Poor Poor Poor Poor Unfit for drinking purposes Poor

Well 2

141

Unfit for drinking purposes Poor Poor Poor Poor Very poor

77.31

Very poor

112

121

Well 3 Well 4 Well 5 Well 6 Well 7

63.6 62.9 54.7 52.3 100

42.73 56.3 42.4 49.3 82.7

Poor Poor Good Good Very poor

93.3 66.8 49.4 58.8 93.78

99.8 69.6 56.8 62.3 101

Well 8

Mahatma Gandhi street Vendraai amman kovil steet

45.3

Good

32.4

Good

42.9

Good

56.2

Well 9

87.6

Very Poor

64.3

Poor

91.46

Very Poor

99.3

Very Poor

Well 10 Rangasamy street Well 11 Sadagopan street

12 54' 41.55"N, 80 14' 2.15"E 12 54' 37.63"N, 80 13' 58.22"E

73.5 49.8

Very Poor Good

62.6 39.34

Poor Good

71.8 43.1

Poor Good

76.8 49.6

Very Poor Good


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Water Quality Index Map- September 2010

Well 2 (Near Okkium Maduvu) water quality was unfit for drinking purpose. Well 3 (Indragandhi street), Well 4 (Kupusamy street), Well 5 (Kalaimagal nagar), Well 6(Government well), Well 8 (Mahatma Gandhi street) and Well 11 (Sadagopan street) water quality was good.
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Water Quality Index Map- January 2011

Well 2 (Near Okkium Maduvu) and Well 7 (Muthamil nagar) water quality was very poor. Well 3 (Indragandhi street), Well 5 (Kalaimagal nagar), Well 6(Government well), Well 8 (Mahatma Gandhi street) and Well 11 (Sadagopan street) water quality was good.
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Water Quality Index Map- February 2011

Well 1 (Renganathan street) and Well2 (Near Okkium Maduvu) water was not used for drinking purpose. Because the WQI value was >100. Well 5 (Kalaimagal nagar), Well 8 (Mahatma Gandhi street) and Well 11 (Sadagopan street) water quality was good.

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Water Quality Index Map- March 2011

Well 1 (Renganathan street), Well 2 (Near Okkium Maduvu) and Well 7 (Muthamil nagar) water was not used for drinking purpose. Because the WQI value was >100. Well 11 (Sadagopan street) water quality was good.
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Description Good Poor

Well No

Name street and

Well 8 and Well 11 Mahatma Gandhi Sadagopan street Well 4, Well 5, WellKupusamy street, 6 and Well10 nagar, Government Rangasamy street

Kalaimagal well and

Very Poor

Well 3, Well 7 andIndragandhi street, Muthamil nagar Well 9 and Vendraai amman kovil steet DrinkingWell 1 and Well 2 Renganathan street Okkium Maduvu and Near

Unfit for Purpose

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Water level contour map was generated using well elevation data and GIS contouring methods. Groundwater flows was identified with the help of water level contour map. The groundwater movement was northwest direction to southeast direction. Renganathan street, Okkium Maduvu, Indragandhi Street have high elevation and Rengasamy street has low elevation. Area of influence well was calculated by using Theissen polygon method.

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Water level contour- January 2011

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Water level contour- February 2011

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Water level contour- March 2011

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Theissen Polygon Map

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Well No

Name

Latitude and Longitude

Area (m2)

Change in Water Level (L) (m) Jan Feb -0.75 -0.7 -0.6 -0.7 -1.1 -1.2 -1.1 -0.9 -0.8 -1.3 -0.9 -1.25 -1.05 -0.75 -1.15 -1.35 -1.6 -1.45 -1.05 -1.2 -1.9 -1.3

Groundwater Potential (m3) Jan-Feb -13059 -21508 -4633.2 -5317.2 -38894 -5873 -14065 -6787.8 -2344.3 -21520 -2372.2 Feb-Mar -21765 -32262 -5792 -8735 -47733 -7831 -18540 -7919 -3516 -31453 -3427

Well 1 Well 2 Well 3 Well 4 Well 5 Well 6 Well 7 Well 8 Well 9 Well 10 Well 11

Renganathan street Near Maduvu Okkium

12 55' 14.74"N, 80 13' 51.09"E 12 55' 7.07"N, 80 14' 2.33"E 12 55' 1.01"N, 80 13' 55.37"E 12 54' 54.04"N, 80 14' 2.15"E 12 54' 48.69"N, 80 14' 4.60"E 12 54' 50.47"N, 80 13' 55.19"E 12 54' 54.05"N, 80 13' 42.17"E 12 54' 43.34"N, 80 13' 48.06"E 12 54' 42.43"N, 80 13' 56.11"E 12 54' 41.55"N, 80 14' 2.15"E 12 54' 37.63"N, 80 13' 58.22"E

290200 512100 128700 126600 589300 81570 213100 125700 48840 275900 43930

Indragandhi street Kupusamy street Kalaimagal nagar Government well Muthamil nagar Mahatma Gandhi street Vendraai amman kovil steet Rangasamy street Sadagopan street

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Sources of drinking water In 2002, 76% of the respondents were used well water for drinking purpose and it is reduced to 4% in 2010. Because of the groundwater quality deterioration. 18% of the peoples are spend more than Rs 200/month for using portable water.
Sources of Drinking Water Amounts spend for Drinking Water

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From the questionnaire survey, the groundwater quality data were collected on five different categories namely Excellent, Good, Moderate, Poor and Very Poor. The data were analysed in GIS software at specially for all the observation well during 2002, 2005 and 2010. Before 2005, mostly the well water was excellent and good. After 2005, the quality of the water gets too deteriorated.

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Water Quality Map - 2002

Well 3 (Indragandhi street, Well 4 (Rangasamy street), Well 6(Government well), Well 8 (Mahatma Gandhi street), Well 10 (Kupusamy street), and Well 11 (Sadagopan street) water quality was Excellent. 48 Remaining well water quality was good.

Water Quality Map - 2005

Well 3 (Indragandhi street, Well 4 (Rangasamy street), Well 5 (Kalaimagal nagar), Well 6(Government well), Well 8 (Mahatma Gandhi street) and Well 10 (Kupusamy street) water quality was Good. 49 Well 7 (Muthamil nagar) water quality was Poor.

Water Quality Map - 2010

Well 6 (Government well), Well 10 (Kupusamy street), and Well 11 (Sadagopan street) water quality was good. Well 1 (Renganathan street), Well 2 (Near Okkium Maduvu) and Well 7 50 (Muthamil nagar) water quality was very poor.

The reason for the quality deterioration was extraction of more water, lack of improper drainage system and natural geology.

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In 2002, 42% of the people had own agricultural land, and 34% of the people were agricultural labourers. Now no agricultural practices.

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69% of people have sanitation facility. Major problems faced by the people due to water stagnation such as health disease. 64% of people have health impact (cold, fever, allergy, psoriasis etc.,) due to groundwater quality degradation.
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Out this 64%, 54% of residents are affected by cold, 33% of residents were affected by fever and 13% of residents were affected by skin disease such as allergy, psoriaris etc.,

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Positive impacts of livelihood Negative impact of livelihood The landless agricultural labourerDue to urbanisation agricultural lands was dependent on agriculture. Now they shiftedturned into industries and fallow land. The to other jobs in the industries, constructionlandless agricultural labourers dependent works etc. only agriculture. 66% of people got the income 5000-Some people manage and settle other 10000(House keeping, constructionjobs. 13% of the people were unemployed labourer, Bottle company, Lathe works andwith comparatively lower living standard. catering). Petty shops and Hotels was developed. Groundwater quality and level also varied due to over extraction and improper drainage.

People has a sense of awareness towardsHigh pollution. education, due to IT companies. Awareness for saving groundwater, andHealth problem. improve the livelihood.
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As of now (2010) agricultural land was no move in Karapakkam village. Due to urbanisation the land value has increased. The demand for land has increased and all the agricultural lands are converted into urban development. Some lands were converted to fallow land due to shortage of irrigation water source. Younger generation is not interested in doing agriculture.

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Earlier the village had appreciable groundwater potential and the quality of groundwater was good for domestic purposes. Water resources are declining day by day in terms of water level and also deteriorating in quality. In earlier, Okkium Maduvu and Renganathan street well was used drinking purpose. Now it was unfit for drinking purposes, where the water quality index was found to be more than 100. The reasons attributed for the quality deterioration were over extraction and lack of improper drainage system.

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Due to the groundwater quality deterioration, 51% of people are using portable water for drinking purpose and 18% of people spend more than 200 rupees per month for buying portable water. Due to urbanisation economic status of the village people has to be changed. 21% of the people earned high income due to IT companies, petty shops and hotels. 13% of the people livelihood was affected by urbanisation and no agricultural activities. The monthly income they earn is below Rs.5000.

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Urbanisation is a major challenge for water resources. Planned urbanisation gives positive impacts, but unplanned urbanisation creates more problems and complicates the situation, which in fact give more negative impacts. Awareness must be created among the people about the urbanisation, over extraction of water and sanitation to conserve the water resources. It is learned that most of people doesnt have enough knowledge about septic tank, disposal of sewage in water bodies and their advantages. The people depends on agricultural labour are asking for some other water source to encourage agriculture, but it seems to be impractical for the present scenario.
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