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3 HAZARD CONTROL

E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH


The hazard of sharks . 1/6
Sharks are a dormant hazard
Figures in the sIides .6 retrieved from http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3
The hazard of sharks . /6
PotentiaI or "armed" hazard
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
The hazard of sharks . 3/6
EIiminating hazard
RepIace "sharks" with "toys"
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
The hazard of sharks . /6
Introducing administrative tooIs
May be you wiII have time to escape .
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 6
The hazard of sharks . /6
Engineering out the probIem
Encage yourseIf!
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
The hazard of sharks . 6/6
Provision of personaI protective equipment
An armoured hoIiday
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
Hazard controI in the risk anaIysis
Where we are?
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
Methods to controI hazards
Two groups of options
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 10
Accident prevention
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E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 11
1. EIiminating hazards 1/
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GeneraI
The foIIowing generaI features of hazard controI shouId be observed:
1. Designs to eliminate hazards are most preferred over any other method.
. Where safeguards by design are not feasibIe, protective safety devices
shouId be empIoyed.
3. Where neither design nor safety devices are practicaI, automatic warning
devices shouId be incorporated.
. Where none of the above is feasibIe, escape procedures and personnel
training shouId be used.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 1
1. EIiminating hazards /
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Intrinsic safety
The most effective method of avoiding accidents is with designs that
are "intrinsicaIIy safe". Intrinsic safety can be achieved by either two
methods:
1. EIiminating the hazard entireIy.
. Limiting the hazard to a IeveI beIow which it can do no harm.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 13
1. EIiminating hazards 3/
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CompIete eIimination: good housekeeping
Tripping over mispIaced objects, sIipping on wet or oiIy surfaces,
and spontaneous ignition of trash or oiIy rags can be eIiminated
simpIy by keeping faciIities cIean and orderIy.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 1
1. EIiminating hazards /
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CompIete eIimination: exampIes
1. Using non-combustibIe instead of combustibIe materiaIs. This method
has been observed with paints, fabrics, hydrauIic fIuids, soIvents, and
eIectricaI insuIation.
. Using pneumatic or hydrauIic, instead of eIectric, systems where there
is a possibiIity of fire or excessive heating. FIuid controI systems are
often appIied for this reason.
3. Rounding edges and corners on equipment so personneI wiII not injure
themseIves.
. EIiminating Ieaks using continuous Iines with as few connections as
possibIe.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 1
. Limiting hazard IeveI 1/
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Hazard IeveI Iimitation
In certain instances the type of hazard can not itseIf be eIiminated.
However, the IeveI of the hazard might be Iimited so no injury or
damage wiII resuIt.
EIectricity under some circumstance can be fataI.
It may be possibIe to eIiminate any adverse effects by using Iow-voItage,
Iow temperature power, such as 1-voIt power or battery power.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 16
. Limiting hazard IeveI /
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Hazard IeveI Iimitation: exampIes
1. Providing overfIow arrangements that wiII prevent Iiquid IeveIs from
getting too high.
. Using soIid state eIectricaI devices where fIammabIe or expIosive
gases may be present, so any power requirements wiII be far Iess than
required for ignition of a fIammabIe mixture.
3. Ensuring that the concentration of a fIammabIe or toxic gas is far Iess
than a dangerous Iimit. If the Iimit is exceeded, a bIower couId be
started automaticaIIy or inert gas introduced.
. Adding diIuters to air where fIammabIe dusts are present to minimize
the possibiIity of an expIosion.
. Incorporating automatic reIief provisions to keep pressure within a
safe Iimit.
6. Using grounds on capacitor or capacitive circuits to reduce charge
accumuIations to acceptabIe IeveIs after power is shut off. This wiII
Iessen the tendency for an eIectric shock.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 1
3. IsoIating hazards 1/
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GeneraI
IsoIation here = separation empIoyed as an accident prevention measure.
Fire requires the presence of a fueI, oxidiser, and ignition source. IsoIating
any one of these from the other two wiII eIiminate any possibiIity of fire.
Some grades of bituminous coaI are often stored underwater, isoIating the
coaI from the oxygen and ignition source needed for fires to start
spontaneousIy.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 1
3. IsoIating hazards /
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IsoIation: exampIes
1. IsoIating workers inside protective garments or equipment to prevent
environmentaI injuries.
. Use of thermaI insuIation to prevent persons from contacting hot
surfaces which can burn them.
3. Use of isoIators to keep noise inside cIosed spaces.
. Use of "expIosion-proof" or encapsuIated eIectricaI equipment in
fIammabIe atmospheres.
. Keeping corrosive gases and Iiquids from incompatibIe metaIs or other
materiaIs that might be affected adverseIy.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 1
3. IsoIating hazards 3/
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Lockins & Iockouts
Lockout: prevents an event form occurring or prevents a person, object,
force, or other factor from entering an undesired zone.
Lockin: keeps a person, object force, process, or other factor form
Ieaving a restricted zone.
Lockout exampIe: a switch cIosing eIectricaI circuit secured with a Iock
that onIy specific persons can open.
Lockin exampIe: the same switch with Iock preventing opening of the
circuit.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 0
3. IsoIating hazards /
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InterIocks
InterIocks initiate/prevent action or motion; other send signaIs to other
devices which initiate/prevent the action or motion:
Parameter sensing: presence, absence, excess, or inadequacy of
pressure, temperature, fIow or other parameter permits or stops action.
Timers and time deIays: operation of the equipment can take pIace
onIy after a specific Iength of time has passed.
PhotoeIectric devices: interruption or presence of Iight on a
photoeIectricaI ceII generates a signaI which can stop or initiate action.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 1
. FaiI-safe designs
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Equipment faiIures yieId a high percentage of accidents
Since faiIures wiII occur, faiI-safe arrangements are often made to prevent
injury to personneI, major catastrophes, damage to equipment, or
degraded operations:
FaiI-passive arrangements: circuit breakers and fuses for protection of
eIectricaI devices which deenergise system in case of overIoad.
FaiI-active arrangements: a battery operated smoke detector maintains
energised state of the system but activates eIiminating the possibiIity
of accident (sprinkIers, say).
FaiI-operationaI arrangement: aIIows system functions to continue
safeIy untiI corrective action is possibIe.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
. FaiIure minimization
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Reducing criticaI faiIures causing accidents
Safety factors and margins: over-design of the system.
FaiIure rate reduction: increase expected Iifetimes.
Parameter monitoring: keep under surveiIIance specific
parameters, say, temperature, noise, gas concentration.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3
6. Warning means and devices 1/3
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Avoiding accidents by attracting attention
IIIumination A hazardous area brightly
illuminated than non-hazardous
surrounding areas
Having well-lit highway
intersections, obstacles, stairs, and
transIormer substations
Discrimina-
tion
Paint a physical hazard in a bright
colour or in alternating light and
dark colours
A structure, piece oI equipment, or
Iixed obiect which could be hit by
a moving vehicle is painted yellow
or orange
Notes in
instructions
Warning and caution notes inserted
in operations and maintenance
instructions and manuals to alert
personnel to hazards
A warning in a car owner`s manual
to block the wheels beIore iacking
the car to change a tire
VisuaI sense
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
6. Warning means and devices /3
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Avoiding accidents by attracting attention
AIarms A siren, whistle, or similar sound
device provides warning oI existing
or impending danger
A siren indicates that there is a Iire
in a plant; a siren or whistle warns
personnel to clear an area where
blasting is to take place
uzzer Alerts person that a speciIied time
has passed or that time has arrived
to take the next step in a sequence
oI actions
Some compressed air packs contain
buzzers that sound when the
pressure in the tank has decreased
to a predetermined level, or aIter a
preset time has passed
Shout Voice action to warn oI a danger One person warns another oI an
obstruction
Auditory sense
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
6. Warning means and devices 3/3
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Avoiding accidents by attracting attention
Odour
detection
Presence oI an odorous gas can
indicate the presence oI a hazard
An odorant is added to reIined natural
gas (which has no odour) so that leaks
can be readily detected
Burning materials give oII
characteristic odours
The presence oI an unseen Iire can
sometimes be detected by
characteristic odours oI products oI
combustion
Overheating equipment can be
recognised by the odour
generated
Vaporisation oI oil can permit
detection oI a hot bearing; odour oI
hot, streaming water can warn a car
driver oI a broken radiator hose
SmeII
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 6
. Safe procedures
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"when aII eIse faiIs, read the instructions"
The need to foIIow prescribed procedures.
Safe procedures shouId incIude any warnings about hazards estabIished
by the anaIysis of the system.
UnfortunateIy, since many peopIe to not read operating procedures untiI
they have run into difficuIty ("when aII eIse faiIs, read the instructions"),
and ignore warnings, this method has Iow priority in rating means of
preventing accidents.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
. ackout & recovery
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"A near-miss"
A faiIure, error, or other adverse condition may eventuaIIy deveIop into a
mishap. At this time, a contingency or emergency may then exist.
y suitabIe action an accident can be avoided from this abnormaI
situation, which may be an extremeIy dangerous one.
FaiIure to act correctIy or adequateIy can permit the situation to
deteriorate into a mishap.
This interim period extends from the time the abnormaIity appears untiI
normaIity is recovered or accident deveIops.
If recovery takes pIace, the incident can be considered a near-miss.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
Minimising and controIIing damage
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E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH
1. IsoIation and barriers 1/
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Distance by sitting possibIe points of accidents far from persons,
equipment, or vuInerabIe structures.
DefIectors can be used to Iessen damage by defIecting or absorbing
energy. The reminder shouId then constitute Iess than the amount that
wouId be damaging (heat refIectors from fires, noise shieIds, or sIoped
barricades between expIosive storage buiIdings)
Containment to prevent the spread of fire such as sprinkIer systems.
arriers of metaI, concrete bIocks, or other impenetrabIe or
nonconductive materiaI.
PhysicaI insuIation
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 30
1. IsoIation and barriers /
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The tank's protective barrier in gas station
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 31
. PersonaI protective equipment 1/3
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1. For scheduIed hazardous operation: spray painting wouId require
protective cIothing during scheduIed operations.
. For investigative and corrective purposes: it may be necessary to
determine if the environment is dangerous because of a Ieak,
contamination, or other condition.
3. Against accidents: this may be constitute the severest requirements
because the first few minutes after an accident takes pIace may be
the most criticaI.*
* Reaction time to suppress or controI any injury or damage is extremeIy
important. ecause of this, protective equipment must be simpIe and easy
to don and operate, especiaIIy because it is often required at a time of
stress.
Categories
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3
. PersonaI protective equipment /3
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The hazard of entering a tank: scheduIed/investigative operation
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 33
. PersonaI protective equipment 3/3
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Protection in case of accident: accidentaI reIease of toxic materiaI
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3
3. Weak Iinks 1/
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oiIers with mechanicaI fuses that meIt when water IeveIs drop
excessiveIy so steam can escape so there is no rupture.
SprinkIers that open to reIease water for fire extinguishing.
Drop-off paneIs that wiII faiI aIong designed fauIt Iines to provide
openings to energy of an expIosion.
"Weak Iink" = component designed to faiI at Iow IeveI of stress
The most common exampIe is eIectricaI fuse
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3
3. Weak Iinks /
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Ronan Point ExpIosion: fataI structuraI coIIapse, UK 16
Floor 18,
Apartment
90
Only a few weeks after the occupants had moved in, a gas explosion demolished a
load bearing wall, causing the collapse of one entire corner of the building. Four people
were killed in the collapse, and seventeen were injured.
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 36
. Escape and survivaI equipment 1/
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Abandoning or scarifying structures, vehicIes, or equipment
to avoid injury and to personneI
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3
. Escape and survivaI equipment /
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TeIescopic PoIes in AIuminium/Carbon Fibre
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3
. Rescue procedures and equipment
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Persons invoIved in an accident and not abIe to escape
1. FeIIow workers famiIiar with the pIant, hazards, equipment, and who
may have been advised of what to do in any emergency.
. Untrained persons unfamiIiar with equipment (passers-by, say).
3. Persons knowIedgeabIe and capabIe of handIing the need.
A rescuer can be everyone:
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 3
6. Minor Ioss acceptance
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The decision to accept Iosses of potentiaI accidents can be based
on the resuIts of a quantitative risk assessment.

vent
e Consequenc
Oucome
Time
vent
Likelihood
Time
e Consequenc
Risk
E. R. Vaidogas, Lectures on OSH 0
To end of part three
1. What are the methods of accident prevention? List at least one example of application of each
method.
2. How can the magnitudes of hazards be limited? Describe how a design can be intrinsically
safe.
3. How can isolation be used to keep personnel from accidents?
4. What is meant by keeping equipment fail-safe? How can it be done?
5. How are monitors used to prevent accidents? Give three applications. List the characteristics a
good monitor should have.
6. What is the buddy system and how is it used? What are the two types of the buddy system?
7. Tell how the human senses can be used as monitoring and warning devices ad give some
examples of each.
8. What are back-out and recovery as they apply to accident prevention?
9. List the methods by which injury and damage can be minimised in the event of an accident.
10. What is the "weak link? Describe some common types.
11. Describe the relations between escape, survival, and rescue. Tell how equipment designs and
procedures can be developed for them.
Examination questions