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WELCOME

DATE : 12.03.2008 DAY : Wednesday TIME : 5.00 p.m. VENUE : DLF TOPIC : NETWORKING BASICS

SESSION

Conducted by

Raj Mohan N

Networking Basics

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION OSI LAYERS PROTOCOLS CLASSES ROUTERS SWITCHES WAN

Unicast

Unicast is One to One communication

Multicast

Multicast is One to Group Communication

Broadcast

Broadcast is One to All Communication

Topology
A topology is a description of any kind of locality in terms of its layout. In communication networks, a topology is a usually schematic description of the arrangement of a network, including its nodes and connecting lines

The physical topology of a network describes the layout of the cables and workstations and the location of all network components
Common Topology: Bus, Ring, Star and Mesh
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Bus Topology
In a bus topology, all computers are attached to a single continuous cable that is terminated at both ends, which is the simplest way to create a physical network.

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Star Topology
Unlike those in a bus topology, each computer in a star topology is connected to a central point by a separate cable. The central point is a device known as a hub Although this setup uses more cable than a bus, a star topology is much more fault tolerant than a bus topology. This means that if a failure occurs along one of the cables connecting to the hub, only that portion of the network is affected, not the entire network. It also means that you can add new stations just by running a single new cable
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Ring Topology
In the ring topology, each computer is connected directly to two other computers in the network. Data moves down a one-way path from one computer to another The good news about laying out cable in a ring is that the cable design is simple. The bad news is that, as with bus topology, any break, such as adding or removing a computer, disrupts the entire network. Also, because you have to break the ring in order to add another station, it is very difficult to reconfigure without bringing down the whole network. For this reason, the physical ring topology is seldom used

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Mesh Topology
In a mesh topology, a path exists from each station to every other station in the network. While not usually seen in LANs, a variation on this type of topologythe hybrid meshis used on the Internet and other WANs in a limited fashion.

Hybrid mesh topology networks can have multiple connections between some locations, but this is done only for redundancy.

Also, it is not a true mesh because there is not a connection between each and every node, just a few for backup purposes

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Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable consists of a central copper core surrounded by an insulator, a braided metal shielding, called braiding, and an outer cover, called the sheath or jacket EG : Cable TV network use the coaxial cable
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Coaxial Cable Connector

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Thicknet (10Base5)
Thicknet cabling, also called thick wire Ethernet, is a rigid coaxial cable approximately 1-cm thick used for the original Ethernet networks.Thicknet is also called yellow Ethernet or yellow garden hose. IEEE designates Thicknet as 10Base5 Ethernet.The 10 represents its throughput of 10 Mbps, the Base stands for base band transmission, and the 5 represents the maximum segment length of a Thicknet cable, which is 500 m. You may find this on older networks.

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Thinnet (10base2)
Thinnet, also known as thin Ethernet, was the most popular medium for Ethernet LANs in the 1980s. Thinnet is rarely used on modern networks, although you may encounter it on networks installed in the 1980s or on newer small office or home office LANs IEEE has designated Thinnet as 10Base2 Ethernet, with the 10 representing its data transmission rate of 10 Mbps, the Base representing the fact that it uses baseband transmission, and the 2 representing its maximum segment length of 185 (or roughly 200) m.

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Twisted Pair (TP)


Twisted-pair cable is the most common form of cabling found on LANs today. Its inexpensive, flexible, and easy to install, and it can span a significant distance before requiring a repeater (though not as far as coax). Twisted-pair cable easily accommodates several different topologies, although it is most often implemented in star or star-hybrid topologies One drawback to twisted-pair is that, because of its flexibility, it is more prone to physical damage than coaxial cable. All twisted-pair cable falls into one of two categories: shielded twisted-pair (STP) or unshielded twisted-pair (UTP).
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Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP)


As the name implies, shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable consists of twisted wire pairs that are not only individually insulated, but also surrounded by a shielding made of a metallic substance such as foil. Some STP use a braided metal shielding. The shielding acts as a barrier to external electromagnetic forces, thus preventing them from affecting the signals traveling over the wire inside the shielding. The shielding may be grounded to enhance its protective effect.

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Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)


Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling consists of one or more insulated wire pairs encased in a plastic sheath. As its name implies, UTP does not contain additional shielding for the twisted pairs. As a result, UTP is both less expensive and less resistant to noise than STP

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UTP Types

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Fiber Optic
A fiber-optic system is similar to the copper wire system that fiber-optics is replacing. The difference is that fiberoptics use light pulses to transmit information down fiber lines instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information down copper lines.
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Fiber Optic
Bandwidth Up to 100s of Gbps Distance (100 +KM) Three Types Single Mode Multi Mode Plastic Optical Fiber Mode
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Straight Through Cable

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You can use a straight-through cable for the following tasks: Connecting a router to a hub or switch Connecting a server to a hub or switch Connecting workstations to a hub or switch

Cross Over Cable

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You can use a crossover cable for the following tasks: Connecting uplinks between switches Connecting hubs to switches Connecting a hub to another hub.

Registered Jack (RJ)


RJ 11 RJ 45

RJ-11 Defined for telephone connectors


RJ-45 Defined for UTP connectors

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Local Area Network (LAN)


A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings

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Wide Area Network (WAN)


A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs)

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Intranet

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Internet

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Mac Address
The Media Access Control address (MAC) can be equated to the serial number of the NIC. Every IP packet is sent out of your NIC wrapped inside an Ethernet frame which uses MAC addresses to direct traffic on your locally attached network

MAC addresses therefore only have significance on the locally attached network. As the packet hops across the Internet, its source/destination IP address stays the same, but the MAC addresses are reassigned by each router on the way using a process called ARP

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Mac Address
MAC addresses are usually written in one of the following two formats: 00:13:21:0F:83:DF DF 00-13-21-0F-83-

Mac address is a 48 bit address

Mac address are 12 digit Hexadecimal {0-9} {A- F} Address


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MAC Address
Any Mac address starts with 00 is known as Unicast address 00 : 13 : 21 : 0F : 83 : DF Any Mac address starts with 01 is known as Multicast 01 : 13 : 21 : 0F : 83 : DF Any Mac address starts with FF is known as Broadcast FF : 13 : 21 : 0F : 83 : DF

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MAC Address

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Open System Internetconnect (OSI)


The OSI model was designed to promote interoperability by creating a guideline for network data transmission between computers that have different hardware vendors, software, operating systems, and protocols

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OSI
OSI developed by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1974 It consists of Seven Layers Each layer has specific processing function
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Open System Interconnect

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Data communication with OSI

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OSI
It serves as the interface between the user and the network Its a user specific layer Protocols used in Application layer : DNS, FTP, HTTP, SMTP, POP3, WWW

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OSI
Presentation layer is responsible for presenting the data in a standard format Presentation Layer is responsible for data translation (formatting) Encryption techniques are implemented at the Presentation Layer The Presentation layer relieves the Application layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in a message's data representation within the end-user systems
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OSI

Following tasks are performed in Presentation Layer:

Encoding Decoding Encryption Decryption Compression Decompression

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OSI

Session Layer is responsible for establishing, maintaining and terminating session Responsible for name recognition (identification) so only the designated parties can participate in the session

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OSI

Protocols used in Session layer:

NFS, SQL & RPC


NFS NETWORK FILE SYSTEM SQL STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE RPC REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL

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OSI
Transport Layer is responsible for end-to-end connectivity. It is also known as the heart of OSI layers
Provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery, with on losses or duplications Provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions; requests retransmission if some packets dont arrive error-free The major function of the Transport Layer is Error Correction

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OSI
Following tasks are performed at Transport Layer Identifying Service Multiplexing & De-multiplexing Segmentation Sequencing & Reassembling Flow control Protocol used in Transport Layer TCP, UDP

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OSI
Network Layer is responsible for providing best path for data to reach the destination Logical addressing is happening in this layer Network Layer translates logical network address and names to their physical address (e.g. computer name = MAC address) The Network layer performs network routing, flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control functions.
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OSI
Protocols used in Network Layer Routed Protocol IP, IPX Routing Protocol RIP, IGRP, EIGRP and OSPF

Router works in Network Layer

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OSI
Data Link Layer handles data frames between the Network and Physical layers Receiving end packages raw data from the Physical layer into data frames for delivery to the Network layer as packets Error detection is happening in this layer Data link Layer is divided in to two layers:

LLC (Logical Link Control) MAC ( Media Access Control)


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OSI
LLC Talks about WAN protocols e.g., PPP and Frame Relay MAC talks about 48 bit, 12 digit Hexadecimal physical address Protocols used in Data Layer : 802.3 (CSMA/CD) Ethernet & 802.5 Token Ring Switch, Bridge and Network Interface card works in Data Link Layer
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OSI
In Physical Layer data will be converted into Binary (0s & 1&) It transmits raw bit stream over physical cable

Data will be in the form of light if it is Fiber Optic Cable The Physical layer defines all the electrical and physical specifications for devices
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OSI

Gateway

Router

Switch
HUB
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OSI

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OSI

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DEVICES
DCE DEVICES HUB, SWITCH, ROUTER
DTE DEVICES - HOST

UPPER LAYER PROTOCOLS


APPLICATION LAYER FTP, TFTP, HTTP, TELNET, DNS, POP3, SMTP, DHCP PRESENTATION PICT, TIFF, JPEG, LAYER MPEG, MIDI SESSION NFS, SQL, RPC

LOWER LAYER PROTOCOLS


TRANSPORT LAYER TCP, UDP

NETWORK LAYER

DATA LINK LAYER

IP, IPX, ICMP, ARP, RARP, RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF PPP, HDLC, FRAME RELAY, ATM, ETHERNET

DIFFERENCES
DESCRIPTION HUB SWITCH

LAYER BROADCAST COLLISION

1 SINGLE SINGLE

2 SINGLE MANY

DIFFERENCES
DESCRIPTION BRIDGE SWITCH

BASE PORTS SPEED

SOFTWARE 16 SLOW

HARDWARE (ASIC) MORE FAST

DIFFERENCES
IP ADDRESS
32 BITS 4 OCTATE DOTTED DECIMAL SYSTEM

HARDWARE ADD
48 BITS 6 OCTATE HEXA DECIMAL SYSTEM

IP Addressing
Internet Protocol Address is given to the computer as an identifier to a computer in a TCP/IP Network IP Address is also known as Logical Address IP Address works in Layer 3 (Network) IP ADDRESS = N.W ID + HOST ID

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IP Addressing
IP Address is divided in to Network Portion and Host Portion Class A is written as Class B is written as N.H.H.H N.N.H.H

Class C is written as

N.N.N.H

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IP Addressing

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IP Address
Class A 1 126 191 223 239 254
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Class B 128 Class C 192 Class D 224 Class E 240 -

IP Addressing

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IP Addressing
Loop Back Address:
The IP address 127.0.0.1 is used as the loop back address. This means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. It is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing

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IP Addressing
Loop Back address is also known as semi broad cast address Range of Loop back address : 127.0.0.1 to 127.255.255.254 Click Start Run Type cmd Ping 127.0.01

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Automatic Private Internet Protocol Address (APIPA)


When a DHCP client (Computer) boots up, it first looks for a DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address and Subnet Mask If the Computer is unable to get the IP Address from DHCP Server the computer will automatically assign an IP address that IP Address is known as APIPA

169.254.0.0 - 169.254.255.255 is reserved for APIPA


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APIPA

APIPA is also known as Offline DHCP Address APIPA is also known as Auto Configuration IP Address

APIPA is applicable only for Windows based OS


APIPA will work only on Windows 98 and above APIPA will display with out the Default Gateway
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Subnet Mask
Subnet Mask is to differentiate the Network ID and Host ID Two numbers reserved for Subnet Mask i.e. 0 & 255

0 Denotes Host and 255 Denotes Network


Class Default Subnet Mask 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 N.H.H.H N.N.H.H N.N.N.H
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Class A is written as Class B is written as Class C is written as

VERSIONS
IPV4 32 BITS 4 OCTATE

IPV6

128BITS

16 OCTATE

Broadcast Address
Messages that are intended for all computers on a network are sent as broadcasts
These messages always use the IP address 255.255.255.255 Any IP Address with last Octet as 255 is known as broadcast address for that particular network E.g.: 10.10.8.255 The IP address of 0.0.0.0 is used for the default network
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How to assign static IP address and Subnet Mask


High light Local Area Connection Select Properties

Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and select Properties

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How to assign static IP address and Subnet Mask


When ever you assign a Static IP Address its Mandatory to assign static DNS

For Windows 2000 and above Subnet Mask will be automatically assigned by the computer with the help of Network ID
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Request Timed Out


The ping command timed out because there was no reply from the host. The source and the destination computer are in the same network When Ping command is initiated from one system to the other in a network if the firewall is enabled on the Destination System Request Timed Out error will Pop up

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Destination Host Unreachable


The host that you are trying to ping is in a different network. Destination and the source belong to the different network

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Market Share

40%

CISCO 60%

D-Link
3 Com Nortel Cygnus Etc..

Router is an internetworking component, that connects networks which are at different geographical locations.

Diagram of 2501 series Router


Telephone

modem

Serial 1

Serial 0

AUI E0

Console AUX

V.35 modem

PC

Interfaces on a Router

1. Ethernet It is a LAN interface. Some of the models have an RJ45 port for 10baseT or 10/100. And some other have a 15 pin female connector AUI (Attachment Unit Interface). 2. Serial It is a 60 pin female WAN interface for leased line

3. BRI/PRI It is a RJ45 WAN interface for ISDN 4. Async It is a 37 pin female connector for dial ups.

5. Console It is a RJ45 Connector used to configure the Router for the first time. 6. Auxiliary RJ45 Connector for remote access administration.

Routers

Modular
Modular Routers

Fixed

These type of routers have up gradable slots, and the number of ports can be increased just by adding cards in the slots.

Fixed Routers These types of routers have fixed number of ports.

Cisco Routers Series


Cisco 700, 800, 1600, 1700, 2500, 2600, 3600, 4000, 5000, 7000,10000, 12000.

Fixed 700, 800,.2500

Modular 2600,.., 12000

1750 & 1751 exceptionally are Modular Routers.

Ciscos Hierarchical Model

Access Layer 700, , 2500 Distribution Layer 2600, , 5000

Core Layer 7000, , 12000

Boot ROM : It stores the mini IOS (Internet work Operating System) image (RX Boot) with extremely limited capabilities and POST routines and core level OS for maintenance.

FLASH : It is an EPROM chip that holds most of the IOS Image. It maintains everything when router is turned off.
RAM : RAM holds running IOS configurations and provides caching. RAM is a volatile memory and looses its information when router is turned off. The configuration present in RAM is called Running configuration. NVRAM : It is a re-write able memory area that holds routers configuration file. NVRAM retains the information when ever router is rebooted. Once configuration is saved, it will be saved in NVRAM and this configuration is called Startup Configuration.

Configuration of a Router
Router for the first time is configured through the CONSOLE port.COM port of a PC is connected to the console port of router with a console cable by using a transceiver. Router is accessible by a tool. In windows, it is called HYPER TEMINAL. As soon as the router is powered on and accessed, the following things happen, POST BOOT STRAP FLASH NVRAM Setup Mode ROM (mini IOS) If IOS is Corrupted

In Setup mode, there will be a message, Would You Like To Enter The Initial Configuration [Y/N] :

If Y then, initial configuration starts.


If N would you like to terminate the auto installation? Press RETURN to get startedYou will land on the default prompt of the Router ROUTER >.

Router>_

Working Modes Of a Router


1. User Mode (Default mode)
2. Privilege or Administrative Mode 3. Global Configuration Mode

4. Interface Configuration Mode


5. Line Configuration Mode 6. Router Mode 7. Sub-Interface Mode

USER MODE
Router> is the user mode, I,e the default prompt. It means that when ever a router boots successfully it lands into the user mode. Router cannot be configured from this mode, but it is used for just monitoring purpose. Router> en Router #

PREVILEGE MODE
Router# it is the administrating mode, we can check whether the settings and configurations made have been implemented or not. Eg. Router # Sh int e0. If it is new router all the interfaces are by default shut down, so the message will be, Ethernet 0 is administratively down, line protocol is down.

Global Configuration Mode


As the name indicates, it is a global configuration mode I,e. we can configure any interface from this mode, just by entering into the interface mode. Router# Config t Router (Config)#

Router Password Configuration


1. Previlege Password 2. Virtual Terminal Password 3. Console Password 4. Auxillary Password

Previlege PASSWORDS

Enable Password

Enable Secret

Enable Password:- It is global command restricts access to the previlege mode, the password is in clear text. Router(config)#Enable password 123 Enable Secret:-Here the password is in encrypted form. Router(config)#Enable secret cisco

Virtual Terminal Password


It establishes a login password on incoming Telnet sessions. Router#conf t

Router(config)#Line vty 0 4
Router(config-line)#Login Router(config-line)#password cisco Router(config-line)#^Z

Console Password
It establishes a login password on the console terminal. Router#conf t Router(config)#Line Console 0 Router(config-line)#Login Router(config-line)#Password cisco Router(config-line)#^Z

Auxillary Password
It establishes a login password to remote administration. Router#conf t Router(config)#Line Aux 0 Router(config-line)#Login Router(config-line)#Password cisco

Router(config-line)#^Z

CONFIGURING INTERFACES
LAN interface (ETHERNET Port) WAN interface (SERIAL Port)

ETHERNET
Router(config)#Interface Ethernet 0 Router(config-if)#Ip Address 200.150.1.254 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#^Z Router#Show Int E0

SERIAL
Router(config)#Interface Serial 0 Router(config-if)#Ip Address 150.10.1.1 255.255.0.0 Router(config)#clock rate 56000 Router(Config-if)# bandwidth 64 Router(config-if)#No shutdown Router(config-if)#^Z

PROTOCOLS
ROUTING PROTOCOLS Dynamically find all the networks in the internetwork RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF ROUTED PROTOCOLS Send the packets through the establish network IP, IPX

Routing
Routing is of three types.
Static Dynamic and Default When the destination is known, static and dynamic routing is done. For unknown destinations, default routing is employed. In dynamic routing, the path is fixed by the protocol. The paths will be changing depending on the length of the path. Always the shortest path is preferred. Static routing is done by the users. These paths are stored in the routing table.

Example: 10.0.0.1/8 S0 S0 E 0 192.168.1.150/24

10.0.0.2/8

E 0 192.168.2.150/24

Switch/hub
192.168.1.0/24 Location A

Switch/hub
192.168.2.0/24 Location B

Router(config)# ip routing Router# sh ip route (it shows all the directly connected networks). C 192.168.1.0/24 directly connected to E0 C 10.0.0.0/8 S0 C indicates connected networks. Static Routing Syntax

Router(config)# ip route (dest-network) (subnet mask) (next hop address)

Location A

Router(config)# ip routing
Router(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2 Note* if we dont know the address of next hop, we can just write the name of the hop. Router(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 S0 Location B

Router(config)# ip routing
Router(config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1

Router# sh ip route

C 192.168.1.0/24 directly connected to E0


C 10.0.0.0/8 S0

S 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via 10.0.0.2 S represents static. [a/b] ~ [1/0], here a=1 is the administrative distance value and b has no significance in static routing. For static and default routing b can be 0 or 1. lesser the administrative distance value, higher the preference.

Classification Of Routing Protocols

Distance Vector Hybrid Routing Link State

Distance Vector: the distance vector approach determines the direction and the distance to any link in the internetwork. When the topology in a distance vector routing protocol changes, routing table updates in the router must occur. This update process proceeds step-by-step router to router. E.g.. RIP and IGRP. Link State : it recreates the exact topology of the entire network(atleast the partion of the network where the router is situated). E.g. . OSPF. Hybrid Routing : it combines aspects of the link state and the distance vector algorithm. E.g. EIGRP

ADMINISTRATIVE DISTANCE
RIP
IGRP EIGRP OSPF

120
100 90 110

RIP
PROTOCOL
ALGORITHM

DISTANCE VECTOR
BELLMAN FORD

AD
METRIC PROPERITO RY VERSIONS

120
HOP COUNT CISCO & NON CISCO RIPV1 &RIPV2

RIP INTERVALS
DEFAULT HOPCOUNT 4
MAX HOP COUNT 15

UPDATE INTERVAL
INVALID INTERVAL

30 SEC
180 SEC

HOLDDOWN INTERVAL FLUSH INTERVAL

180 SEC
240 SEC

RIP VERSIONS
RIP V1 RIP V2

BROADCAST

MULTICAST

CLASSFUL

CLASSLESS

DEFAULT SUBNET MASK

SUBNETTING SUBNET MASK

IGRP
PROTOCOL DISTANCE VECTOR ALGORITHM BELLMAN FORD

AD
METRIC

100
DELAY & BANDWIDTH

USAGE NETWORK PROPERITORY

LARGE NETWORK CLASSFUL CISCO

IGRP INTERVALS
DEFAULT HOPCOUNT 100
MAX HOP COUNT UPDATE INTERVAL INVALID INTERVAL HOLDDOWN INTERVAL FLUSH INTERVAL 255 90 SEC 270 SEC 280 SEC 630 SEC

OSPF
PROTOCOL ALGORITHM AD METRIC USAGE LINK STATE DIJIKSTRA 110 COST VERY LARGE NETWORK

NETWORK

CLASSLESS

PROPERITORY

CISCO & NON CISCO

EIGRP
PROTOCOL ALGORITHM AD METRIC USAGE HYBRID DIFFUSING UPDATE 90 DELAY & BANDWIDTH VERY LARGE NETWORK

NETWORK

CLASSLESS

PROPERITORY

CISCO

SWITCH
An essential component of LAN.
Switches are of different types

Layer 2 layer 3, layer 4, layer 5

Switches

Access layer

Distribution layer Core layer

ACCESS LAYER SWITCH: CATALYST 1912

DISTRIBUTION LAYER : CATALYST 2950


CORE LAYER SWITCH : CATALYST 3550

Catalyst manufacturer, but it is now owned by Cisco.

Switch
STANDARD EDITION ENTERPRISE EDITION To configure VLANS,go for enterprise edition & standard edition Will not support VLAN.

Functions of switch 1. Address learning 2. Filter & forwarding 3. Loop avoidance

1. Address learning 1.Listening state (15 secs) 2.Learning state (15 secs) 3.Forwarding state (20 secs) 4.Blocking state (20 secs) 5. Disable state

2. Filter & forwarding : store & forward cut through fragment free
S.NO DETAILS CUT STORED THROUGH FRAGMEN T FREE

CHECK

SOURCE & DEST. MAC ADD

FULL

FIRST 64 BYTES

LATENCY TIME

LESS

MORE

MODERATE

ERROR

LESS

MORE

MODERATE

3. Loop Avoidance: consider a scenario whr pc 1 wants to communicate To pc2. Switch a makes entry of pc1 in its MAC table as it is a new Switch. This looping is before the Mac table I s made. This is called Initial flood or broad cast storm. STP: spanning tree protocol. To avoid loops in case of a cascaded Switch STP is enabled by default. Parameters to select a switch 1. Bridge priority (32768) default.(1-655355) 2. MAC address Bridge id is calculated. Bridge id=bridge priority + Mac address. Which ever the switch having least bridge ID will be elected as root Switch and others are non-root Switch. On root switch the ports used For cascading are called designated ports. All the designated ports Will be at forwarding state . In non root switch from the two ports one will be selected as root port. This will be depending on the cost speed). least cost path (faster transmission) the other port will be blocked.

The hello packets that are sent by root bridge for every 2 sec to inform that it is working properly are called BPDUS; (bridge protocol data limits). If non root bridge do no receive 10 BPDUs for next 20secs then it is clear that the root bridge has Failed. 20secs max age time Then a new root bridge is selected. In the above e.g.: if switch A is selected as root bridge and ports A & B Of switch A are designated ports. Depending on the shortest paths For high speed & low cost one port of switch B is selected as root port & the other will be blocked.

WAN
ISDN FRAME RELAY ACCESS LIST NAT

ISDN
INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK BACKUP FOR THE LEASED LINE CHANNELS BRI & PRI BRI BASIC RATE INTERFACE PRI PRIMARY RATE INTERFACE

BRI & PRI


S.N DETAILS O
1 2 3 4 RATE B CHANNEL D CHANNEL TOTAL

BRI
2B+1D 64 KBPS 16 KBPS 144 KBPS

PRI
23B+1D 64 KBPS 64 KBPS 1.54 MBPS

B & D CHANNEL
B BEARER CHANNEL DATA BUS

DELTA CHANNEL

CONTROL BUS

FRAME RELAY
DEDICATED BANDWIDTH BETWEEN HO & BOs SHARING BANDWIDTH BETWEEN H.O. & B.O.s CIR ALGORITHM CIR COMMITTED INFORMATION RATE

ACCESS LIST
ACCESS OR DENY THE H.O. FROM THE B.Os TYPES STANDARD & EXTENDED

STANDARD & EXTENDED


S.NO
1 2 3 4

DETAILS
NUMBER PERMIT & DENY CHECK PORT

STANDARD
1 TO 99 WHOLE SERVICE SOURCE IP ONLY NOT USING

EXTENDED
100 TO 199 PARTICULAR SERVICE SOURCE & DESTINATION USING

NAT
NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATOR
TRANSLATE THE PRIVATE IP ADDRESS TO PUBLIC IP ADDRESS AS WELL AS PUBLIC IP ADDRESS TO PRIVATE IP ADDRESS

TYPES OF NAT
STATIC NAT DYNAMIC NAT OVERLOAD NAT (PAT)
(PAT - PORT ADDRESS TRANSLATOR)

STATIC NAT
TRANSLATE SINGLE PRIVATE IP ADDRESS TO SINGLE PUBLIC IP ADDRESS E.G : 192.168.1.1 > 200.13.68.20

DYNAMIC NAT
TRANSLATE MANY PRIVATE IP ADDRESS TO MANY PUBLIC IP ADDRESS E.G : 192.168.1.1 > 200.16.12.1 192.168.1.2 > 200.16.12.2 192.168.1.3 > 200.16.12.3

OVERLOAD NAT (PAT)


TRANSLATES MANY PRIVATE IP ADDRESS TO A SINGLE PUBLIC IP ADDRESS WITH THE HELP OF THE PORT NOs. E.G : 192.168.1.1 > 200.12.10.1 > 1025 192.168.1.2 > 200.12.10.1 > 1026 192.168.1.3 > 200.12.10.1 > 1027

THE END

THANKS & REGARDS


Raj Mohan N