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Graduate to Proactive Maintenance

System from Reactive


Achieving Maintenance Excellence
by implementing TPM, RCM & CMMS

To: TPM Action Committee

By: Madan Karki, TPM Coordinator

Sharpening the saw
A saint met a peasant in the woods working hard in sawing
down a tree.
What are you doing buddy? the saint asked.
Dont you see? Im sawing down this tree came the reply.
You look tired! Since when are you on it? the saint asked.
Over 5 hours, the man replied, & Im beat! Its hard work
Well, the saw you are using seems to be blunt. Why dont
you take a break for a few minutes & sharpen that saw? It
would go a lot faster. the saint suggested.
I dont have time to sharpen the the saw,the peasant
relied emphatically. Im too busy sawing!
Morale of the story: Practicing TPM is sharpening the saw.
Why TPM?
In traditional mfg system, high WIP were kept to ensure
that the plant output is not affected if an equipment is
down. The role of maintenance was to ensure an agreed
availability, say 90%.
The concept is a chain is as strong as its weakest link.
Each eqpt is considered independent, so if the lowest
eqpt availability is 90%, the process availability is 90%.
Weakest Link Theory
If the eqpt caused quality problems, these would be
noticed in final inspection & the cause traced back
to the culprit eqpt & corrected by maintenance.
With TPS, WIP were reduced for shorter lead-times &
improved quality.
Why TPM?
This made the eqpt interdependent; stopping an
eqpt will result into stopping of whole process.
Equipment Interdependency
Now, process availability is the product of the
individual availabilities; i.e. product law of series
systems applies.
For 4 eqpt process to achieve their original availability
of 90%, the individual availabilities needed was 97.5%.
Inventory reduction caused huge pressure on
maintenance, in spite of their same performance.
As per traditional concept (higher availability needs
more resources), more resource were needed to
increase the level of availability.
The conflict between maint cost & availability is same
to the old quality mind-set before TQC: higher quality
required more resources for final inspection & rework.
Product Law for Series System
SPC, "Quality at Source, enabled highest quality at
lowest cost with quick response & superior customer
service. TQC emphasized "prevention at source" by
controlling process variables.
Instead of enlarging inspection team, all employee
were trained to identify problems at source &
reduce the costs so that QC Deptt can focus on
variation reduction thru process improvement.
TPM is "prevention at source" in maintenance- to
identify & eliminate the source of eqpt
deterioration.
Result - higher availability & reliability, increase in
capacity & reduction in costs.
TPM vs. TQM - Similarities
1. Total commitment to the program by upper
level management is required in both programs
2. Employees must be empowered to initiate
corrective action
3. A long range outlook must be accepted as
TPM may take a year or more to implement
and is an on-going process.
4. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job
responsibilities must take place as well.
Category TQM TPM
Object
Quality (Output &
effects )
Equipment ( Input
& cause)
Mains of
attaining
goal
Systematize the
management. It is
software oriented
Employees
participation & it is
hardware oriented
Target Quality for PPM
Elimination of
losses & wastes.
TPM vs. TQM - Differences
Tool for RCF is 5 Whys one reaches at the root after
asking Why 5 times.
The graph shows life of a part with an avg life of 12-
months. The part fails within the range of 6 18
months, 6 months variation on either side. If it is
replaced in 12-months there will be significant no. of
failures. If it is replaced in 6-months, the cost will be huge.
Root Cause of Failure
Average Life
12 months
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Age
Useful Life
6 months
This is where TPM
becomes important.
The failures data of such
components tend to
congregate around some
Avg life. Useful life is the
age at which there is a rapid
increase in the conditional
probability of failure.
TPM is based on the precepts of:
understand cause of variation
Reduce/minimize variation
look for improvement.
Studies show the 3 conditions that cause 80% of
variation are:
Looseness
Contamination
Lubrication
Variation in Life
Average Life
18 months
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Age
Useful Life
16 months
Eliminate above 3 conditions to "establish Basic Eqpt
Conditions, which will squash up distribution curve by 80%
& move to the right, thus increasing the life of the parts.
Operating Age
f0 f1 f2 f3
Stress
Resistance
Restore
Resistance
Reduce Rate of
Degradation
Reduce stress: f0-f1
Restore resistance: f1-f2
Reduce degradation: f2-f3
Prevent Failure
When applied stress exceeds
resistance, the items fail. Life of
an item can be extended by:
TPM helps to ensure 'basic equipment conditions'.
Remember Maintenance function alone cannot
improve reliability.
Eliminate Lack of care', Poor operating practices,
Adverse equipment loading etc. through TPM
involving everybody.
Relationship between RCM & TPM
In 1950's, Science of Maintenance emerged with the name
Reliability Centered Maintenance, which uses failure theory to
improve Eqpt Reliability thru PM program. To implement the
same, the eqpt must be in its Basic Eqpt Condition.
In his book, TPM in Process Industries, Suzuki writes:
"Implementing a PM program w/o restoring basic conditions
leads to failures before next service is due, which will force
to reduce service interval & defeat whole point of PM
program. It is impossible to predict optimal service intervals
if accelerated deterioration & operating errors exists."
Traditional PM programs are based on the concept that every
item has a life at which overhaul is necessary to ensure
operating reliability. But, thru the years, it has been seen that
many types of failures could not be prevented or reduced by
such activities, no matter how intensively they were performed.
Relationship between RCM & TPM
Proactive
Maintenance
CMMS
Life
Age
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Wear-
out
zone
Evolution of Maintenance
Since 1930s, maintenance
has evolved in 3 generations.
In last 20 years, it has
changed more than any
other discipline.
Failure is related to age was 1
st
generation
belief - period up to World War II.
Simple & over-designed equipment, hence
reliable & easy to repair. The failure pattern
shows slowly increasing conditional probability
of failure, ending in wear-out zone.
First Generation
Second Generation
An awareness of
Infant Mortality led to
2nd Generation belief
in the bathtub curve.
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Age
Infant
Mortality
Wear-
out
zone
Wartime pressure increased mechanization. Concept
of Routine Preventive Maintenance & system for
maintenance planning & control emerged.
Bathtub Curve: begins with a high incidence of
failure (infant mortality) followed by constant
conditional probability of failure & a wear-out zone.
Failure Pattern A
3
rd
generation
research revealed
that 6 failure
patterns exist in
practice. If eqpt is
complex, so will the
failure patterns.
Third Generation
Pattern D:
Pattern E:
Pattern F:
Pattern C:


Pattern C: Slowly increasing failure probability of
without any identifiable wear-out age.
Pattern D: Low probability of failure when the item is
new, then a rapid increase to a constant level.
Pattern E: a constant probability of failure
at all ages (random failure).
Pattern F: starts with infant mortality, then
drops to a constant probability of failure.
Studies on aircraft showed that 4% of the
items conformed to pattern A, 2% to B, 5%
to C, 7% to D, 14% to E & 68% to pattern F.
As assets become complex, we see more
and more of patterns E & F.
A Brief History of RCM
US Aviation, frustrated by failure rate of engines, formed a
task force in 1960 to explore capabilities of PM programs,
which revealed 2 main discoveries:
Scheduled overhaul has no effect on the reliability of a
complex item unless it has age-related failure mode.
There are items for which there is no effective form of
scheduled maintenance.
In 1965, a technique was devised, which was refined later
with the name MSG1, MSG2 & MSG3 (Maint steering
group)
MSG-1 used in Boeing, inspection hrs reduced to 66K from
4 Mn.
MSG-2 was used in Lockheed, Airbus & Concorde. Items
requiring scheduled overhaul was reduced to 7 from 339.
Cost reductions were achieved thru understanding of the
failure process & not decreasing the reliability.
Age-related Failures
Average Life
18 months
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Age
Useful
Life
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Age
Wear-out occurs if eqpt comes
into contact with the product or
if there is fatigue, oxidation or
corrosion.
Fatigue affects metallic items
subjected to hi-frequency
cyclic loads.
Oxidation & corrosion depend upon chemical
composition, protection & the working environment.
Examples of eqpt in-contact with the product are
pump impellers, valve seats, seals, screw conveyors,
machine tools, crusher, hopper liners, furnace
refractories, dies, inner surface of pipelines etc.
Useful Life
12 months
Know Failures: Not Related to Age
Resistance to stress
Applied stress
Time
Resistance to stress
Time
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Applied stress
Very few failures are age related due to variations in applied
stress & complexity.
Variable Stress: wear-out is not always proportional to the
applied stress, which is never consistent. So, failures occur due
to increase in applied stress caused by incorrect operation or
assembly; e.g. starting a machine too quickly, over-torquing
bolts, mis-fitting of parts etc.
Here failure is not related to age (fig-1). In fig. 2, the stress peak
reduces resistance to failure, not actually causing it to fail; e.g.
an earthquake to a structure
In fig. 3, the stress peak temporarily reduces
resistance to failure, e.g. thermoplastic soften when
temperature rises & harden again when it drop
Resistance to stress
Time
Resistance to stress
Time
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Applied stress
Applied stress
In fig.4, a stress peak accelerates the decline of failure
resistance & shortens the life of the component.
This may happen if a ball bearing is mis-aligned during
installation or the bearing is damaged by dropping on
the floor or dirt gets into the bearing while in service.
Know Failures: Not Related to Age
In all 4 cases, it is not possible to predict when the failures will
occur, hence termed as random failures.
Age-related failures apply to simple mechanisms. Complex
items conform to random failures (failure pattern D, E & F).
The wide variation in bearing life obtained by bearing life test
machine precludes the use of any time based maintenance
strategy.
Bearings are the weakest components, only 10 - 20% of them
achieve their design life due to dynamic load caused by
misalignment & imbalance (due to poor installation,
lubrication, handling & storage practices).
Outer race of a ball bearing is the most heavily loaded part,
which moves up & down as the bearing rotates, which cause
subsurface fatigue cracks with symptoms of vibration, particles
in lubricant, noise & overheating.
Know Failures: Not Related to Age
Failure Pattern B
R
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t
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S

Age
F
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N
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s
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o
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s

FAILED
NEW
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 14 34 34 14 3
100 98 84 50 16 3
Due to linear deterioration, e.g.
pump impeller. Out of 12, ten
deteriorate at roughly the same
rate & last between 11-16 periods.
2 impellers failed prematurely, 1st
due to poor case hardening & the
2nd due to change of liquid
properties for a while. The analysis
here applies to impellers failing due
to wear only. Typical of
reciprocating engines.
Frequency & conditional probability of failure curves show 2
lives. The Avg life is same as MTBF. Useful life pertains to
rapid increase in the conditional probability of failure - used
to establish the frequency of scheduled tasks.
Failure Pattern E
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Age
C
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10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
90 81 73 66 59 53 48 43
10 9 8 7 7 6 5 5
Rolling Bearings conform
to this pattern failure
probability is const, i.e.
10% in each period.
A sample of 100
bearings, a decay of 10%
per period means unity is
reached after 43 periods.
Survival distribution & frequency curve decline exponentially
& cond. probability curve remains flat indefinitely- at no
stage scheduled task can be contemplated.
MTBF for random failure is given by the point at which 63% of
items fail. But, these items do not have a useful life.
Failure Pattern F
F
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Most interesting one - only pattern where
the probability of failure declines with age
(except pattern A, which is a special case).
A typical of electronic equipment.
Most common patterns(68%). Highest probability of failure
occurs when the eqpt is new or just overhauled, known as
Infant Mortality due to below causes :
Poor Design: If an item is incapable of delivering the desired
performance, & tends to fail soon after being put into
service. solved by redesign /use of proven technology.
Bad workmanship: If something is badly put together, it will
fall apart quickly. Will be avoided if the task is done by
trained personnel only.
Failure Pattern F
Incorrect commissioning: It occurs if the equipment is
set up incorrectly.
Poor mfg & installation: It occurs if equipment
manufacturers quality standards are too loose or if the
parts are badly installed. The problem is solved by
either rebuilding the affected assemblies or replacing
the affected parts.
Routine maintenance: Infant mortality is caused by
routine maintenance tasks which are invasive as they
disturb the eqpt & upset a stable system.
Infant mortality problems are solved by once-off
actions & not by Scheduled Maintenance (except few
on-condition tasks to anticipate failures).
S
N
C
y
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s
t
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s
s

No. of cycles, N
Stress S will cause the item
to fail after N cycles.
Pattern C shows a steadily increasing probability of failure,
but at no point we can say thats where it wears out. The
possible cause of pattern C is fatigue, which is caused by
cyclic stress, & the relation between cyclic stress & failure is
governed by S-N curve. Pattern C is also associated with
insulation failure of alternator windings. Not all fatigue failures
conform to pattern C. Typical of turbine engines.
Failure Pattern C
Failure Pattern A
It is accepted now that failure
pattern A the bathtub curve is
a combination of two or more
different failure patterns, infant
mortality & age-related failure.
For random failure, an item with higher MTBF will have a lower
failure rate in any given period. For age-related failures, a
more reliable component will have a longer useful life.
Hence, a reliable pattern B component lasts longer, while a
reliable pattern E component fails less often than the other.
Reliability of bearings is measured by B10 life - the life below
which no more than 10% of the bearings will fail under given
load & speed. If bearings of brand Y is twice as reliable as
brand X, B10 life of brand Y will be twice as that of brand X.
Here, MTBF will be about 9.5 times the B10 life.
Unless there is a dominant age-related failure mode, age do
not affect reliability of the items. Actually, scheduled
overhauls increase overall failure rates by introducing infant
mortality into a stable system.
Failure Patterns & Reliability
Evolution of TPM
1st Gen had 5 TPM Activities, focused on
improving equipment effectiveness only.
In 80's, 2nd Gen (Total Process Mgmt) included
losses of line imbalances & schedule interruptions
due to poor production scheduling .
Recognizing need of involving whole company,
3rd Gen TPM (Tot Productive Mfg) consists 8 Pillars,
16 Losses & 4Ms (Man, Mc, Method & Material).
TPM is a company wide initiative involving all
employees, & cannot be implemented by the
maintenance team alone.
History & Background of TPM
A concept to increase eqpt productivity thru changes
in employee attitude toward their job responsibilities
by employee empowerment.
TPM brings maintenance into focus as a vital part of
the business & no longer a non-profit activity.
Maintenance is scheduled as a part of the working
day & an integral part of the mfg. process & not simply
squeezed in whenever there is a break.
TPM Ref Std - Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance
From Japanese Industrial Excellence to achieve More
with Less, Main mfg excellence approach of Toyota.
Goals, Objectives & Targets
1. Achieve Zero Defects/BD/Short Stoppages
2. Achieve 85% OEE
3. Reduce the manufacturing cost by 30%
4. Changeover/Setup in single digit minutes
5. Increase in suggestions by 3 fold.
6. Multi-skilled operatives
7. Customer satisfaction - OTIF with required quality
8. Favorable change in employee attitude
9. Feeling of owning the machine among employee
10. Clean & tidy work place
11. Employee Involvement & Teamwork
Are Zeroes Possible?
Hoechst:
NIL breakdown of tableting m/c for 6 months
Morarjee Mills:
Blow Room uptime raised from 65% to 93%
Milton Plastics:
21 m/cs uptime raised from 60% to 75%
What is Possible Depends Upon:
Commitment
appraisal linked by TPM?
How much hands-on are managers?
TPS & New insights of TPM
Harvard researchers identified 4 rules that govern TPS:
Rule 1: All work is specified,
All improvement are documented in procedures
Planned schedules govern all maintenance work
Daily/weekly joint prod/maint planning & status
meetings keep efforts focused & aligned.
Rule 2: Communication mode are direct & clear - to
send requests & receive responses; e.g.
Maint requests are sent & acknowledged promptly
with visual cues or signals.
When repairs are made, the requestors sign off
Rule 3: pathway to every service must be direct, e.g.
Every operator knows where to go for help with
maint problems, directly to the maintainers.
Rule 4: improvement are done thru scientific methods,
at the lowest possible level in the organization;
Root cause analysis are applied to eliminate chronic
& sporadic equipment-related problems.
Small x-functional groups close to the problem find
solutions & conduct trial to check whether it works
Experienced/trained people lead improvement
efforts.
TPS & New insights of TPM
The Discipline & the Culture
As we explore TPS/TPM success stories, we see that
it takes discipline in the workplace. 4 rules define
the basic structure of workplace discipline.
Many people still regard maint as "fixing things" & a
non-value adding support to the business.
Learn TPM in true sense & dont take any shortcuts,
it works, if properly implemented.
The reasons could be:
Lack of understanding in the total effort required,
Lack of management support,
Lack of TPM staff,
Union resistance,
Inadequate training,
Changed priorities,
Lack of persistence,
Failure to develop a good implementation strategy
Choosing the wrong approach.
Why every second attempt of TPM fails?
Implementation of TPM
1. Obtain commitment of upper level management.
2. Appoint a TPM coordinator & an Action Team.
3. Action Team understands TPM thoroughly
4. Action Team assess current situation (OEE, eqpt, skill,
plant orderliness, attitude, motivation & mgmt
style) & works out detailed implementation plan
5. In-plant TPM training
O Dissemination of TPM Concept to the work force.
O Form section-wise teams headed by Action Team
members till team leaders emerge.
O Pinpoint problems, find solution & take corrective
action.
O Provide exposure to other plants to observe TPM
methods/techniques & establish "benchmarks".
6. Pilot Plan Implementation In Sewing
7. Plant-wide Implementation
8. Introduction audit - checks if the TPM fundamentals are
done correctly & on schedule. Done after 6-12 months.
9. Progress audit - after 18-30 months to determine if:
PM is carried out by the TPM teams, OEE >85%,
ratio of proactive vs. reactive maint is 80:20
10. Certification & award
eqpt & product quality are at the highest levels.
the plant is world-class: highly productive, top quality
product, equipment in top shape.
Implementation of TPM
PRODUCTION PYRAMID
PROFIT
PROFIT
QUALITY COST DELIVERY
MAN MACHINE MATERIAL METHOD
IMPROVEMENTS
MURA MURI MUDA
5 S HABIT
TPM Structure
TPM Action Team
SK, SC, AKJ, RM, TS, AT
Niche 1
Cell 1,2 & 3
Cell 4,5 & 6
Prep1 Prep 2
Niche1
S Kumar
Manoj S
Jit N
Kamal
Bhima
Ravindra
Operatives
Cell 1,2&3
Prabin
Amarendra
Binod
Suman B
Ganesh
Lal Karna
Operatives
Cell 4,5&6
AKJ
Saroj
Amarendra
Binod
MDM
Samjhana
Sudhir
Operatives
Prep1
A Thakur
Munna
Amrita
Shambhu
Binod
Sarita
Ek Bdr
Operatives
Prep2
RM
S Jha
Shambhu
Jit N
Chandan
Omkar
Operatives
Fusing
Tara
S Jha
Manoj S
Jit N
Mahesh
J Prakash
Operatives
Morning
Evening
Niche1
S Kumar
Raj Kr Rai
Santosh S
Uttam
Champa
US Thakur
Operatives
Cell 1,2&3
Prabin
Sachin K
New Elec
S. Thapa
Anju
Sant Thakur
Operatives
Cell 4,5&6
AKJ
Saroj
Sachin K
New Elec
Karna
Sumodh
Operatives
Prep1
A Thakur
Munna
Mukesh
New Elec
D Bhandari
RK Dev
Operatives
Prep2
RM
MU
Mukesh
Santosh S
Kmuddin
Usman
Operatives
Fusing
Tara
MU
Raj Kr Rai
Santosh S
Shushan
J Prakash
Operatives
Pillar 1: Autonomous Maintenance
1. Initial cleaning
* Ability to determine
machine abnormalities
* Ability to design & make
improvements
Develop the skill to spot
abnormalities & it
2. Eliminate sources of
contamination and
Operators determine by
themselves what they
have to do
3. Convert inaccessible
areas into accessible
4. Make checklist for
cleaning & lubrication stds
5. General inspection
Understanding operation
principles of machine & its
systems
More skilled operators &
techs. teach the least
experienced
6. Autonomous Inspection
Understand relationship
between eqpt conditions
& product quality
Data organization to
describe optimal
conditions & how to
maintain them
7. Organization &
housekeeping
Full Implementation
Continuity!
Pillar 1: Autonomous Maintenance
1. Cleaning & Restoration
Thoroughly restore & clean. Motivation
through participation.
2. Eliminate sources of
contamination and
Study root causes of dirt, loss, damage & take
actions.
3. Convert inaccessible areas
into accessible
Achieve 1 minute accessibility time for doc +
parts. Implement stock mgmt at 1 glance.
4. Standardization & Control of
Work
Achieve a problem free work flow in stock
inventory & data availability.
5. Self Management Self Managed Teams
General Maintenance
SOP before switching on the machine.
General cleaning - feed dog, to check
the needle broken by sliding on finger nail,
checking of oil sump.
SOP before leaving the machine like
cleaning, to put cloth under pressure foot
with needle down position etc.
Steps
1. Cleaning & Restoration
2. Counter the Contamination
3. Improve eqpt accessibility
4. Set initial maintenance standards
5. Establish general inspection skills (Maint &
Process)
6. Establish Autonomous Inspection
7. Organize & Manage workplace
Pillar 1: Autonomous Maintenance
Operator-
involved
maintenance
Eqpt
"ownership" by
operators:
Autonomous
maintenance:
Achieve highest
OEE.
7 Types of Abnormalities
1. Minor flaws - Eliminate
2. Contamination sources Provide
Countermeasures
3. Unfulfilled basic conditions Set it right
4. Inaccessible places Make it accessible
5. Quality defect sources - Eliminate
6. Unnecessary & non-urgent items Remove from
machine & store at right place
7. Unsafe places Eliminate
Step 1: Cleaning & Restoration
Establish
Basic
Conditions
Oil
Clean
Tighten
Basic Paradigm: COT & F
Cleaning
Oiling
Tightening
Filing
Restoration sequence:
Machine
Materials
Method
Man (people)
Restore Your Machine First
Step 1: Cleaning & Restoration
Autonomous maintenance is based on raising the
operators awareness in understanding their
machines & how to perform Daily checks,
Lubrication, Part Replacement, Minor Repairs,
Precision checks & Early detection of abnormal
conditions.
To that purpose we will help them develop 3 skills:
1. Ability to determine & judge if operating conditions
are abnormal
2. Ability to preserve normal conditions
3. Respond quickly to abnormalities by repairing or
calling a technician
Step 1: Cleaning & Restoration
1. Set a date, obtain tools & cleaning materials.
2. On the date, employee clean the eqpt with the
help of maintenance crew
3. While cleaning, inspection shall be done looking
for potential defects.
Cleaning is Inspection
Inspection means identifying abnormalities
Cleaning is a Health Check
4. Open previously Unseen covers & clean
including electrical boxes & oil tanks.
5. Correct oil leakage, loose wires, loose nuts/ bolts
& worn out parts.
Step 1: Cleaning & Restoration
6. Simplify eqpt by eliminating Unnecessary items
7. Expose abnormalities.
8. Stimulate curiosity & develop a sense of ownership.
9. Refer the check points for Nuts, Bolts, Lubrication,
Transmission, Electrical & Pneumatic.
10. List down the Abnormalities in the given format.
11. Attach Abnormality tags: White tags for problems,
to be solved by operators, Red tag means help of
maintenance is needed.
12. Refer to history records of the machine.
13. Record cleaning time
What state should the machine be in?
Schedule of cleaning, inspection & lubrication with
details like when, what & how shall be made &
followed strictly.
Study the existing M/C check sheet & analyze why is
it not maintained & used effectively.
Set Goal time for all activities put together-Cleaning,
Lubrication, Inspection & Retightening, separately for
D,W,M & Y activities
Clarify place, method, std, period, tool, frequency
etc, so that no ambiguity & subjectivity remains while
taking decision.
Unfulfilled Basic Conditions
Lubrication
Gauges

Tightening
Insufficient, Dirty, Unidentified or unsuitable
Dirty, Damaged, leaking, No indication of
Oil level, incorrect level
Loose Nuts & Bolts, Missing, Cross-threaded,
Too long, Crushed, Corroded, Unsuitable
washers
Unsafe Places
Dim, out of position, dirty or broken covers.
Broken covers, no emergency stop.
Lights
Rotating
MINOR FLAWS
Stand by equipment Piping accessories
Electrical accessories Jigs & Tools
Spares/auxiliary materials Makeshift repair items
Contamination
Play/Slackness

Abnormality

Adhesion
Dust, Dirt, Oil , Grease, Rust, Paint
Shaking, tilting, eccentricity, wear,
distortion, corrosion, slack belts/chains
Unusual noise, heat, vibration, smell,
discolor, incorrect pressure/current
Block, stick, jam etc
Unnecessary & Non-urgent Items
Cleanliness Control
in
Lubrication Systems
What is Cleanliness?
Cleanliness is a term which is used to describe the
relative quantity of contaminant particles in any given
system.
There are a number of Internationally agreed standards
to which one can refer if attempting to measure the
cleanliness of a fluid.
Each machine system will have an optimum
cleanliness level which will be a balance between the
maintenance of machine efficiency and the cost to
maintain cleanliness
Section 6
Relative Size Comparisons
100 Micrometers -
Salt Crystal

70 Micrometers -
Human Hair
40 Micrometers - Limit of visibility
25 Micrometers - White Blood Cell
8 Micrometers Red Blood Cell
2 Micrometers - Bacteria
Section 6
Examples of Typical Clearances
Between Components
Gear Pump - 0.5 - 5 micron
Vane Pump - Tip 1 micron
- Side 5 - 13 micron
Piston Pump - Piston to Bore 5 - 40 micron
- Port Plate to body 0.5 - 5 micron
Control Valves - Servo 1 - 4 micron
- Proportional 11- 6 micron
- Directional 2 - 8 micron
Rolling element Bearing 0.1 - 1 micron
Journal Bearings 0.5 100 micron
Hydrostatic 1 - 25 micron
Section 6
How is Cleanliness Measured?
Section 6
From To
8,000,000 16,000,000 24
4,000,000 8,000,000 23
2,000,000 4,000,000 22
1,000,000 2,000,000 21
500,000 1,000,000 20
250,000 500,000 19
130,000 250,000 18
64,000 130,000 17
32,000 64,000 16
16,000 32,000 15
4,000 8,000 13
2,000 4,000 12
1,000 2,000 11
500 1,000 10
250 500 9
130 250 8
64 130 7
32 64 6
16 32 5
ISO
Range
Number
Number of Part icles
ISO 4406 is the most commonly
used cleanliness rating.

The adjacent table shows the
codes used to represent the
number of particles in 100 ml of
oil.

This code is applied to the
number of particles >4, >6 and
>14 micron in size, e.g. 20/18/16
NAS Equated to ISO 4406
ISO 4406 Code NAS 1638 Class
13/ 11/ 08 2
14/ 12/ 09 3
15/ 13/ 10 4
16/ 14/ 11 5
17/ 15/ 12 6
18/ 16/ 13 7
19/ 17/ 14 8
20/ 18/ 15 9
21/ 19/ 16 10
22/ 20/ 17 11
Typical System Cleanliness
Syst em Type ISO 4406 CODE
Gear Pump 19/ 17/ 14
Piston Pump 18/ 16/ 13
Vane Pump 19/ 17/ 14
Proportional Control 18/ 16/ 13
Servo Valve 16/ 14/ 11
Inj. Moulding Machine 18/ 16/ 11
Unused Hyd. Oil 18/ 16/ 13
General Lubricants 23/ 21/ 17
What Effects can Poor
Cleanliness Create
Damage interacting components - abrasion.
Reduce component life - erosion.
Obstruct critical flow paths.
Damage servo/ proportional valves.
Increase quality problems.
Increases customer dissatisfaction.
Reduce market perception.
Damage business opportunities.
Raise costs.
Step2: Counter the Contamination
In-Built
Generated
Added
Lubricants
Gases
Liquids
Leaks, Spills, Seepage etc.
Leaking comp. air, steam etc.
Leaking water, Leaking supply lines etc
Sources:
Main Sources of Contamination.
Where does Dirt Come From?
Build debris from fabrication, machining and
casting.
Lubricant, as new
Wear debris
Corrosion particles
Fatigue spalls
Airborne contaminants
Sealing damage
Poor assembly techniques
Environmental factors
What Failures are Likely?
Sudden or Catastrophic - This is caused when a small
number of particles invade a critical space and create a
torque reaction large enough to cause a seizure or
fracture which is irreversible.
Intermittent -Similar to that above but usually caused by
smaller size structures. These types of event will
eventually lead to a catastrophic failure. Typical
examples are temporarily blocked or un-seated
spool/poppet valves.
Degradation - Typically characterised by Flow erosion,
abrasion, polishing and general wear.
Section 6
Implement Countermeasures against sources of dust
& dirt, splashing & leaks of oil etc.
Shorten the time for Cleaning, Lubricating & servicing
& rank the priority places for daily inspection.
Use of concepts like Localized Guards
Grow BUDS OF KAIZEN in the Operators mind.
Countermeasures
How Can We Manage Cleanliness?
Purchase lubricants of a known quality and cleanliness
Store lubricants properly
Dispense lubricants properly
Flush all new systems to remove build debris
Use oil/air filtration systems which will remove particles larger
than the critical clearances
Change filters at an appropriate frequency
Ensure that all assembly techniques are adhered to
Check regularly the cleanliness of lubricants in use to verify that
other procedures are being effective
Section 6
Countermeasures to Contamination
Example1:
The return oil flow used to splash & spread around causing
contamination. Channelized return oil flow to the lubrication
tank.

Example 2 Problem:
Limit switch fixed near the bottom bolster
Soap oil spills over the limit switch, while spraying
Cleaning is not done often due to more cleaning time.
Solution:
1. Localized acrylic cover provided for limit switch.
2. Soap oil will not spills over the limit switch
3. Cleaning time is reduced
Cleaning time : Reduced from 5 minutes to 2 minutes.
Countermeasures
1. Bearing Worn Out Play in the shaft
2. Oil Stain Excess supply of Lube oil Adjust Oil Amount
3. Filter choked Dirt in the Oil Tank
4. Coolant Splashing Limit the volume of Coolant
used Localized Guards
5. More Chips Excessive Stock in forged component
Lessen stock to be machined Localized Guards for
Chips
6. Grinding of V Belt (Belt Manufacturing) Rubber
Powder Duct from Suction Pump at the Grinding
location.
Why-Why Analysis for problems shall be done.
Countermeasures
Before Burr deposits on motor from the Swarf
conveyor.
After Localized Guard provided nearer to the
source (swarf conveyor) to prevent burr to fall on
motor
O Before - The limit switch fixed on a moving member of
the m/c, resulting cable rubbing on the m/c.
O After Limit Switch shifted to non moving member of
the m/c. Prevents Break Down.
Step 3: Improve eqpt accessibility
Difficult to
clean/Inspect/Lubricate/Tighten/Operate/Adjust
Due to:
M/c/ construction, covers, height,Layout, position,
orientation
Position of lubricant inlet/outlets, valves, switches,
gauges etc.
a. Inaccessible regions made accessible; e.g. if many
screw to open, provide hinge door or inspection
window of acrylic sheets.
b. Shorten the time for COT.
Examples: Eqpt accessibility
1. V Belt Inspection Difficult Covers to Remove
Make Inspection Window
2. Inspection of pressure Gauge not possible
Pressure gauge at top Bring it down
3. Forging m/c was fully covered making it difficult to
clean & inspect the motor & fly wheel area. A see
through sheet was provided on the side cover
making cleaning & inspection easy.
4. Impeller cleaning difficult. To remove motor, end
cover to be removed. Motor end cover made split
type, cleaning time reduced from 4 hrs to 5 min.
Examples: Eqpt accessibility
1. Draining and Oiler Checking Difficult Oiler, Air
Filter installed near floor.
2. V Belt Inspection Difficult Covers to Remove
Make Inspection Window
3. Electrical Wires at the back of M/C making
cleaning impossible Take to Z Axis or flush it to
the ground to clear up XY Axis.
4. Operator has to stretch his hand to operate the
switch. Switch shifted to convenient location.
Design for Maintainability
Features Benefits
Easy access to
serviceable items
Maintenance time reduced
Technician fatigue reduced
No/minimal adjustment Less problem, lesser downtime
Maint training curve reduced
Components/modules
quick & easy to replace
Technician fatigue reduced
Problem diagnosis improves
Mistake proofing part
installs one way only
Chances of error reduced
Maint training curve reduced
Self-diagnostics Maintenance time reduced
No/few special tools Tool inventory reduced
Std fasteners/ parts Spare inventory reduced
Less components in
assembly
Spare inventory reduced
Reliability improves
Visual Factory
1. Visual Factory", deals with workplace orderliness
to eliminate waste & error.
2. Reduces eqpt-specific training time by conveying
specific information at the point of use as below:
Activity Symbol Tools
Clean

Lub
e
Insp

On the equipment
In the spares store
Near the equipment
Visual SOP/Work instructions

Visual Systems - On the Equipment
FIG # 1 GAUGES WITH OPERATING RANGES
FIG # 2 PROBLEM TAG
FIG # 3 WHAT ARE WE READING? IN WHAT ORDER? FIG # 4 CLEAR MARKINGS ELIMINATE ERRORS
Visual Systems - near the Equipment
MANUFACTURER'S DIAGRAM WITH
INDICATIONS
Visual - On the Equipment
Mark operating ranges on gauges
Label eqpt parts to standardize nomenclature
Maintain accurate eqpt repair history.
Label lubrication & fluid fill points
Mark directions of flow, rotation to prevent errors.
Use color-coded grease fitting caps to protect &
designate lubrication types & frequency.
Label part nos. on the eqpt to save time
Color-code changeover parts
Use tags to pinpoint the problem areas & request
maintenance help
Visual - On the Equipment
Use visual "action board"
Label pneumatic/electrical lines & devices to aid
troubleshooting
Mark matching nuts/bolts to indicate tightening
torque
Label Insp points/gauge reading sequence nos
Make Lub System Diagram marking oil spot, Oil
type & Frequency (Oil Jockeys & Grease Guns) with
time required (for Hard to Oil Areas).
Create Visualization of Oil Level Marks.
Color-code pipelines
Visual - near the Equipment
Eqpt action boards for performance trends &
improvements
Visual PM schedules showing when PMs are due, past
due, & completed - for the year
Visual Procedures & Work Instructions
Photo & drawings to show important points in
procedures
Photographs to show where to inspect or adjust
Photographs to show where to get equipment
readings for a shift inspection log sheet
Train people to enable them to use
inspection manuals.
Step 5: General Inspection Skills
Lubrication
Tightening
Pneumatics
Hydraulics
Electrical
Drives
Prepare
schedules &
checklists
Provide
Training
Implement
Audit
Manuals
Checklists
Cutaway Models
Checkpoints for Nuts & Bolts
Are any nuts/ bolts loose?
Are any nuts/bolts missing?
Do all bolts protrude from nuts by 2-3 thread lengths?
Washers
E Are flat washers used on long holes?
E Are tapered washers used on angle bars/channels?
E Are spring washers used in vibration area?
E Are identical washers used on identical parts?
Attachment of Nuts/Bolts
E Are bolts inserted from below & nuts visible from
outside?
E Are devices secured by at least 2 bolts?
E Are wing nuts on the right way around?
Lubrication Checkpoints
Lubricant Storage
Are lube stores clean, tidy & well-organized by the
application of 5S principles?
Are lube containers capped?
Are lube types indicated & stock control practiced?
Lubricant Inlets
OAre grease nipples, lube ports/ inlets kept clean?
OAre lube inlets dust proofed?
OAre lube inlets labeled with type & qty of lube?
Lubricant Checkpoints
Oil-Level Gauges
Are oil-level gauges & lubricators clean & oil
levels easy to see?
Is the correct oil level clearly marked?
Is eqpt free of oil leaks & oil pipes/breathers unobstructed?
Automatic Lubricating Devices
Are automatic lube devices operating correctly &
supplying the right amount of lube?
Are any oil/grease pipes blocked, crushed or split?
Lubrication Condition
Are rotating/sliding parts & transmissions (e.g.chains) clean
& well-oiled?
Are the surroundings free of contamination by excess lube?
Transmission Checkpoints
V-belts and Pulleys
Are any belts cracked/swollen/worn or contaminated by oil/ grease?
Are any belts twisted or missing?
Are any belts stretched or slack?
Are multiple belts under uniform tension & all of the same type?
Are top surfaces of belts protruding above the pulley rims?
Are the bottoms of any pulley grooves shiny (indicting a worn belt or
pulley)?
Are pulleys correctly aligned?
Roller Chains
Are any chins stretched (indicating worn pins or bushings)?
Are any sprocket teeth worn, missing, or damaged?
Is lubrication between pins and bushing sufficient?
Are sprockets correctly aligned?
Transmission Checkpoints
Shafts/Bearings
Is there any overheating, vibration, or abnormal
noise due to excessive play or poor lubricant?
Are any keys or set bolts loose or missing?
Couplings
Are any couplings misaligned or wobbly?
Are any coupling seals worm?
Are any bolts slack?
Gears
Are gears lubricated with the right amount of
lubricant?
Are the surroundings clean?
Are any teeth worn, missing, damaged or jammed?
Is there any unusual noise or vibration?
Hydraulic Units
s there correct qty of fluid in hydraulic reservoirs &
correct level indicated?
Is fluid at the correct temperature?
Are the max & min permissible temp indicated?
Is fluid cloudy (indicating air entrapment)?
Are all fluid inlets and strainers clean?
Are any suction filters blocked?
Are any fluid reservoir breather filters blocked?
Are pumps operating normally w/o unusual noise &
vibration?
Are hydraulic pressures correct & operating range
displayed?
Hydraulic Checkpoints
Hydraulic Equipment
Are there any fluid leaks?
Are hydraulic devices properly secured w/o any
makeshift fastenings?
Are hydraulic devices operating correctly without speed
losses or breathing?
Are hydraulic pressures correct, and are all pressure
gauges working correctly (zero points, deflection)?
Piping and Wiring
Are all pipes and hoses securely attached?
Are there any fluid leaks? Are any hoses
cracked/damaged?
Are all valves operating correctly?
It is easy to see whether valves are open or shut?
Are any pipes, wires, or valves unnecessary?
Pneumatic Checkpoints
FRLS
Are FRLs clean? Is it easy to see inside them? Are
they fitted the right way around?
Is there sufficient oil, and are the drains clear?
Is the oil drip rate correct (approx 1 drop/10
strokes)?
Are FRLs installed < 3 m from the pneumatic
equipment?
Are pressures adjusted to the correct value &
operating ranges clearly indicated?
Pneumatic Equipment
Is compressed air leaking from cylinders/solenoids?
Are cylinders & solenoid valves firmly attached?
Are any makeshift fixings in use (wire/adhesive
tape)?
Pneumatic Checkpoints
Are any pistons dirty, worn, or damaged?
Are speed controllers installed the right way around?
Is there any abnormal noise or overheating of solenoid
valves, and are any lead wires chafed or trailing?
Piping and Wiring
Are there any places in pneumatic pipes or hoses where
fluid is liable to collect?
Are all pipes and hoses clipped firmly into place?
Are there any compressed-air leaks?
Are any hoses cracked or damaged?
Are all valves operating correctly?
Is it easy to see whether valves are open or closed?
Are any pipes, wires, or valves unnecessary?
Electrical Checkpoints - Control Panels
Are the interiors of DBs, switchboards & control panels
kept clean & tidy by the application of the 5S
principles?
Any extraneous objects /flammable materials left
inside?
Is the wiring inside control panels in good condition?
Are any wires coiled or trailing?
Are all ammeters/voltmeters operating correctly &
marked?
Are any instruments or display lamps broken?
Are any bulbs faulty?
Are any switches broken? Do all switches work
correctly?
Are control panel doors in good condition? Do they
open & close easily?
Are there any unused holes?
Are control panels water proof and dustproof?
Electrical Checkpoints
Electrical Equipment
Are all motors free of overheating, vibration, and unusual noise and
smells?
Are all motor cooling fans and fins clean?
Are any attachment bolts loose? Are pedestals free of
cracks/damage?
Sensors
Are all limit switches clean and free of excessive play?
Are the interiors of all limit switches clean? Are any wires trailing?
Are all covers in good condition?
Are any limit switches incorrectly installed?
Are any limit switch dogs worn, deformed, or the wrong shape?
Are all photoelectric switches and proximity switches clean and free of
excessive play?
Are any sensors out of position? Are correct positions clearly indicated?
Are all lead wires unchated, and is insulation intact at entry points.
Electrical Checkpoints
Switches
Are all switches clean, undamaged & free of play?
Are all switches installed in the correct position?
Are emergency stop switches installed in appropriate
locations, and are they working correctly.
Piping and Wiring
Are any pipes, wires, or power leads looser or
unsecured?
Are any ground wires damaged or disconnected?
Are any pipes corroded or damaged? Are there any
bare wires or wires with damaged insulation?
Are any wires coiled on the floor or dangling overhead?
General - Purpose Equipment: Pumps
Are pumps & their stands free of unusual noise, vibration
& play?
Are pedestal bolts tight, corrosion-free, and
undamaged?
Are stands/pedestals free of corrosion, cracking & other
damage?
Is any liquid leaking or spraying from gland packings?
Is any liquid leaking or spraying from pipes or valves?
Are any pipes or valves blocked?
Are all meters (flow/temp) & gauges(Pr, Vac.) working
properly & marked with the correct operating ranges?
Are starting current & operating current valves correct?
Are these clearly indicated?
Are all valves operating correctly? Is it easy to see
whether valves are open or closed?
Checkpoints for Fans
Are fans and their stands free of unusual noise,
vibration & play?
Are all pedestal bolts, light, corrosion-free, and
undamaged?
Are all stands & pedestals free of corrosion,
cracking & other damaged?
Are any gland packings leaking air or gas?
Are any ducts or dampers leaking air or gas?
Are any ducts blocked or clogged?
Are all gauges & meters working properly &
marked with the correct operating ranges?
Are starting current and operating current values
correct?
Are these clearly indicated?
Are all dampers operating correctly? Is it easy to
see whether dampers are opened or closed?
V-belt Drives
Main cause of V-belt failure is under-tensioning, which
allow a belt to slip. The resulting friction gives the belts
sidewalls a shiny or glazed appearance.
If not unattended, this slippage creates heat that hardens
the belts rubber compound.
The consequent flexing required of the belt & this new
hardened condition causes cracks on the belt surface.
A slipping belt is identified by squealing on startup,
excessive heat at the driver/driven sheave, black carbon
dust below the drive & glazed belt sidewalls.
The ideal tension for a belt is the least amount required to
prevent it from slipping under peak load conditions, is
specified by belt manufacturer as the force required to
deflect a belt
1
/
64
in./in. of belt center distance.
Re-tension V-Belt Drives
The typical mistake is that the tension of a newly
installed belt is not rechecked & adjusted after 1 hr of
operation, which is needed as the belts have a
tendency to seat or find their home.
Paint removed from the grooves of new sheaves after
only a few minutes of operation shortens the center
distance slightly.
Some belts have "flashing" or excess material at certain
spots which wears off & allows the belt to ride deeper in
the groove, resulting in under-tensioning.
As the belt warms up, it flexes easier leaving more slack
in the drive. If belts are not re-tensioned, slippage is
imminent & premature failure is likely.

Reliability increase thru 6 Sigma?
Cause (x) Effect Result (Y)
Bad Solenoid No Coolant Downtime
Bad Encoder Positioning Errors Scrap, Rework, DT
6 Sigma is a methodology for variation analysis. If history
of failures is examined, we find great commonality in
RESULT. The EFFECT of dissimilar CAUSES is often similar. 6
Sigma methods express these as Y = f(x).
If we analyze root causes of every cause, we arrive at 6 basic
stresses, (other than poor design, operator abuse/inadequate
ratings, programming error) which is a true x.
Stress Caused Effect Result
Contamination Solenoid fail No Coolant DT
Power Surges SCR fail Z axis runaway DT
Vibration Encoder fail Positioning Errors Scrap/DT
6 Sigma - Problem & Cause
1. Vibration
2. Dirt build-up
3. Heat: over-temp problems of electronic cabinet, motors.
4. Hydraulic/Pneumatic Contamination:
5. Oxidation/Corrosion: ageing cable & circuit board
connectors.
6. Current/Voltage Transients: Lightening storms, crippling
effect of power outage & Eqpt generated transients (>65%
transients are self-generated). A protective device, TVSS
(Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor) is recommended.
Prevent "x," or chronic stress, thus preventing downtime,
Y. Eliminating a stress, or hardening equipment against
stress will result in drastic increase in MTBF.
Six Sigma Solution
DMAIC model of Six Sigma:
Define the problem,
Measure the problem
Analyze (by Pareto, scatter, run chart, box plots etc) to
see trends, find root causes & cost effective solutions.
Implement the solution (an action plan & FMEA analysis)
Control for continuous improvement (kaizen).
There are 3 categories of downtime:
1. Due to Operator/ Programmer Error
2. Due to inadequate PM procedure or performance
3. Downtime by chronic stresses
ISO-9001 & TPM deal with first 2 issues.
The common misconception is that if the coupling
halves fasten together, it is OK, which is not true. It works
for rigid couplings but not for the flexible types. The
misaligned shaft result into breakdowns.
In fact, the bearing settings alone limit the amount of
misalignment that most equipment can tolerate. Proper
shaft alignment will save many hours of downtime &
labor & equipment costs.
Aligning drives to coupling capabilities rather than
equipment capabilities often results in bending failure of
the shaft. Preliminary indications of misaligned shafts are
excessive heat at the face of the driver /driven
equipment, oil seal leakage, and/or vibration.
The shafts shall be aligned to within the eqpt
specifications rather than the coupling capabilities,
as near perfect angular & parallel alignment as
possible within reason.
Dial indicators are used for aligning shafts & are
adequate for most applications. Some precision
applications require sophisticated tools like laser
alignment. If proper alignment is not achieved, it is
the equipment that suffers rather than the coupling.
Gearbox Failure
Unpredictable overloading, worn components &
changes in the application may harm gear drives.
The weak link of a gearbox is the gears, bearings &
shaft. It is the gear that fails in most cases.
If a gearbox fails with damaged gear or broken teeth,
then it means the unit was subjected to overload,
provided it was properly lubricated.
Replacement by another identical gearbox is likely to
produce similar results if the load on the drive is not
lessened to the load limit of the gearbox.
Follow proper installation & maintenance techniques,
analyze failures before replacing it.
Reliability of Rotating Machineries
Shaft misalignment is known to be responsible for up to 50% of breakdowns in rotating
machinery. Shaft alignment tools (pictured) offer simplicity with a high degree of accuracy.
Misalignment can be offset (top), angular
(bottom), or a combination of both.
Bearing life varies inversely
with misalignment.
Any misalignment between the eqpt joined with a flexible
coupling will result in vibration, resulting into premature
failure of bearings, seals, couplings & other components.
Higher the misalignment, greater the rate of wear,
likelihood of premature failure & loss of efficiency of the
machine. Misaligned machines consume more power.
Temp Monitoring - Key to Motor Reliability
Heat kills motors, exceeding the rated operating
temperature by 10 C, can shorten the life of a 3-phase
induction motor by half.
Fig. - Hot spot temperature
vs. ambient & rise for Class
B insulation system. Note
that at 40 C ambient
(horizontal axis), the rise is
90 C (vertical axis). The
sum of the ambient and
temperature rise will always
be 130 C for a Class B
insulation system.
The temperature rise is measured directly using sensors or
an infrared temperature detector, or indirectly using the
resistance method.
Employee prepare their own schedule consulting supervisor.
Frequency of cleanup/inspection is changed
based on experience.
Machine Adjustments
Equipment have a range of adjustments:
1. Adjustments related to size & configuration changes
2. Adjustments related to wear of the machine
3. Adjustments required for assembly & installation
At Rheem Australia, unnecessary adjustments were
eliminated by half to ensure that machine is not put
out of spec, albeit with good intention.
The process is described in following steps: Find,
Eliminate & Simplify.
1.Find
a. Locate all Points of Adjustments
b. Begin from a logical starting point & work
systematically thru the machine; e.g. a Cig Pack
Wrapper has Infeed & Out-feed Conveyor.
c. On the infeed, there are adjustments on guide rail,
pack height, proximity sensors, sprockets, chain
tensioners, slot on the motor-gearbox etc.
d. Someone may say, Dont worry, no one will change
this!. Such thoughts should not be allowed.
e. When all POAs are listed, mark it physically on the
machine as well.
Machine Adjustments
ID Section Description Function Category
I1 Infeed Guide Rail
Height
Adjust for pack
heights
I2 Infeed Pack sensor Check the
presence of packs
I3 Infeed Chain
tensioner
Adjust for wear in
drive chain
Maint.
I4 Infeed Slotted motor
mount bolts
During installation
of motor
Fixed
2. Eliminate, Eliminate, Eliminate
a. Involve experts to identify which POAs can be
eliminated.
b. Review each POA & try to fix as many as possible.
Generally, 50% of POAs are not needed.
c. Lock up identified POAs with suitable means. Never
leave open holes where screws/bolts resided once,
fill & grind flush to eliminate doubt.
d. Some POAs are maintenance related & should be
identified with appropriately on the machine (e.g.
M). These should have properly documented
procedures.
3. Simplify
a. There should be no private information; i.e. not
readily available to all employees who need it.
b. Everybody is not comfortable with numbers,
drawings, graphs, charts etc.
For the remaining POAs, Simplify step classifies POAs
on a scale of 1-7 in ascending order (1 is the least
ideal stage & 7 is the ideal stage):
A. Setting by feel, judgement, eye: This is the worst kind
of setting having infinite no. of variations as it has no
science associated with it. This class of POA must be
eliminated.
Machine Adjustments
B. Setting by memory or information kept on bits of
paper: This is an example of private information &
better than previous one.
C. Setting from manuals with measuring devices: It is
an improvement, however the errors of
measurement has to be kept in mind. But, all are
not used to drawings, graphs, charts, tables etc.
D. Setting with graduated device : They allow
inspection w/o stopping the m/c. These avail
information to all. But, these can be rendered
useless by lack of maintenance & calibration.
E. Setting using Jigs/templates: This is an improvement
as it overcome numeracy & literacy issues.
Machine Adjustments
F. Color coded setting points: Different colors for
different product group/size - most effective.
Literacy & private information are overcome, can
be inspected while the m/c is running.
G. Singe Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) Approach:
Fear of Change
There can be enormous resistance to such projects
in some organizations, because some people use
such private information as currency. Some
people might feel that they are no longer able to
fine tune the equipment any more.
OEE , continuous
improvement thru
Kaizen. PDCA (Plan,
Do, Check & Act)
cycle implemented.
Step-7: Organize & Manage Workplace
Organize & set standards for:
EQUIPMENT PRECISION
INSPECTION ITEMS
STANDARDS FOR
INDIVIDUAL WORK
RESPONSIBILITIES
TOOLS & MATERIALS
FLOW & STORAGE
Seiri (Sort out)
Seiton (put in
order)
Seiso (Sparkle)
Seiketsu
(Standardise)
Shitsuke (Self
discipline)
5S: Foundation of TPM
Japanese
English Meaning Typical Example
Seiri Sort Organize the
workplace
Keep away unwanted &
not frequently used items
Seiton Systemize Neatly arrange
materials, tools

A place to everything &
everything in its place.
Fast retrieval of doc, tool
Seiso Sanitize Clean, oil,
maintain
Daily cleaning
Seiketsu Standardize Std methods for
everyone to
use.
Transparency of storage,
Easy access, Clear
notice, indications
Shitsuke Self-
discipline
Practice in a
disciplined
manner
Do daily 5-S
What is 5 S
1. Prepare red tags & attach to unneeded items
2. Remove red-tagged items to dinosaur burial
ground
3. Seiri means sorting unnecessary items from ones
workplace & removal.
4. Removal means returning things to owners,
moving to more distant & cheaper storage areas,
selling/donating them, or simply throwing away.
5. In essence, it is removing workplace clutter &
freeing up valuable space, in preparation for the
next step.
1 - Seiri (Sort out)
ABC CLASSIFICATION IN SEIRI
Group Frequncy of Usage(Degree of necessity) Storage place
A High Articles to be used
all the time
Every hour
Every day
Every week
Within the operational
area
B Normal Articles used
sometimes
Once a month
Once in 3 months
Somewhere near the
work place
C Low Articles seldom
used
Once in 6 months
Once in a year
Outside the work place


EXAMPLES OF STORAGE PLACE


Group In case of production area In case of office
A Near the operator Inside the table
B Common rack or working table Common cabinet
C Store Store
Make it obvious where things belong
Lines
Divider lines
Outlines
Limit lines (height, min./max.)
Arrows show direction
Labels
Color coding
Item location
Signs
Equipment related information
Show location, type, quantity, etc.
2 - Seiton (put things in order )
Places should be thoroughly cleaned, from floor,
wall to lighting equipments, as well as machines,
shelves & lockers.
Cleaning up everyday makes it possible to detect
subtle abnormality.

1. While cleaning, repair the malfunctioning spot
found during clean-up
2. Identify what caused stains/dirt & eradicate the
causes
3. Setup "cleaning standard" & carry out involving
everybody
3 - "Seiso" (Cleaning)
1. After the first 3Ss are implemented, the last two are
applied to maintain the new set-up.
2. Seiketsu means standardizing, or setting procedures
for all employees to follow and comply with; i.e.
setting rules on what, when & how to dispose while
doing Seiri.
3. It sets rules on where & how to store or file items,
how to borrow or retrieve them & how to return
them to their proper places. It specifies how &
when to clean the workplace & who will do these
chores, usually from among the employees
themselves.
The 5th step is Shitsuke (training & discipline).
Employees are trained on 5-S principles, such that
they do not revert to the old ways & habits.
Determine the methods to maintain the standards:
5-S concept training
5-S communication board
Before & after photos
One point lesson
Visual standards & procedures
Daily 5-minute 5-S activities
Weekly 5-S application
5 - Shitsuke
Pillar 2: Kobetsu Kaizen
Target: Achieve & sustain zero losses with respect to
minor stops, measurement & adjustments, defects &
unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30%
manufacturing cost reduction.
Kaizen Tools:
1. PM analysis
2. Why - Why analysis
3. Summary of losses
4. Kaizen register
5. Kaizen summary sheet.
Loss Category
1. Failure losses breakdown loss
2. Setup/adjustment losses
3. Cutting blade loss
4. Start up loss
5. Minor stoppage/idling loss
6. Speed loss operating at low speed
7. Defect/rework loss
8. Scheduled downtime loss
Losses that
impede
equipment
efficiency
16 Major Losses in Organization
16 Major Losses in Organization
Loss Category
9. Management loss
10.Operating loss
11.Line organisation loss
12.Measurement & adjustment loss
Losses that impede
human work
efficiency
13.Energy loss
14.Die/jig & tool breakage loss
15.Yield loss
Losses that impede
effective use of
production resource
Classification of losses
Aspect Sporadic Loss Chronic Loss
Causation
Cause-effect
relationship simple to
trace.
Not easily identifiable, even
with several counter
measures
Remedy
Easy to establish a
remedial measure
Due to hidden defects in
m/c, eqpt & methods
Impact /
Loss
A single loss can be
costly
A single cause is rare - a
combination of causes
trends to be a rule
Freq. of
occurrence
occasional Frequent
Corrective
action
Only line personnel in
the production can
attend to this problem
Specialists in process engg,
quality assurance & maint
people are required
Used with other data analysis or collection tools.
Emphasis on logical reasoning to understand the chain of
cause-effects & devise holistic multiple solutions.
All defects, breakdowns, accidents & work problems are result
of an error by Man which is the Root Cause.
Problems are traced to all the 4Ms
Solution Sustained by linked to the TPM systems.
Why-Why Analysis: For problems with clear & assignable causes
P-M Analysis: For problems with clear causes & no effective
counter-measures
Why-Why & P-M Analysis
for Sporadic & Chronic Problems
Kaizen Policy
Practice concepts of zero losses in all activity.
relentless pursuit to cost reduction & improve OEE
Use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses.
Focus on easy handling of operators.
Achieve systematic breakthroughs in equipments 6
BIG LOSSES & establish Standards for Basic Machine
Conditions. The Basic Machine Conditions are:
1. Cleaning Standards.
2. Lubrication Standards.
3. Bolt-tightening Standards.
Equipment Improvement
Attack individual losses
Availability
Breakdown Loss
Changeover/setup Loss
Performance
Short Stoppage Loss
Machine speed Loss
Quality
Defects Loss
Warm-up & Shutdown Loss
Overall Equipment Effectiveness is
reduced by these 6 Big Losses
Tracking TPM Progress thru OEE
Identify & eliminate wastes to reduce cost. Delays,
downtime, inefficiencies & scrap are main wastes.
An asset shall fulfill 3 performance standards:
Availability - eqpt shall be operational
Efficiency - it should work at right speed
Yield - it should produce right quality
The composite measure of effectiveness is determined
by multiplying all three variables:
Overall effectiveness = availability x efficiency x yield
Also known as Primary Functional Effectiveness (PFE)
Tracking TPM Progress thru OEE
Downtime losses: eqpt failure, setups & changeovers,
tooling or part changes, start-up & adjustment
Performance efficiency losses: minor stops or delays,
reduced speed or cycle time
Quality losses: scrap product/output, defects or
rework, yield or process transition losses
All the TPM key elements are measured by the first
element metrics; i.e. OEE, which is the measure of TPM
initiative effectiveness & contributes to the
identification & elimination of waste to reduce
manufacturing cost, the foundation of the TPS.
Provides a long-term baseline of equipment
condition for improvement measurement.
When an OEE analysis chart is plotted,the exact
reasons in terms of the 6 Big Losses are clearly
understood.
Suitable tools can be used to address specific
selected Losses.
TPM activities should address problem areas in the
plant, poor-performing equipment & high
maintenance cost areas of the facility.
USEFULNESS OF OEE
Available Time = Total Time - (Time lost in BD &
changeovers)
EAvailability = Available Time / Total Time (>= 90%)
Performing Time = Available Time - Time lost due to
short stoppages & lower speeds
EPerformance = Performing Time/Available Time (>=
95%)
Good pieces produced = Nos. expected in
performing time - defectives produced
EQuality = Good pieces/Nos. expected in perf time
(>= 99.9% ) OEE >= 90% X 95% X 99.9% >= 85%
6 Big Losses: Focus On Bottleneck
All the TPM key elements are measured by the first element metrics; i.e. OEE,
which also measures the effectiveness of the TPM initiatives. It contributes to the
identification & elimination of waste to reduce manufacturing cost, the foundation
of the TPS.
OEE provides a long-term baseline of
equipment condition for improvement
measurement.
Speed
Improvement
Six standards static conditions were checked and
identified areas need to be restored.
.Indexer clamps parallelism was out.
.The index clamper and back rail gap were out of the
required spec.
.Output index clamper position not parallel when a
lead frame is clamped.
.One hot plate screw was missing.
Summary of Static Restoration Activities (1st Part)
Improving Performance Rate through Improving the
Equipment MTBA Losses.
KAIZENis:FocusedImprovement.
Paper does not
burn in sunlight
Paper burns
Improvement
Focused Improvement
Improvement is like sunlight:
Lot of energy, but dispersed
(wasted)
Small improvements
Slow progress.
Focused improvement concentrates the
energy:
Little energy, but concentrated and aligned
Enables significant (large) improvements
Small time required
Rapid progress
Process Improvement
in Strategically Important Areas
Significant (Large) Improvements (&
small ones that go with it)
Sustainable Improvements
Speedily Executed Improvements
30 sec
60 sec 40 sec
Now 20 sec 30 sec 60 sec
Busy person no time for kaizen
Are they KAIZEN?
No
What KAIZEN is Not!
Any improvement done
by anybody is not KAIZEN
They are improvements,
but not KAIZEN
Dont study only machine
Study the entire process
A- B - C
A
B
C
Identify
& attack
bottleneck
If B is slow, no point in speeding up C.
Here, KAIZEN means speeding up B.
Speeding up C & A is not KAIZEN.
KAIZENis:studyingentireprocess
UTILITY COST
42%
30%
13%
72%
1.5%
4.5%
9%
20%
8%
0.0%
20.0%
40.0%
60.0%
80.0%
100.0%
C
O
S
T

I
N

%
OTHERS
Shop C
Shop B
Shop A
POWER
FUEL
AIR
STEAM
WATER
KAIZEN
should focus here
KAIZENis:
IdentifyingStrategicallyimportantarea&improvingthere.
KAIZEN Journey
S
D C
A
S: Standardize
D: Do
C:Check
A:Act
P
D C
A
S
D C
A
P: Plan
D: Do
C:Check
A:Act
Speak with Data
Gather data using all five senses
Go to gemba for data
Analyze data - When you see data, doubt it
Make decisions with data
Take action based on data
Check results - When you see data, doubt it
KI Methodology
A
C D
P
A
C D
S
A
C D
P
A
C D
S
A
C D
P
Review &
Standardise
Gemba
Kaizen
Workshop
Initial Diagnosis & Roadmap
Gemba
Kaizen
Workshop
GembaKaizen
Workshop
Review &
Standardize
Theme & Principles of Lean Concept
Eliminate Waste
Specify
Value
Identify the
value stream
Make value
flow
Pull
Perfection
Only make
as needed.
Suit the needs
from
customer
viewpoint.
Identify
process
sequence -
concept to
market
Single piece flow.
Never delay a
value adding step
by non-value
adding one.
The five lean principles
Central theme of lean thinking
What customer
wants, at the
right time,
quality, price &
without waste.
Concept of lean thinking originated from Toyota
Production Systems (TPS) developed in 1950s Japan
through lean principles described by Womack (1990).
Partnership Gemba Variation Participation
Seek to build
trust, with
supplier &
customer
Innovation in
the workplace,
not in the
office
Seek to reduce.
Understand the
limits.
Everybody takes
responsibility!
Everything
shared
Customer Simplicity Visibility Pull Regularity
Work at
customers
rate of
demand.
Understand
the true
demand
In
operation,
technology
& process
Operational
visibility &
transparency.
15 Characteristics of Lean Concept
No surprise
operations,
time
pacing
Synchronzn
Keep it
moving. Seek
flow.
Waste Process Prevention Time Regularity
Simultaneous &
parallel
operations. Time
as a measure
Learn to
recognize,
then reduce
Think
horizontal
& map the
process
Shift
emphasis
from failure
to prevention
Beyond waste
reduction, to
include
innovation
Mura - Inconsistencies
Happens only sometimes? Mura!
Happens to only some people? Mura!
Happens only some places? Mura!
Bend to work? Muri!
Large batch? Muri
Avoidable movements? Muri!
Do not reduce walking by making big batches
Standing at work is healthier & more efficient than
sitting
Muri - Physical Strain
Muda - how to see it?
What should flow
Material in a factory
document in an office
Is it stopping? Muda!
Is it retracting?Muda!
Is it piling up? Muda!
Reprocessing? Muda!
Muda = Waste
with a special
meaning
The 7 original wastes (Ohno, 1985)
Muda of over-production
Muda of transport
Muda of waiting
Muda of processing
Muda of inventory
Muda of motion
Muda of repair/rejects
Excessive WIP
Too Invasive PM
Non moving materials
Waiting for resources
Movement is waste
Centralized maintenance
Too much variation
Non-standard PM
Excessive stock
Excessive spares stock
Double handling
Double handling
Scrap, rework
Poor maintenance work
Production example
Maintenance example
Lean
production
wastes
& analogous
wastes
within
maintenance
1. Muda of over-production
Overhauling an assembly, which do not have age-related failure
mode
Performing excessively invasive routine maintenance tasks, which
might upset an otherwise stable system by introducing infant
mortality.
2. Muda of Waiting
Waiting for maintenance personnel to perform a service.
Waiting for tools, parts documentation, transportation, & other
items.
Move the parts and documents closer to the job, and buy extra
tools and store them near the job location where they will be used.
The 7 original wastes (Ohno, 1985)
3. Muda of transport - "walking around." due to
Tools that are stored a long way from the job,
Commonly used parts that have not been pre-assembled or kitted,
Documentation that must be hunted down, and
Work orders that are not available, all cause excess transportation.
Maintenance people spend a lot of time walking; without adding value
to the process.
4. Muda of processing
In reactive maintenance, repairs are conducted to resume operation
ASAP, sometimes eliminating an opportunity to perform a higher
quality repair. Maintenance planning is key to eliminate process
waste.
The 7 original wastes (Ohno, 1985)
5. Muda of inventory
spares store contains obsolete items in significant
proportion.
informal parallel inventory to ensure availability when
needed.
too much backlog maintenance work inventory means
slow response and a high reactive labor percentage.
6. Muda of motion : PM tasks that do not add value
7. Muda of defects / rejects
Job recurrence because of improperly performed repair
work. Root cause analysis can ensure that the proper action
is taken to eliminate the source of the defect.
The 7 original wastes (Ohno, 1985)
The 7 new wastes (Bicheno, 2000)
Waste of Human
Potential
Energy & Water
Inappropriate System
Wasted materials
Service & Office Wastes
Customer time
Defecting customers
Poor creativity &
Lack of training
Poor record keeping &
Information System
Energy management
Over-maintenance
Poor service operations
Customer inconvenience
Poor maintenance
P.M. standards
General Inspection Stds +
Annual Maintenance
Plans
Equipment Total
Maintenance standards
Autonomous
Maintenance System
Achieve ZERO BREAKDOWNS by
implementing systems of parts
replacement before failure through CBM.
Pillar 3: Planned Maintenance
Strategy
1. Achieve & sustain availability of machines
2. Optimum maintenance cost
3. Reduces spares inventory
4. Improve reliability & maintainability of
machines
1. Zero equipment failure & break down
2. Improve reliability & maintainability by 50 %
3. Reduce maintenance cost by 20 %
4. Ensure availability of spares all the time
Target
Formulating Maintenance Strategy
Identify resource
requirement to fulfill
maintenance requirement
Identify Maintenance Requirements
(so that assets continue to fulfill their
functions to the desired
performance standard)
Maintenance
system to ensure
that jobs get
done as desired.
The Plan Do Check Act Process
The PDCA
Process
The Good AM Process - improved
through Culture and Leadership
The PDCA
Process
Leadership
Culture
Good
Asset
Management
Output
Focus
Capabili
ties
Level of
Assuran
ce
Learning
Organisa
tion
The Four Key Principles
What is Asset Management?
The Four
Key
Principles
The PDCA
Process
Good AM
Processes
RCM Starts with 7 Basic Questions
1. Define the functions & performance standard - What
are the functions & performance standard of the
asset in its present operating context?
2. Define functional failure - In what ways does it fail to
fulfill its functions?
3. Identify Failure Modes - What causes each
functional failure?
4. Identify Failure Effect - What happens when each
failure occurs?
5. Identify Failure Consequences - In what ways, does
each failure matter?
6. Identify Failure Management techniques - What can
be done to predict or prevent each failure?
7. Identify Failure Finding Tasks - What should be done
if a suitable proactive task cannot be found?
Functions & Performance Standards
Answers 1
st
question, What are the functions &
performance std of the asset in the operating
context?
RCM is regarded as TQM applied to physical asset
Primary functions, reason of acquiring the asset -
speed, capacity, product quality & customer service.
Secondary functions - safety, comfort, control,
economy, protection, efficiency, ease of operation,
compliance with regulations, structural integrity etc.
Every asset has more than one functions. If failure is
evident to the crew, then it is an evident function;
else a hidden function.
Segregate hidden functions from evident functions as
hidden functions need special handling. It is
associated with protective devices - not fail safe.
Initial Capability
Desired Performance
Margin for deterioration
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

Performance can be defined in two ways:
Desired performance (what the user want the asset to do)
Built-in capability (what it can do)
If an asset delivers the min. performance without deteriorating,
then there will be no need of maintenance. But any organized
system exposed to the real world will deteriorate; so, it should
be allowed for.
Initial capability (inherent reliability) of any asset is governed
by its design & manufacturing. Maintenance can not yield
reliability beyond that inherent in the design.
Maintenance ensures that the
capability remains above the
minimum std.
Functions & Performance Standards
Initial Capability
Desired Performance
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

Maintenance
cant raise the
capability above
this level.
maintenance
ensures that the
capability stays
above this level.
Maintenance
maintains the
capability in this
zone.
Maintainability
Maintainability - characteristic of design & installation. If
desired performance exceeds initial capability, then no
amount of maintenance can deliver it.
If so, either modify the equipment (change in process or
change in SOP) or lower our expectations & decide to live
with the problem.
FAILED says Prod manager
Equipment stops working
FAILED says Maint manager
High consumption of oil
FAILED says safety manager
Pool of oil (safety hazard)
Leak starts
Standard Setting
Time
C
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n

Functional Failures
Answers Q2, In what ways does it fail to fulfill its functions?
Failed states are known as functional failures as it happens
when the asset is unable to fulfill a function to a performance standard
acceptable to the user.
The performance std
of functional failure
will define the level of
proactive maint
required.
RCM Information Worksheet
Function
System: Cigarette packing machine
1


To pack 20 sticks into a
pack at a minimum rate
of 300 packs/minute.
A
B
C
D
It stops altogether.
It packs more than 20 sticks.
It packs less than 20 sticks.
It packs at a rate less than 300 packs/min
Functional Failure
Function
System: Crankshaft Grinding machine
1


To finish grind main
bearing journals in a
cycle time of 3.000.03
minutes to a diameter of
750.1 mm with a
surface finish of Ra 0.2
A
B
C
D
E
F
Completely unable to grind work piece.
Grinds work piece in a cycle time >3.03 mins
Grinds work piece in a cycle time <2.97 mins
Diameter exceeds 75.1 mm
Diameter is below 74.9 mm
Surface finish too rough.
Functional Failure
RCM Information Worksheet
Life
Impeller worn out age related failure. Manage this
failure by: changing impellers before end of useful life
Impeller jammed random failure. Manage this failure
by: installing screen in suction line.
Impeller adrift infant mortality due to poor
workmanship. Manage this failure by: training people to
fit impellers correctly.
Some failure modes are eliminated by redesign/training.
Failure Modes
Answers Q3, What causes each functional failure?
1. It is an event which causes a functional failure.
2. Include failures caused by normal wear & tear, human errors,
design flaws & manufacturing defects.
3. Maintenance is done at the failure mode level- failure modes &
corrective actions are recorded in a m/c history.
4. All failure modes shall be identified before they occur/recur.
Function
Functional Failures
(Loss of Function)
Failure Modes
(Cause of failure)
To transfer
water from
tank X to
tank Y @
800 lpm.
A. Unable to transfer
any water at all.
1. Bearing seizes
2. Impeller comes adrift
3. Impeller jam by foreign object
4. Coupling hub shears due to fatigue
5. Motor burns out
6. Inlet valve jam etc
B. Transfers less than
800 lpm.
1. Impeller worn
2. Suction line blocked partially..
System: Cooling Water Pumping System Sub-system:

Root Cause Analysis of failure modes shall be done in
enough detail to identify appropriate failure mgmt
policy. But, excessive detail can cause analysis paralysis.
The focus shall be on causes & not on symptoms.
Initial Capability
Desired Performance
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Capability drops after
it is put into service
1. When capability falls below desired performance level. The
5 principal causes of reduced capability are listed below:
A. Deterioration
B. Dirt
C. Lubrication failures
D. Disassembly
E. Human errors
Failure modes are classified into 3 groups:
1. Capability falls below desired performance level
2. Desired performance rises above initial capability
3. Capability is below desired performance level from the outset
Deterioration: it covers all forms of wear & tear, e.g. fatigue,
corrosion, abrasion, erosion, evaporation & vibration.
1
st
Category of Failure Mode Fall of Capability
Dirt: Most common - causes machine to block, stick, jam or
misalign. Dirt increases frictional resistance resulting in speed
losses & forced deterioration. Contamination by dirt in rotating or
sliding parts, air & oil pressure systems, electrical control systems,
sensors, etc. causes a drop in accuracy or mis-operation.
Lubrication failures: It is of 2 types; lack of lubrication & the
failure of lubricant itself. First is due to unfulfilled lubrication
requirement, second is caused by shearing of oil molecules,
oxidation of base oil, depletion of additives, contaminations etc.
A lubricant will fail if wrong one is used.
Human Errors: Timing, setting and adjustments incorrectly done
by maintenance personnel.
Disassembly: Components fall off machines, assemblies fall
apart or come adrift due to failure of welds, soldered joints,
rivets, threaded/electrical connections on a/c of fatigue or
corrosion.
2
nd
: Increase in desired performance
It occurs when the desired performance increases
such that the asset can no longer deliver it or
increase in stress accelerates deterioration such that
the asset becomes unreliable & effectively useless.
Such failures occur for four reasons, the first three of
which embody some kind of human error:
a) Sustained, deliberate overloading
b) Sustained, unintentional overloading
c) Sudden, unintentional overloading
d) Incorrect process material
Sustained, deliberate overloading: Occurs by speeding
up equipment in response to increased demand or
by using asset in a process with different
characteristics to avoid capital investment.
Sustained, unintentional overloading: While undertaking
de-bottlenecking program, a few small subsystems
or components get left out
2
nd
: Increase in desired performance
Desired performance
INITIAL CAPABILITY
Desired perf above initial
capability from the outset.
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

c) Sudden, unintentional overloading: Usually caused by
Incorrect operation (wrong operating parameters, work-
aids etc)
Incorrect assembly (over-torquing a bolt, wrong heads
etc.)
damage (during loading, unloading, transport &
installation)
Here, the applied stress exceeds beyond the ability of the
asset to withstand it.
d) Incorrect process material:
Caused by out of spec process
materials. These are not the
failure of the asset, but effect of
the failure elsewhere in the
system
Failure Effects
Answers Q4 - what happens when each failure
mode occurs. It describes how & whether the
failure will become evident to the crew (noise,
odor, smoke, leakage) & other information as
below:
How it affects operation & poses threat to safety?
What damage is caused by failure?
What should be done to repair the failure?
FAILURE MODE
FAILURE EFFECT
1
Gearbox
bearings
seize
Motor trips and alarm sounds in Powerhouse.
3 hrs downtime to replace gearbox with
spare. New bearings fitted in workshop.
2
Gear teeth
stripped.
Motor does not trip, but machine stops. 3 hrs
downtime to replace gearbox with spare.
New gears fitted in workshop.
FAILURE MODE
(Cause of failure)
FAILURE EFFECT
(What happens when it fails)
1
2
FUNCTION
FUNC FAILURE
(Loss of function)
To channel all
the hot flue gas
without
restriction to a
point 10 m
above the roof
of Power house
A
Unable to
channel the
gas at all.
1 Silencer
mountings
corroded.
Silencer assembly collapses & falls to
bottom of stack. Back pressure causes
the engine to surge violently & shut
down on high exhaust gas temperature.
Time to replace silencer -1 week
B Fails to
contain the
gas
1
Ducting
gasket fitted
improperly.
Gas escapes into DG room & ambient
temperature rises. No ventilation, so
concentration will reach noxious levels.
Leaking sound not audible due to noise.
Repair time 2 days
2
Upper bellows
holed by
corrosion
The upper bellows are outside the DG
room, so the leak will discharge to
atmosphere. Repair time 4 days.
To reduce
noise level
below 80
dB(A).
A Noise level
exceeds 80
dB (A).
1 Silencer
material
retaining mesh
corroded.
Most material would be blown out &
some will fall to bottom of stack causing
obstruction to outlet leading to increase
in gas temp & shutdown of engine.
Repair time 5 days.
System: DG Sub-system: Exhaust Info Worksheet
Failure Consequences
Answers Q5, In what ways, does each failure matter?
Failures having serious consequences shall be
prevented. Focus of RCM is not to avoid failures per se,
but to avoid/reduce the consequences of the failure.
While evaluating the failure consequence, identify the
hidden functions so that they are dealt with
appropriately.
Evident failures are classified into 3 categories in
descending order of importance as below:
1. Safety & environmental consequences - A failure has
safety consequences if it can hurt/kill somebody or
cause a breach of any corporate or statutory norms.
2. Operational consequences Affects production e.g.
output or quality in addition to repair cost.
3. Non-Operational consequences Involve only the cost
of repair.
RCM uses these categories in maintenance decision-
making.
Evident 2: Operational Consequences
Failures of primary function of an equipment will entail
operational consequences in 4 ways:
1. Affect Total Output:
2. Affect product quality: resulting in either rejection or rework.
3. Affect customer service: Late delivery or order cancellation
4. Increased operating costs: due to use of alternative process
or equipment which is costlier.
The economic impact of a failure depends 2 factors:
1. Failure cost each time it occurs on operational capability &
repair
2. How often it happens (Failure rate)
For failure modes with operational consequences, a
proactive task is justified if it costs less than the cost of the
operational consequences plus the repair cost.
Evident 3: Non-Operational Consequences
The consequences of an evident failure, (w/o adverse effect
on safety or operational capability) are classified as non
operational. The only consequences of these failures are the
direct cost of repair.
For failure modes with non operational consequences, a
proactive task is worth doing if justified by a cost-benefit study
& whether a failure causes secondary damage or not.
RCM tools help to eliminate counter-productive tasks &
reduce routine workload resulting into effective maint system.
Traditional system are based on technical characteristics, not
considering failure consequences leading to large numbers of
schedules which are wasted, not because they are wrong in
the technical sense, but because they achieve nothing.
Hidden Failure & Protective Devices
Protected Function
Protective Device
1: Failure of non-fail-safe
device not evident to the
operator
2: Protected function
operating without protection
Multiple
failure:
Protected
function
fails here.
TIME
A protective device is installed to alert the crew for abnormal
condition or shut down the eqpt in the event of a failure. It consists
of 2 components; a protective device & a protected function.
Fail-safe protective devices: If the failure of the device will
become evident to the crew. There are 2 failure possibilities to it. If
protected function fails, the protective device will function. If the
protective device fails, then it will be evident.
Non-fail-safe protective devices: In such a system, if the protective
device fails, no-one knows that it has failed, hence the failure
mode is hidden. In such situation, if the protected function also
fails, then it is known as Multiple Failure.
Hidden Failure & Protective Devices
Protected
Function
Protective
Device
One year
Availability 67%
Unavailability 33%
Probability of failure in any one year =
Probability of multiple failure in any one year = x 1/3 = 1/12
Probability of a
multiple failure
=
Failure probability of
protected function
X
Average unavailability of
protective device
Examples of hidden failures are level switches, fire
detection, fire alarm & fire fighting equipment,
emergency stop & trip wires, pressure & temp switches,
overload & over-speed protection devices, standby eqpt,
emergency power supply system etc. The tolerable
probability of a multiple failure is determined by the users.
The failure probability is the reciprocal of MTBF; e.g. if MTBF
is 4 years, then probability of failure in a year is .
Hidden Functions: The Decision Process
Will the loss of function caused by this failure mode become
evident to the operating crew?
No Yes
The failure is evident.
Refer corresponding
decision diagram
Proactive maintenance is worth doing
if it secures the availability needed to
reduce the probability of a multiple
failure to a tolerable level
If a suitable proactive task cannot be found, check
periodically whether the hidden function is working
(scheduled failure-finding task)
If a suitable failure-finding task could not be found:
redesign compulsory if multiple failure affects safety/environment
If the multiple does not affect safety or the environment, redesign
must be justified on economic grounds
Failure-finding Tasks
Tasks designed to check whether something works or
not are failure-finding/functional checking tasks; e.g.
checking of input/output devices in an automate -
also called detective tasks (does not fall under any of
preventive, predictive & corrective tasks) & applies to
hidden failures (only protective devices).
In an industry, 40% of failure modes fall into the hidden
category & PM programs address <1/3 of such devices
(that too on inappropriate intervals).
Failure-finding task intervals are governed by 2
variables unavailability & reliability (MTBF) of the
protective device.
FFI (Failure finding interval) = 2xUnavailabilityxMTBF
Task Selection by failure consequences
Will function loss
become evident
to the operator?
Does this failure
have safety
consequences?
Does this failure
have operational
consequences?
Y
Do proactive
maintenance
N
Do proactive
maintenance
if it reduces
the risk
Do proactive
maintenance if
cost effective wrt
repair cost &
operational losses
Do proactive
maintenance if
cost effective
wrt repair cost
N
N
Y
Y
If not
If not..
If not.. If not..
Do scheduled
Failure finding task
Redesign
Redesign
No scheduled
maintenance
Redesign Redesign
DEFAULT
ACTIONS
If not
No scheduled
maintenance
Failure Management Techniques
Answers Q6 & Q7 -what can be done to
predict/prevent each failure? & what if a suitable
predictive or preventive task could not be found?
1. Proactive Tasks: Undertaken to prevent an item against
failure. Traditionally known as preventive & predictive;
but, RCM uses the terms scheduled restoration
scheduled discard & on-condition maintenance.
Whether or not a proactive task is feasible depends on
the technical characteristics of the failure mode and of
the task. 2 issues dominate proactive task selection from
the technical viewpoint:
The relationship between the age of the item under
consideration & how likely it is to fail
What happens once a failure has started to occur
2. Default Actions: deal with the failed state & are chosen
when an effective proactive task is not identified. They
include failure-finding, redesign & run-to-failure.
Proactive Maintenance Tasks
Traditional maintenance refers to only 3 types of maintenance:
predictive, preventive & corrective. Corrective means fixing
things if the items are failing or failed.
1. Preventive means overhauling or replacing components
at fixed intervals for age-related failures (Pattern A, B & C)
regardless of its condition. Equivalent to Scheduled
Restoration & Discard tasks (collectively) of RCM.
2. Predictive Maintenance Eqvt to On-condition
maintenance of RCM - means checking if something is
failing as most failures give some warning that they are
about to occur, which are called Potential Failures.
There is a whole family of maintenance tasks, which falls into
none of the above categories; e.g. periodically activating
a fire alarm to see if it still works. They are known as failure-
finding tasks in RCM.
Proactive Tasks & Default Actions
Proactive tasks are divided into 3 categories:
1. Scheduled Restoration Tasks overhauling/rebuilding a
component at a specified age limit, regardless of its condition
2. Scheduled Discard tasks - discarding an item at a specified
life limit, regardless of its condition. Collectively, these 2 tasks
are known as Preventive Maintenance or Time Based
Maintenance (TBM).
3. Scheduled on-condition Tasks - also called Condition Based
Maintenance (CBM).
RCM recognizes 3 major categories of default actions:
1. Failure-Finding: Checking hidden functions for whether they
have failed (on-condition task checks if something is failing)
2. Redesign: one-off change for capability, process etc.
3. Run-to-Failure: failures are allowed to occur & then repaired.
Average Life
18 months
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

o
f

f
a
i
l
u
r
e

Age
Useful Life
C
o
n
d
.

P
r
o
b
.

o
f

f
a
i
l
u
r
e

Age
Frequency of failure
Useful Life
12 months
Few premature
failures
If the failure mode conforms to pattern A or B, Scheduled
Restoration task is done at the intervals slightly less than the
useful life of the item; e.g. re-treading of tyres.
In case of pattern C, at least 4 different restoration intervals
need to be analyzed to determine the optimum interval.
Technical feasibility of Scheduled Restoration:
-The items have a defined life & they survive to this age.
-The task must restore the original resistance to failure.
Scheduled Restoration Tasks (SR)
Scheduled Restoration Tasks (SR)
Even if Scheduled Restoration is feasible technically, it may
not be worth doing as some failures will receive attention
before they need it based on useful life, while others will still
fail early.
The net effect may be only an overall reduction in the no.
of unanticipated failures, which is not acceptable if the
failure has safety consequences. If consequences are
economic, then the task may not be cost effective as an
age limit lowers the service life of any item.
For the failures with operational consequences only, Sch.
Restoration task will be beneficial on below grounds:
if scheduled during non-production hours.
saving time by doing it in a planned way
For failures with non-operational consequences,
scheduled restoration will be justified if the failure
causes secondary damage.
Lets consider an age-related failure of a turbine.
Cracks in turbine discs become detectable after
certain period, which is crack initiation life (to
decide when we start doing the on-condition tasks)
& the time from crack is detectable till it fails is
known as crack propagation life (to decide
frequency of on-condition tasks).
Scheduled Restoration Tasks (SR)
Preventive: Scheduled Discard (SD)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Age
C
o
n
d
.

P
r
o
b
.

O
f

f
a
i
l
u
r
e

Safe
Life
Limit
Failures
start
Scheduled Discard means replacing a component by a new one
at pre-set intervals if it has a life. For this, RCM recognizes 2 types
of life limits, first apply to failures with safety consequences, & are
called safe-life limits. For rest, economic-life limits apply.
Safe-life limits: The function of a safe-life limit is to avoid a critical
failure - worth doing if no failures occur before this limit; (i.e. if
probability of failure is zero when the item enters service). It can
not apply to pattern A, as some failures will occur due to infant
mortality. In practice, it is obtained by dividing the average life
by 3 or 4 as an arbitrary factor.
Economic-life limits: Based on
age reliability relationship. Often
SD is justifiable on economic
grounds; I.e. secondary damage
of costly components.
New techniques & Potential Failures
failure starts (age related
& random both)
Potential failure
P
F
Functional failure
Time
The P-F Curve
New techniques to detect potential failures rely on the fact
that most failures give some warning that it is failing. Potential
Failure is a physical condition that indicate a functional failure
is about to occur. They are called On-Condition Tasks.
P-F curve shows how a failure starts, deteriorates to the point
P, and if not corrected, continues to the point of F.
The P-F interval is the period between P & F, also known as
warning period, lead time to failure or failure dev. period.
On-condition tasks must be done at intervals less than P-F
interval, otherwise the failure may be missed out.
P
F
Time
Too high a task frequency is a waste of resources. A task frequency
equal to half the P-F interval is optimum.
The net P-F interval is 5 weeks if the inspection interval is 1 week, but
the net P-F interval will be only 2 weeks if inspection interval is 4
weeks. The net P-F interval is the time available to take corrective
actions to reduce the consequences of the failure in following ways:
Downtime: Corrective action is planned when it does not disrupt
operations. The repair time will be less due to planning.
Repair Cost: Can be reduced by taking action before a
secondary damage takes place; e.g. switch a machine off before a
collapsing bearing allows a rotor to touch the stator.
P-F interval
6 weeks
Inspection
interval 4 week
Net P-F
interval
2 weeks
Potential Failures
The net P-F interval is the time
between the discovery of a
potential failure & the
functional failure.
P
F
Time
Longer P-F intervals are desired for two reasons:
The time required to take any sensible action to avoid or
reduce the consequences of the failure will be available &
hence an on-condition task will become technically feasible.
Fewer on-condition inspection will be required.
In some cases, the P-F intervals vary widely. In such cases,
task intervals shall be substantially less than shortest of the
likely P-F intervals. If the P-F interval is wildly inconsistent, then
a meaningful task interval is not feasible & some other
means of dealing with the failure shall be explored.
Longest P-F
interval
Shortest
intrvl
Potential Failures
P-F curve suggests that
deterioration accelerates in the
final stages, the phenomenon is
explained in the example of
ball bearing failure due to
normal wear & tear.
Linear P-F Curves: Determining P-F Interval
Tread depth
new = 12 mm
PF = 3 mm
F. Failure = 2 mm
Tyre Tread X-section
F
P
0 10 20 30 40 50
Operating age (in 1000 km)
P-F interval, 10000 km (say)
P-F interval & the task frequency can be deduced as above
for linear deterioration, but if deterioration accelerates, then P-
F interval can not be determined in this manner.
Deterioration accelerates at the final stages of most failures; e.g.
when bolts loosen, filters get blinded, V-belts slacken & slip, elec
contactors overheat, seals fail, rotors get unbalanced & so on. If
an item deteriorates in a linear fashion over its entire life, then final
stages of deterioration (between P & F) will also be linear, for age-
related failures (except fatigue, which is a complex case).
Like tyre example,
finding P-F interval
for age-related
failures with linear
deterioration is fairly
simple.
On-Condition Tasks
Scheduled on-condition tasks are technically feasible if:
It is possible to define a clear PF condition
The P-F interval is reasonably consistent
A Task Interval <P-F Interval is practical
The net P-F interval is long enough to take action to
reduce/eliminate the consequences of the FF
OOn-condition tasks apply to items that fail on random
basis, as well as to those that fail on age basis.
OCondition monitoring is technically feasible for 20% of
failure modes & worth doing in <
1
/
2
of these cases. All 4
categories of on-condition tasks together are suitable
for about 25-35% of failure modes.
Categories: On-Condition Techniques
The 4 major categories of on-condition techniques are:
1. Condition monitoring techniques - using specialized
eqpt
2. Techniques based on product quality variation
3. Primary effects monitoring techniques - intelligent use
of gauges & process monitoring eqpt
4. Inspection techniques based on human senses
Condition Monitoring: These techniques detect potential
failure effects such as vibration, temp, pressure etc,
which are classified under following heads:
Dynamic effects Particle effects Chemical effects
Physical effects Temp effects Electrical effects
Condition Monitoring
Dynamic effects: associated with rotating eqpt that emits
abnormal amounts of energy in the waveform such as
vibration, pulses & acoustic effects.
Particle effects: detects PF by discrete particles of different
sizes & shapes released into the operating environment.
Chemical effects: detects PF by tracing chemical released
into the environment.
Physical effects: By changes in the physical appearance or
structure of the eqpt in the form of cracks, fracture,
visible effect of wear & dimensional changes etc.
Temperature effects: For PF that cause a rise in the temp of
the eqpt itself (as opposed to a rise in the temp of the
material being processed by the eqpt).
Electrical effects: For changes in resistance, conductivity,
dielectric strength, potential etc.
On-Condition Techniques: Product Quality Variation
Upper specification limit
Upper control limit
Lower specification limit
Lower control limit
Primary Effects Monitoring
speed, flow rate, pressure,
temp, power, current etc
are source of information
about eqpt condition.
By human senses (look, listen, feel & smell) - Highly versatile, as it
can detect variety of failure conditions, unlike instruments which
can detect only one parameter. Disadvantage - can detect
failures, when deterioration is quite advanced, & hence P-F
intervals are very short. It will be subjective also & depend upon
the state of mind of observer.
In some processes, a source of data about PF is Quality Mgmt
Function. Defect in a product is related to the failure mode of the
m/c. SPC is used to assess stability of a process by measuring,
plotting & computing physical attributes of a product.
Selecting right on-condition tasks
P1
F
Time
Failure modes are preceded by more than one PF; each will
have a different P-F interval requiring different type & level of skill.
A ball bearing with failure mode bearing seizes due to normal
wear & tear with variety of potential failures as given below.
Whether a technique is technically feasible & worth-doing,
depends on operating context; :
bearing may be buried deep that it is impossible to monitor
vibration characteristics.
bearing housing may not be reachable to check how hot it is.
particle detection is possible in an enclosed Lub. system only.
P2
P3
P4
Change in vibration by Vibration
Analysis P-F interval 1-9 months
Particles can be detected by oil
analysis P-F interval 1-6 months
Audible noise P-F interval 1-4 weeks
Heat (by touch) P-F
interval 1-5 days
Functional failure (bearing seizes)
noise may not be audible
due to high background
noise level.
Infrared Thermography
O Airborne Ultrasonics
O Oil Analyses
-Spectrometric wear particle analysis
-Ferrography
O Vibration Analyses
-Laser Alignment
-Precision Balancing
Predictive Maintenance
Technologies
Selecting Right Proactive Tasks
In the example of tyre, it was seen that all tyres last 50000-80000
km. If a scheduled restoration is adopted, all the tyres would
be retreaded at 50000 km, which is useful life. But, many
tyres will be retreaded before it is needed - those which will
last 80000 km, losing 30000 km of life.
If we adopt on condition task by checking tread depth at the
interval of 2500 km, an average of 65000 km will be achieved
with an increase in useful life of 30%. So, on-condition tasks
are cost effective over scheduled restoration.
The order of selecting proactive tasks are as follows:
1. On-condition tasks shall be considered first, because:
- They can be performed while the eqpt is in operation.
- realizes almost all of its useful life (example of tyre).
- Knowing PF, the corrective action can be planned well.
Selecting Right Proactive Tasks
2. Scheduled restoration tasks: next choice, if technically
feasible, i.e. failures congregate around an average age.
For economic consequences, cost effectiveness must be
assessed. Scheduled restoration is more conservative than
discard, as it involves restoring things instead of throwing
away. It involves shop work & hence higher work load. The
demerits are:
- They can be done usually when the equipment is stopped.
- Age limit applies to all items, hence those, which would
have lasted longer will also be removed (example of tyre).
3. Scheduled discard tasks: Least cost-effective of all
proactive tasks, but it bears few desirable features. Safe-life
limit may prevent certain critical failures, while an
economic life limit will optimize cost-effectiveness. They
bear all the demerits of scheduled restoration tasks.
Task Selection Process
Is an on-condition task technically feasible and worth doing?
Yes
Do the on-condition task at an
interval less than P-F interval
No
Is a scheduled restoration
task technically feasible &
worth doing?
Do the scheduled
restoration task at an
interval less than age limit
Yes
Is a scheduled discard task
technically feasible & worth-doing?
No
Do the scheduled discard task
at an interval less than age limit
Default action depending
upon failure consequences
Yes No
4. Combination of tasks: For some failures with safety
consequences, a combination of tasks from two categories,
e.g. on-condition & scheduled discard, will reduce the risk of
failure to a tolerable level.
Default Actions
If a proactive task can not be found to reduce the risk of
the multiple failure of a hidden function, then a periodic
Failure-Finding task must be performed, if the same is not
found, then the secondary default decision is redesign.
For failures with safety consequences, if a proactive task
is not found, then a periodic Failure-Finding task must be
performed, if the same is not found, then redesign.
For failures with operational or non-operational
consequences, if a proactive task can not be found,
which costs less than the failure, then the initial default
decision is no scheduled maintenance. But, still if the
operational consequences or repair cost are
unacceptable, then the secondary default decision is
redesign.
Redesign as the Default Action
Redesign means a once-off change in any of the following 3 areas:
A change to the physical configuration of an asset or system
A change to a process or operating procedure
A change to the capability of a person, Training
Redesign appears at the bottom of all 4 columns of decision
diagram.
Hidden Failures: The risk of multiple failures can be reduced by
modifying the equipment in one of four ways as below:
1. Substitute by an evident function: Substitution of a non-fail-safe
protective device with a genuinely fail-safe one
2. Make the hidden function evident by adding another device
3. Substitute by a more reliable device (with higher MTBF, but still
hidden): probability of the MF reduced if FFI is constant.
3. Duplicate the hidden function: If a protective device with high
MTBF, it can be done by duplicating the hidden function.
RCM Decision Diagrams
RCM Decision Diagram integrates all the decision
process into a single strategic framework in the from
of RCM Decision Worksheet, which is applied to
each of the failure modes listed on the RCM Info
Worksheet.
RCM worksheets show course of action taken to
deal with each failure mode. This info is valuable if
the need to do any task is challenged at any time.
The ability to trace each task right back to the
functions and desired performance standard of an
asset makes it easy to assess the effectiveness of
maintenance program.
RCM Decision
Diagram - H
Will function loss become
evident to the operator?
Y
N
Is an on-condition task technically
feasible and worth doing?
Yes
on-condition task
No
Is a scheduled restoration task
technically feasible and worth doing?
scheduled
restoration task
Yes
Is a scheduled discard task technically
feasible and worth doing?
No
scheduled
discard task
Yes No
Is a failure finding task technically
feasible & worth doing
H
H1
H2
H3
H4
Yes
No
Scheduled Failure
finding task
Does Multiple failure have
safety consequences?
H5
Yes
Redesign
compulsory
No
No scheduled maint
S
RCM Decision
Diagram-S
Does the failure have safety &
environment consequences?
Is an on-condition task technically
feasible and worth doing?
Yes
On-condition task
No
Is a scheduled restoration task
technically feasible and worth doing?
Scheduled restoration task
Yes
Is a scheduled discard task technically
feasible and worth doing?
No
Scheduled discard task
Yes
No
Is a combination of tasks
technically feasible & worth doing
S
S1
S2
S3
S4
Yes No
Combination tasks Redesign compulsory
From H
Yes
No
O
RCM Decision
Diagram -O
Does the failure have
Operational Consequences?
Is an on-condition task technically
feasible and worth doing?
Yes
Scheduled On-condition task
No
Is a scheduled restoration task
technically feasible and worth doing?
Scheduled restoration task
Yes
Is a scheduled discard task technically
feasible and worth doing?
No
Scheduled discard task
Yes No
No scheduled maintenance
O
O1
O2
O3
Redesign desirable
From S
Yes No
N

RCM Decision
Diagram-N
Is an on-condition task technically
feasible and worth doing?
Yes
Scheduled On-condition task
No
Is a scheduled restoration task
technically feasible and worth doing?
Scheduled
restoration task
Yes
Is a scheduled discard task technically
feasible and worth doing?
No
Scheduled
discard task
Yes No
No scheduled
maintenance
N1
N2
N3
Redesign
desirable
From O
No
FAILURE MODE
(Cause of failure)
FAILURE
EFFECT
1
FUNCTION
FUNC FAILURE
(Loss of function)
A
1
2
3
4
System: Sub-system:
RCM Info Worksheet
System:
Sub-system:
Facilitator
Auditor
Date:
Sheet #
RCM Decision Worksheet
Information
Reference
F FF FM
Consequence
Evaluation
H S O
H1
S1
O1
N1
H2
S2
O2
N2
H3
S3
O3
N3
H4 H5 S4
Default
Action
By
Initial
Interval
Proposed
Task
To transfer
water from tank
X to tank Y @
800 lpm.

Bearing seizes by normal wear /tear
Impeller comes adrift
Impeller jam by foreign object
Coupling hub shears due to fatigue
Unable to
transfer any
water at all.
1 A 1
Cross-referring the information & decision worksheet
RCM Decision Worksheet & RCM Info Worksheet are 2 key documents
used in RCM. The decision worksheet is divided into 15 columns.
RCM Decision Worksheet
Information
Reference
F FF FM
Consequence
Evaluation
H S O
H1
S1
O1
N1
H2
S2
O2
N2
H3
S3
O3
N3
H4 H5 S4
Default
Action
By
Initial
Interval
Proposed
Task
3 A 1 N
A hidden failure
2 C 4 Y Y
Safety & environment consequences
1 A 3 Y N Y Operational consequences
1 B 2 Y N N Non-Operational consequences
Failure Consequences A summary
The columns F, FF & FM identify the failure mode & next 9 columns refer
to the questions on the RCM Decision Diagram as below:
Col H, S & O record the answers on consequences of failure mode.
Next 3 columns record whether a proactive task has been selected.
Next 3 columns H4, H5 & S4 answer default questions, if necessary.
Each failure mode is dealt with one category of consequences only. If
Y is recorded in column S, nothing is recorded in column O.
RCM Decision Worksheet
Information
Reference
F FF FM
Consequence
Evaluation
H S O
H1
S1
O1
N1
H2
S2
O2
N2
H3
S3
O3
N3
H4 H5 S4
Default
Action
By
Initial
Interval
Proposed task
3 A 1 N Y
1 A 3 Y N Y N Y
1 B 2 Y N N N N Y
Technical feasibility criteria
Scheduled on-condition task: Is there a clear
potential failure condition? What is it? What is the
P-F interval. Is this interval long enough to be of
any use? Is the P-F interval reasonably consistent? Is
it practical to monitor the item at intervals less than
P-F interval?
Scheduled Restoration Task: Is there an age at which
there is a rapid increase in the conditional probability
of failure? What is this age? Do most of the items
survive to this age? Is it possible to restore the original
resistance to the item?
Scheduled Discard Task: same as scheduled
restoration task.
Preventive & Predictive maintenance task intervals are governed by one variable each,
useful life & P-F interval. But, two variables availability & reliability of the protective
device are used to set failure-finding intervals.
RCM Decision Worksheet
Information
Reference
F FF FM
Consequence
Evaluation
H S O
H1
S1
O1
N1
H2
S2
O2
N2
H3
S3
O3
N3
H4 H5 S4
Default
Action
By
Initial
Interval
Proposed task
3 A 1 N N N N Y
The Default Questions
Is failure-finding task technically
feasible & worth doing?
Is Combination Task technically
feasible & worth doing? If N, redesign
is compulsory.
Here, the consequences of the failure
are purely economic & no suitable
preventive task has been found &
hence initial default decision is Run-
to-Failure, but redesign may be
desirable.
3 A 1 N N N N N Y
3 A 1 N N N N N N
Can the multiple failure affect safety
or environment? This is only asked if
H4 is NO. If H5 is Y, redesign is
compulsory; if N, then Run-to-Failure.
3 A 1 Y N N N N N Y
3 A 1 Y Y N N N N N N
3 A 1 Y N Y N N N
3 A 1 Y N N N N N
System: Sub-system: Date:
RCM Decision Worksheet
Information
Reference
F FF FM
Consequence
Evaluation
H S O
H1
S1
O1
N1
H2
S2
O2
N2
H3
S3
O3
N3 H4 H5 S4
Default
Action
By
Initial
Interval
Proposed
Task
STAND-ALONE PUMP
1 A 1 Y N Y Y
Check main pump
bearing for noise
Weekly Tech.
DUTY PUMP WITH STAND-BY
1 A 1 Y N N N N N
No scheduled
maintenance
STAND-BY PUMP
2 A 1 N N N N Y
Switch on stand-by
pump & ensure it is
working. After testing,
switch back duty
pump.
4 weeks Optr
The first 2 pumps could suffer from many more failure modes. Each of
these failures would be listed & analyzed on its own merits. A number of
other preventive tasks could have been chosen to anticipate the failure
of the bearing. The stand-by pump is treated as black-box. If it suffers
from some failure modes, they shall be analyzed individually.
Implementing RCM
Proposed Task
Interval
Done By
Check coupling bolts
No scheduled maintenance
Redesign guard
Check gearbox oil level
Calibrate gauge
Check tension of drive chain
Monthly


Weekly
Annually
Monthly
Tech


Optr
E&I tech
Tech
1
Audit Decision
Worksheet
3
Identify
Once-Off
Changes
2
Detail Out
Task
Instruction
Maintenance
Schedules
Operating
Procedures
4
Conversion to Work packages
Implement
Once Off
Changes
Std Operating
Procedures
Planning &
Control Sys for
Maint Schedules
5
Implement Sys which ensures that the work is done
Routine tasks &
change in process or
operating procedure
are incorporated into
appropriate work
packages.
To be ensured that it is
performed by the right
people at the right
time in right manner.
Maintenance Schedules
Task interval
on decision
worksheet
Weekly
2-Weekly
Weekly
Interval on
maint
schedule
Monthly
6-weekly
2-monthly
Monthly
3-monthly
4-monthly
3-monthly
6-monthly
9-monthly
6-monthly
Low-frequency schedules: at intervals
of a month or longer. Have higher work
content & need complex planning.
High frequency schedules: at intervals
up to 1 week consisting on-condition &
failure-finding tasks - have low work
content & the planning is simple.
As they exist in large numbers, it is often
administered badly, but, they are
backbone of a maintenance program.
If a wide range of different task intervals appear on a decision
worksheet, they should be consolidated into a smaller number
of work packages. Planning is simplified if schedule intervals are
multiple of one another.
Maintenance Planning & Control
The options used to manage both types of schedules are:
- Schedules done by operators
- Schedules done by quality function
- High-freq schedules by maint. function
- Low-freq schedules by maint. function
1. Schedules done by operators: Use operators to do high
frequency tasks by incorporating them into SOP/Work
Instructions of the equipment. Operators are ideal people
to do high-frequency on-condition & failure finding task. It
will motivate the operators.
2. Quality checks must be recognized as a valid and valuable
source of maintenance information, wherever applicable.
Maintenance Planning & Control
Item # Description Schedule
Sec: S. Automate To be done by: SK
Week ending date: Feb 25
Checklist
S M T W T F S Remarks
F-01 Pocket setter DPA-01
G-01
Cuff Runstitch - 01
DRS-02
G-01
Cuff Runstitch - 01
DRS-03
G-02
Cuff Runstitch - 02
DRS-02
Cuff Runstitch - 02
DRS-03
High-frequency schedules done by maintenance function: One
approach is to divide the plant into sections, & prepare a
checklist consisting of schedules (& not individual task) as
depicted above, which is to be issued once/section/week.
A problem with most checklist systems is the tearoom tick
syndrome, which must be avoided by close supervision.
G-02
What RCM can achieve
1. Greater Safety & Environmental integrity
By systematic review of the safety implications of every
evident failure before operational issues
By structured approach to protected/hidden functions &
failure finding - reduces probability of multiple failures.
Overall reduction in the number & frequency of routine
tasks (especially those which upset a stable system)
2. Higher Plant Availability & Reliability
by systematic review of the operational consequences of
every failure to identify & eliminate chronic failures
Emphasis on on-condition tasks to detect potential failures
to avoid a functional failure & reduce the frequency of
overhauls. (If failure is not age related, no routine overhaul).
What RCM can achieve
3. Higher Maintenance Efficiency (cost-
effectiveness)
40 - 70% Less workload compared to conventional routine
Emphasis on on-condition tasks also entail Cost-effectiveness.
Longer eqpt life it enables an asset to last till the basic structure is
intact.
4. Greater Motivation & better teamwork
systematic approach enhances competence & higher job satisfaction
conducive environment by clear understanding of issues & goals
5. Comprehensive maintenance database RCM
Information & Decision Worksheets provide
following benefits:
Reduces the impact of staff turnover
An audit trail for compliance issues
an expert system in its own right, if computerized database is
available for sorting & other analysis.
provides a framework to deal with maint issues & improvement
programs.
RCM What it can achieve
- A 16% increase in total output achieved in a 24-hour
7-day milk processing plant in 6 months through RCM
review.
- The overhaul interval of a gas turbine were increased
from 25000 to 40000 hours without sacrificing reliability.
- An electronic assembly operation used RCM to
reduce scrap rates from 4000 to 50 parts per million.
- A 50% reduction in the routine maintenance workload
in a confectionary plant
- 50% reduction in the routine maint reqmnt of 11 kV
transformers in an electrical distribution system
- 85% reduction in the routine maint reqmnt of large
hydraulic system
- 62% reduction in low frequency tasks in a machining
line of an automotive engine plant.
Pillar 4: Quality Maintenance
Aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through
defect free manufacturing
Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner,
much like Focused Improvement
Gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product
quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, then move
to potential quality concerns
Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality
Assurance)
QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality
defects, based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect
equipment to maintain perfect quality of products
The condition are checked and measure in time series to very that
measure values are within standard values to prevent defects
The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities
of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand.
QUALITY MAINTENANCE
Maintain perfect equipment condition to maintain perfect
quality of processed goods
The q-components are checked periodically & ensured that
measured values are within standard to prevent defects.
The transition of measured values is monitored to predict
possibilities of defects & take countermeasures beforehand.
Achieve ZERO DEFECT by identifying all the factors that
causes defects
Implementing Poka-Yoke to eliminate man & materials-
caused defects.
Defect free conditions & control of equipments
QM activities to support quality assurance

Data Required - Q Maintenance
O Rejection: customer end & in-house
O Customer End: Customer end rejection & Field
complaints.
O In-house: Rejection data - products and process
Process related data- QM
1. The operating condition for individual sub-process
related to men, method, material and machine
2. The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process
3. The actual record of the settings/conditions during
the defect occurrence
Data related to product - QM
1. Product wise defects
2. Severity of the defect and its contribution
major/minor
3. Location of the defect with reference to the layout
4. Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each
stage of measurement
5. Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each
production/process/changes (Like pattern change,
ladle/furnace lining etc.)
6. Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of
breakdown/modifications/periodical replacement of
quality components
The use of process or design features to prevent
errors or their negative impact.
Known as Poka yoke, Japanese slang for avoiding
inadvertent errors, formalized by Shigeo Shingo.
Inexpensive.
Very effective.
Based on simplicity and ingenuity.
Does not rely on operators catching mistakes
What is Mistake Proofing?
1-10-100 Rule
The 1-10-100 rule states that as a product or service
moves through the production system, the cost of
correcting an error multiplies by 10.
Activity Cost
Order entered correctly $ 1
Error detected in billing $ 10
Error detected by customer $ 100
Dissatisfied customer shares the experience with
others
The difficulties with human error:
Why existing tools are not enough
The old way of dealing with human error was to scold
people, retrain them, and tell them to be more careful
The fact is that you cant do much to change human
nature, and people are going to make mistakes. If you
cant tolerate them ... you should remove the
opportunities for error.
Training and motivation work best when the physical part
of the system is well-designed. If you train people to use
poorly designed systems, theyll be OK for awhile.
Eventually, theyll go back to what theyre used to or
whats easy, instead of whats safe.
Youre not going to become world class through just
training, you have to improve the system so that the easy
way to do a job is also the safe, right way. The potential
for human error can be dramatically reduced.
Be more careful vs. effective
Poor procedures or standards.
Machines.
Non-conforming material.
Worn tooling.
Human Mistakes.
What Causes Defects?
Except for human mistakes these conditions can be
predicted & corrective action can be implemented to
eliminate the cause of defects.
1. Design Robust quality processes to achieve zero
defects.
2. Utilize a Team Environment - leverage the teams
knowledge, experience to enhance the improvement
efforts.
3. Elimination of Errors - Utilize a robust problem solving
methodology to drive defects towards zero.
4. Eliminate the Root Cause of The Errors-Use the 5
Whys and 2 Hs approach.
5. Do It Right The First Time - Utilizing resources to perform
functions correctly the first time.
6. Eliminate Non-Value Added Decisions - Dont make
excuses - just do it !
7. Implement an Incremental Continual Improvement
Approach implement improvement actions
immediately and focus on incremental improvements;
efforts do not have to result in a 100% improvement
immediately.
7 Ways to Poka Yoke Attainment
Poka Yoke Systems Govern the Process
Common Mistake proofing Devices
Guide Pins Blinking lights & alarms
Limit switches Proximity switches
Counters Checklists
Two Poka Yoke System approaches are utilized in
manufacturing which lead to successful zero defect
systems:
1. Control Approach - Shuts down the process when an error
occurs. Keeps the suspect part in place when an
operation is incomplete.
2. Warning Approach - Signals the operator to stop the
process & correct the problem.
Poka yoke systems consist of three primary methods: Contact,
Counting & Motion-Sequence
1. Each method can be used in a control system or a warning
system.
2. Each method uses a different process prevention approach for
dealing with irregularities.
Methods for Using Poka yoke
E Used when a fixed number of operations are required within
a process, or when a product has a fixed number of parts
that are attached to it.
E A sensor counts the number of times a part is used or a
process is completed and releases the part only when the
right count is reached.
Counting Method
Do not have to be high tech!
Passive devices are sometimes the best method.
These can be as simple as guide pins or blocks
that do not allow parts to be seated in the wrong
position prior to processing.
Take advantage of parts designed with an uneven
shape!
A work piece with a hole a bump or an uneven
end is a perfect candidate for a passive jig. This
method signals to the operator right away that the
part is not in proper position.
Contact Methods
3 Rules of POKA-YOKE
Dont wait for the perfect POKA YOKE. Do it now!
If your POKA YOKE idea has better than 50%
chance to succeedDo it!
Do it now.improve later!
Best is the enemy of the good. When we find the
perfection, we do not try further.
Pillar 5: Training
It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose
morale is high and who has eager to come to work and
perform all required functions effectively and independently
Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not
sufficient to know only "Know-How" by they should also learn
"Know-why".
It become necessary to train the operators on knowing "Know-
why".
The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases
of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The
different phase of skills are
Phase 1 : Do not know.
Phase 2 : Know the theory but cannot do.
Phase 3 : Can do but cannot teach
Phase 4 : Can do and also teach
Policy - Training
1. Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques
2. Creating a training environment for self learning based on felt
needs
3. Training curriculum / tools /assessment etc conductive to
employee revitalization
4. Training to remove employee fatigue & make work enjoyable
Target - Training
1. Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero
on critical machines
2. Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge
/ skills / techniques
3. Aim for 100 % participation in suggestion scheme
Steps in
Educating & Training activities
1. Setting policies and priorities and checking
present status of education and training
2. Establish of training system for operation &
maintenance skill up gradation
3. Training the employees for upgrading the
operation & maintenance skills
4. Preparation of training calendar
5. Kick-off of the system for training
6. Evaluation of activities & study of future
approach
Pillar 6: Office TPM
Office TPM should be started after activating four
other pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM, PM).
Office TPM must be followed to improve
productivity, efficiency in the administrative
functions and identify and eliminate losses
This includes analyzing processes & procedures
towards increased office automation

Office TPM Addresses 12 Major Losses:
1. Processing loss
2. Cost loss including in areas such as procurement,
accounts, marketing, sales leading to high
inventories
3. Communication loss
4. Idle loss
5. Set-up loss
6. Accuracy loss
7. Office equipment breakdown
8. Communication channel breakdown, telephone
and fax lines
9. Time spent on retrieval of information
10.Non availability of correct on line stock status
11.Customer complaints due to logistics
12.Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases
How to start office TPM
1. A senior person should head the sub-committee
2. Cross-functional members should be included in sub
committee
3. TPM co-ordinate plans & guides the sub committee
4. Provide awareness about office TPM to all support
departments
5. Help them to identify P, Q, C, D, S, M in each function in
relation to plant performance
6. Identify the scope for improvement in each function
7. Collect relevant data
8. Help them to solve problems in their circles
9. Make up an activity board where progress is monitored on
both sides results & actions along with Kaizens
10. Fan out to cover all employees & circles in all functions
Kobetsu Kaizen for Office TPM
Inventory reduction
Lead time reduction of critical processes
Motion & space losses
Retrieval time reduction
Equalizing the work load
Improving the office efficiency by eliminating the
time loss on retrieval of information, by achieving
zero breakdown of office equipment like
telephone and fax lines
Office TPM & its Benefits
Involvement of all people in support functions for focusing on better
plant performance
Better utilized work area
Reduce repetitive work
Reduced inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain
Reduced administrative costs
Reduced inventory carrying cost
Reduction in number of files
Reduction of overhead costs (to include cost of non-production/non
capital equipment)
Productivity of people in support functions
Reduction in breakdown of office equipment
Reduction of customer complaints due to logistics
Reduction in expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases
Reduced manpower
Clean and pleasant work environment
P Q C D S M in Office TPM
P Production loss due to want of material, Manpower
productivity, Production output lost due to want of tools.
Q Mistakes in cheques, bills, invoices, payroll, Customer
returns/warranty attributable to BOPs, Rejection/rework in
BOPs/job work, Office area rework.
C Buying cost/unit produced, logistics Cost inbound/
outbound, inventory carrying Cost, communication Cost,
Demurrage costs.
D Logistics losses (Delay in loading/unloading)
Delay in delivery due to any of the support functions
Delay in payments to suppliers
Delay in information
S Safety in material handling/stores/logistics, soft & hard
data.
M Number of kaizens in office areas
How Office TPM supports Plant TPM
1. Office TPM supports the plant, initially in doing Jishu
Hozen of the machines (after getting training of
Jishu Hozen), as in Jishu Hozen at the
2. Initial stages machines are more and manpower is
less, so the help of commercial departments can
be taken, for this
3. Office TPM can eliminate the lodes on line for no
material and logistics
Pillar 7: Safety, Health & Environment
Area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a
surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or
procedures
This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars
on a regular basis
A committee constitutes which comprises of representative
of officers as well as workers
Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant.
Manager (Safety) is looking after functions related to safety
To create awareness among employees various
competitions like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc.
related to safety can be organized at regular intervals
Target
1. Zero accident
2. Zero health damage
3. Zero fires
EToday, with competition in industry at an all time high, TPM
may be the only thing that stands between success and
total failure for some companies.
EIt has been proven to be a program that works
EEmployees must be educated and convinced that TPM is
not just another "program of the month" and that
management is totally committed to the program and the
extended time frame necessary for full implementation
EIf everyone involved in a TPM program does his or her part,
an unusually high rate of return compared to resources
invested may be expected.
Resources Required
to
implement TPM
Budget for:
Initial familiarization & training
Equipment restoration
Upgraded toolkits
Time of managers & other employees
The Maintenance Mission
To preserve the functions of physical assets
throughout their technologically useful lives
- to the satisfaction of their owners & users
- by selecting & applying the most cost-effective
techniques
- in managing failures & their consequences
- with the active support of all the people involved.
Maintenance System
Adopt a proactive maintenance operation employing
Planned/scheduled maintenance activities thru
TPM practices & RCM strategies by self-managed teams, using
5S processes, Kaizen events & autonomous maintenance with
multi-skilled technicians through the use of
CMMS (ERP) supported by a
lean storeroom, which provides parts/materials on a
just-in-time (JIT) basis & backed by a
reliability engineering resource that performs
-RCFA, (PdM) analysis, failed part analysis,
-maintenance procedure effectiveness analysis &
-trend analysis.
Maintenance Strategy
THE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT PYRAMID
Elements Of Maintenance Excellence
Maintenance
Excellence
TPM
Reliability
Engineering
Eqpt Data Base
Tasks/Procedures
RCFA, Trend
Analysis
Planning &
Scheduling
CMMS
PdM
CBM
Lean Stores
Training
Multi-skilling
RCM
Identify eqpt functions, performance standard & corresponding functional failures
Identify corresponding failure modes, failure effect & failure consequences
Identify Failure mgmt tech for each failure mode & task frequency
Compile tasks into work packages; SOP & maintenance schedules
Implement maint mgmt systems to manage the
resources.
WO system, Visual Control & CMMS.
Involve all
employee thru
TPM for
prevention at
source
Establish Basic
Eqpt Conditions
thru JH
Condition
Monitoring
Tools
Multi-skilled
technicians

Identify resources
reqd. to fulfill
those maint.
requirements
(people & skill,
spares, tools &
instruments)
1. TPM: It is a team based maintenance initiative involving every
level & function in the organization to prevent all losses.
2. Scheduled: use of documented maintenance tasks that
identify task action steps, resource requirements, spare parts &
material required & the duration.
3. 5S: Five activities to improve the workplace environment:
4. Self-managed teams: Task-oriented action team with strong
performance focus.
5. Kaizen: philosophy of continuous improvement
6. Autonomous maintenance: equipment cleaning, lubrication,
performed by the production line operator.
7. Multi-skilled technician: having mechanical & electrical skills
Lean Maintenance Jargons



8. Work Order System: to plan, assign & schedule all maint
work & acquire data
9. CMMS (Computer Managed Maintenance System): for
work order mgmt, planning/scheduling, eqpt history,
budget, cost, resource, spares, & reports with KPI as a min.
10. Reliability engineering resource: to discover causes of
failures, evaluate PM effectiveness, develop PdM
techniques & procedures, perform condition monitoring,
find techniques to extend eqpt life, failed-part analysis,
root cause failure analysis etc
11.Root cause failure analysis: Finding root cause of a failure
by Ishikawa, Fishbone approach & the Kepner-Tregoe
problem-solving & decision-making process.
12.PdM Analysis: Predictive testing & inspection.
Lean Maintenance Jargons



13.Failed part analysis: analysis of failed parts to determine
cause of failure (mfg defect, external influence such as
operating conditions, faulty installation etc).
14.Procedure effectiveness analysis: analysis of reports to identify
high-cost areas, recommend changes in PM program,
overhaul criteria/ frequency, adjustment, test & inspection
frequencies based on eqpt history, optimize test & inspection
methods, periodic reviews of equipment on CM/PdM.
15.Trending & analysis of condition monitoring: a subset of PdM,
using gauges/meters to derive the operating condition, e.g. a
differential pressure gauge across a filter or the head-flow
characteristics of a pump.
16.Condition-based maintenance: Set operating limits, monitor
eqpt condition & trend the data to predict crossing of
operating limits so that required maintenance is scheduled.
Lean Maintenance Jargons
Maintenance Performance
1. Maintenance Effectiveness: Doing Right Things (how well
assets perform by customer orientation) e.g. Reliability,
MTBF, Failure Rate, Life, Durability, Downtime, Availability,
Dependability, Efficiency etc.
2. Maintenance Efficiency: Doing Things Right (how well
resources are utilized - of more interest to managers of
function) as below:
o Maintenance cost (labor & spares) per unit of output
o Stock Turns (Spares Inventory) - Total value of spares
in stock divided by total annual expenditure on
spares.
Maintenance Effectiveness is of more importance as it
provide Customer Orientation & overall well-being of the
organization.
Maintenance Effectiveness
1. How often it fails: Understood as reliability & measured as
Mean Time Between Failures and Failure Rate
2. How long it lasts: Life or Durability
3. How long it is out of service when it does fail: Referred as
Downtime or Unavailability and expressed as
percentage. Also referred as Mean Time to Repair.
4. How likely it is to fail in the next period: Conditional
probability of Failure & expressed as Dependability. A
period from an item is put into service till not more than
10% of the items fail. (Conditional Prob. of failure in the
stated period is 10% - B10 life)
5. Equipment Efficiency: How well something is performing
against how well it should be performing.
Total Maint Cost/Total Mfg Cost < 15%
Maint Cost/Replacement Value of the Eqpt < 5%
Proactive Maintenance/Total Maintenance > 85%
Reactive Maintenance < 15%
(Run to Fail)
Total Hours PdM/Total Hours Available ~50%
Total Hrs PM/Total Maint Hrs Available ~20%
Plant Availability > 99%
Monthly Inventory Turns > 2-3
Training of maintenance crew > 80 hrs/yr
Maintenance Benchmarking
Best Maintenance Practices
100% of a maintenance persons time is covered by a
work order.
90% of work orders are generated by PdM inspections.
30% of all work is preventive maintenance.
90% compliance of planned/scheduled work.
100% of the required reliability level is reached 100% of
the time.
Spare parts stock-outs are rare (< 1 per month).
Overtime < 2% of total maintenance time.
Maintenance costs are within 2% of budget.
Attributes - Proactive Maintenance
Maintenance skills training
Work flow analysis & required changes (organizational)
Work order system
Planned preventive maintenance tasks/procedures
Maintenance engineering development
Establishment & training of planner-scheduler
Maintenance inventory & purchasing integration
Computerized maintenance management system
Mgmt reporting/performance measurement & tracking
Return on investment (ROI) analysis
Evaluate and integrate use of contractors
Unpredictable & chaotic
(Firefighting)
Ad Hoc
Stable & repeatable level
of performance & reliability
Well defined process, formalized
framework with RCM & TPM
Reliability Measurement
& Analysis
Repeatable
Consistent
Measured
Optimized
Maintenance Process Maturity Levels
Lean features implemented
Cost of Maintenance
M
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e

C
o
s
t

Ad Hoc Repeatable
Consistent
Measured Advanced
& Optimized
Operational Reliability Improvement (ORI) generates changes in the
organization culture turning it into a different organization with a wide
productivity sense, with a clear business vision & fact driven.
OPERATIONAL
RELIABILITY
EQUIPMENT
MAINTAINABILITY
Design-phase
built-in reliability
Multi-skilling
Shortening MTTR
HUMAN RELIABILITY
Involvement
Ownership
Interfaces
PROCESS
RELIABILITY
Operating within
design envelope
Process & Procedure
understanding
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY
Maintenance Strategy
Maint Effectiveness - Extending MTBF
Operational Reliability



Roadmap to Maintenance Excellence
Maintenance basics phase (red rungs)- Maintenance basics are
the support structure upon which the advanced practices rest,
benefits of which is derived only if basic infrastructure in place &
in use.
Computer & reliability phase (yellow rungs): Prerequisite - set of
performance metrics, eqpt histories & a failure analysis
discipline. Here, organizations usually acquire a powerful CMMS
but use only a fraction of its potential due to lack of
maintenance basics, failure to establish disciplines in computer
use, inadequate hands-on training, & the assumption that
CMMS is a panacea (& nothing else is required which results
into gradual disuse of CMMS). TPM is the vital step here.
Advanced reliability technology phase - shift from reactive to
proactive maintenance with a reduction in the overall amount
of maintenance to be done (pie chart). The pie gets larger here
due to high levels of engineering.
Lean Storeroom
1. Improve tool storage using strong visual cues such as
painted outlines or foam cut outs to show where tools
should be stored.
2. Improved documentation storage. Make sure it is
neat, organized & accessible by those who need it.
3. Have a system that clearly shows when a file is out or
missing.
4. Use visual cues to show how things should be in
normal state.
5. Carry out ABC & XYZ analysis to spare parts
6. Define Max, Min & Reorder Level & Reorder Quantity
TPM & Autonomous Maintenance
1. Adopt TPM philosophy & Autonomous maintenance practices.
Use TPM concept for continuous improvement & to eliminate all
wastes
2. Involve total employee through self managed groups to
maintain basic equipment conditions
3. Use visual cues to indicate status, inspection due date, etc.
4. Create a simple & uniform work request system that
provides visual cues for operators & supervisors.
5. Modify the equipment for improved maintainability
6. Develop multi-skilled technicians
7. Train operators on basic maintenance skill > 80 hrs/yr
8. Eliminate machine adjustments which is not required. Simplify &
upgrade other adjustments.
1. Use Six-Sigma principles & Root Cause Failure Analysis tools to
prevent the problems at source.
2. Use of technologies like Vibration Analysis, Oil Analysis in eqpt
condition monitoring. Acquire basic instruments for predictive
inspection.
3. Implement Work order system to plan, assign & schedule all
maintenance work & acquire data to develop equipment
histories. Use it as primary tool to manage resources & measure
deptt effectiveness.
4. Implement CMMS (ERP Maintenance module)
5. Integrate Maintenance module with Inventory & Purchase
module - for automatic replenishment & reduction of inventory
6. Draw out annual maintenance schedule through RCM Analysis.
RCM & CMMS
Rolly Angeles
Introduction to Condition-Based Maintenance
Maintenance Excellence
RSA
2003
WHOLISTIC & WORLD CLASS MAINTENANCE APPROACH :
CMMS
Computerized Maintenance
Management Software
Precision of Gauges
Spare Parts
Management
Just In Time (JIT)
Inventory Control
Lubrication
Management
Contamination Control
Oil Recycling and Filtration
Wear Debris Analysis
Condition-Based
Maintenance
Oil Analysis Program
Infra-Red Thermography
Vibration Analysis
Leak Detection
Reliability & Continuous
Improvement Activities
Reliability-Centred Maintenance
Addressing Design Weaknesses
Root Cause and Failure Analysis
Zero Breakdown
Strategies
4 Phases of Planned Maintenance
Address Basic Equipment Condition
Restoration Activities
Activities to reduce MTBF
Activities to improve MTTR
Preventive and Periodic Maintenance
Maintenance
Cost Control
RNM Cost Reduction
Spare Parts Reduction
Maintenance
Skills Enhancement
Specialization Training
Multi-skills programs
Guidance to Jishu-Hozen
Expert System
Instrumentation
& Calibration
How a CMMS works
Equipment
Assets
Work Orders
Purchasing
Maintenance
Procedures
Work or
Service
Request Preventive
Maintenance
Job Planning
Schedluling
Predictive
Maintenance
History
Labor
Resources
Material
Resources
Maintenance Overview
World Class Maintenance
CMMS is just one part
Reactive to Proactive
Culture change required
Evolution is gradual
Methods need to be conveyed and understood
Department needs to be fluid and dynamic

Overview
Best practices
Clean slate approach
Work flows
Understand every transaction
Work order
MRO/Inventory control
Purchasing

KPIs
Quantifiable metrics
Work order type
Scheduled vs.
unscheduled
PM compliance report
Self Audit
Honest evaluation
Identify Changes
Required
Assign Roles &
Responsibilities
Pre CMMS
Department Staff
Work Order Flow
Radio calls
Trouble reports
Reactive scheduling
Log book
No visibility to system

Equipment
No central files
PMs tracked by
spreadsheet
No failure analysis
No cost history


Pre CMMS
Inventory
5000 items $2mil valuation
8 storerooms
Issues tracked by sign out sheet
No integration to equipment
Limited database access
Manual reorder requisition generated by cycle
counts and stock out reports


Preparation
Audited All Work Flows
Defined what the system
required
Assigned system roles and
responsibilities
Training
Specific to function
Set up Training system
Multiple Plant Terminal
Sites
All craft, maintenance and
production supervision
access


Equipment
Hierarchy
Cost centers
Naming Convention
Component
Inventory
Electronic import
Min/Max levels
Preventive
Maintenance
Describe routines
Attach frequencies
Benefits
Work Order
User Access Throughout Facility
Visible work order system
25000 Work orders processed
Work status in process - completion
Backlog
Priorities
Assists troubleshooting search functionality

Benefits
Preventive Maintenance
Automatic scheduling based on due dates, date last
performed or cycle counts
Delinquency reports
Routes

Previous
PM = 10%
Repair = 90%
Emergency =
65%
Year 1 post
Implmntn
PM = 25%
Repair = 75%
Emergency = 50%
Benefits
Material Issues & Direct
Purchases
Work order acts as
business document
Planning
Problem description
Detailed instructions
Material and tool
requirements
Training tool for JA/SOP
KPIs
Work order type


Equipment
Complete Work
History
Problem description
Activities
Cost
Outside services
PMs Attached To
Equipment
Frequency
Completion
Manuals And
Schematics Saved To
Database
BOM

Benefits
Inventory
Automatic Reorder
System Generated Requisition
Electronic approval
Purchasing
Paperless system
System tracks all stock and
non-stock purchases
Reports
Memo entry
Inventory
Craft Access
Improved search
functionality
Reduction of supervision
time required
Min/Max Levels/QOH
System generated part
number
Multiple locations
Reduction Of duplications
Order reduction
Issues To Work Order Or
Department
Auto BOM


Future Goals and Objectives
Work Orders
Introduce failure and
cause codes to work
orders
Root cause analysis
training
Reduce unscheduled
work
Shift repair to non
production time
Schedule
Priority
Visible backlog
Planning
Maintenance Team
Increase wrench time
Establish procedures
Improve training and
knowledge sharing
Create culture of
continuous
improvement


Future Goals and Objectives
Equipment
Improve uptime
Analyze failure rates and
MTBF
Adjust PM if required
Evaluate operating
procedures
Modifications, upgrade or
replacement
Force field intiative
Inventory
Centralize storeroom
Improved control
Eliminates need for
duplication
Parts staging for
scheduled work
Reduce need for craft
access
Reduction of craft data
input
Reduction of idle
inventory
Steps Toward Reliability
1. A vibration analysis program to reduce vibration level focus on
alignment precision & balancing.
2. Providing jack-bolts to eqpt bases.
3. All rotating equipment to be dynamically balanced.
4. Use of laser system for shaft alignment.
5. Bearing condition monitoring by lubricant analysis.
6. Lubricant - better filtration & water removal, better oil seals, oil
testing. It will reduce lubrication cost.
7. Planned maintenance to exceed 85%. A clearly outspoken
partnership between operations & engineering.
8. Motor condition monitoring- Temp rating is given on the
nameplate. Exceeding the rated temp by 10 C can shorten the
motor life by half, temp is measured by sensors/IR temp
detector/resistance method.
Three basic business operational scenarios impact the
focus and strategies of maintenance. They are:
1. Excess operations capacity cost constrained
2. Constrained by operations capacity production
constrained
1. If the business would be able to sell more products or
services if their prices were lowered, then the business
is said to be cost-constrained. Under these
circumstances, the maximum payoff is likely to come
from concentrating on controlling inputs i.e. labor,
materials, contractor costs, and overheads.
Here, the most important maint measures would be:
Maintenance expenditures, relative to output (e.g.
maintenance costs per production unit);
Performance Measures
2. If the business can profitably sell all it produces, then it
is called production constrained, & is likely to achieve
maximum payoff from focusing on maximizing outputs
through reliability, availability & maintainability of the
assets.
Typical maintenance productivity or output measures
include:
a) Overall equipment effectiveness & each equipments
availability, production rate, & quality rate, as primary
measures;
b) MTBF & MTTR, as secondary measures used to analyze
problems with respect to availability.
Performance Measures
1. A maintenance mission statement is prominently displayed.
2. A master plan for maintenance improvement exists.
3. A fully functional CMMS is in place.
4. Critical maintenance measures are defined.
5. Weekly schedules are in place & used.
6. Equipment uptime is improving due to PM program.
7. Equipment history is meaningful & effectively used.
8. Effective control of the maintenance budget is evident.
9. An effective maintenance skills training program is in
place.
10. Production, maintenance & quality Improvement
processes are integrated.
11. Work order system: 100% of a maintenance persons
time is covered by a work order.
12. 90% of work orders are generated by predictive
inspections.
13. 90% compliance of planned/scheduled work.
14. Maintenance inventory and purchasing integration
15. Spare parts stock-outs are rare (< 1 per month).
16. Trend charts of progress relative to goals & targets are
in place:
Maintenance costs (labor & material)
Schedule compliance, performance & effectiveness
PM schedule compliance
Planned maintenance shall be scheduled as a part of the
manufacturing day & an integral part of the manufacturing
process rather than simply squeezed in between whenever
there is a break in production schedule.
Plant Availability > 97%
Total Maint Cost/Total Manufac Cost < 15%
Maint Cost/ Asset Value of the Plant < 3%
Maintenance Workers - % of Total <15%
Training hours / year > 80 hrs/yr
Planned Maint/Total Maint > 85%
Unplanned Down Time ~0%
Reactive Maintenance < 15%
Tot PdM Hrs/Tot Maintenance Hrs ~50%
Maintenance Benchmarking
Thank You