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Atomic Structure

1. An atom contains three types of subatomic particles: proton, neutron and electron, with the following symbols and relative masses.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Particle proton neutron electron

Charge + ve charge No charge -ve charge

Mass 1 1 nil

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Atomic Structure

2. The protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus, while the electrons move around the nucleus in fixed orbits.

Nucleus

Electron
Orbit

Energy Levels
5

Atomic Structure

3. The nucleus is positively charged because of the presence of protons, which are positively charged. The neutrons are neutral. For example, a nucleus with 15 protons and 16 neutrons will have the following charge: Hayo...Ingat !!

15 x (+ 1) + 16 x (0) = +15

Jangan lupa besar muatannya Lho ya....

Particle Electron Proton

Founder JJ. Thomson Eugene Goldstein

Mass (sma) 0 1

charge -1 +1

Neutron

James Chadwick 1

ATOM SYMBOL

Hydrogen atomic has one proton, one electron but doesnt have neutron
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4.

13Al 5. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called its proton number (atomic number).
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A neutral atom contain the same number of electrons as the protons. For example: an Aluminium atom contains 13 protons and 13 electrons.

6. The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is the nucleon number (mass number). N = Mass number
Nucleon

Number = Number of protons + Number of neutrons

Nukleon = p + n

Example: The sodium atom contains 11 proton and 12 neutrons. determine the atomic number,mass number, proton,elektron,neutron and nucleon ! ........ 23 11

Na

Z=11 A=23

p= +11 e= +11 n= 23-11=12 N=A= 11+12=23

Atomic Structure
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Atomic Structure

7. Thus, to find the proton number of an element:

Proton number = number of protons = nucleon number-number of neutrons

For example, given that a chlorine atom has a nucleon number of 35 and 18 neutrons, its proton number is: Nucleon number - number of neutrons = 35 - 18 35 =17 17

Cl

zX
Proton = z Neutron = A Z Elektron = Z n+ Example :
7 3

n+

Li

Proton = 3 Neutron = 7 - 3 = 4 Elektron = 3 1 = 2

zX
Proton = z Neutron = A Z Elektron = Z + nExample :
35 17

n-

Cl

Proton = 17 Neutron = 35 - 17 = 18 Elektron = 17 + 1 = 18

Relative atomic mass


Every atom contains atomic mass. In elements periodic table, atomic mass of element is defined on the left side of its symbol, known as Have you ever thought of how to determine atomic mass number? Since atom is very small in size, it is impossible to weigh it.
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Relative atomic mass


To determine atomic mass number, is by comparing it with standard atomic mass. The result is called atomic relative

mass (Ar) molecule relative mass (Mr). Standard atomic mass is carbon. Atomic mass of carbon is decide as 12.

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Relative atomic mass =

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1 amu = 1/12 x 1 atomic mass of C-12 = 1/12 x 1.99268 x 10-23 = 1.66 x 10-24

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reflection
1. Asumming mass of 1 atom oxygen is 2.6505 x 1023 gram, how much is the atomic relative mass of oxygen?

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Symbol of Elements

1 All elements are represented by symbols, which are normally the first letters of their names.

Symbol of Elements

2 Most of the symbols contain two letters- the first letter must be capital and the second letter small.

Symbol of Elements

3 The atom of an element is written with its symbol, nucleon number and proton number as follows: Nucleon number A Proton number Z

Example : Nucleon number Proton number

40 20

Ca

3 The atom of an element is written with its symbol, nucleon number and proton number as follows:
40 20 Ca

This means that a calcium atom has 20 protons and (40-20) = 20 neutrons

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ISOTOP
12 6 13 Cand6C

Isotope is one of two or more species of an element atom having the same atomic number, but differ in mass number.

ISOBAR
14 6 14 Cand N 7

Isobar is an atom which comes from different element and atomic number but has the same mass number. Isotone is an atom which comes from different element but has same the number of neutrons.
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ISOTON
32 16 31 Sand P 15

1.

Determine the number of protons, electrons , neutrons, Nucleon, mass number and atomic number for : 16 19 O, 9 F, 8

2+ 238 79 39 207 88 K, 82 Pb, U, 34 19 92 38 2. Classify the following atoms into isotope, isobar or isotone

Sr,

Se,

2-

40 20

2+

Ca

16 15 O, 7 8

N, 18 Ar,

40

18 14 C, 8 O, 6

16 12

39 14 C, 7 N, 19

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ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
The

arrangement of electrons in atom shells is known as electron configuration. Every shells contain a number of electrons follow the formula : 2 n 2 . shell K (n =1) = 2 x 12 = 2 elektron Shell L (n =2) = 2 x 22 = 8 elektron Shell M (n =3) = 2 x 32 = 18 elektron Shell N (n =4) = 2 x 42 = 32 elektron Shell O (n =5) = 2 x 52 = 50 elektron
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11Na

K 2

L 8

M 1

12Mg :
13Al 35Br

2
2 2

8
8 8

2
3 18 7

: :

Valensi electrons are used to form chemical bonds


7
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53I

18

18

No. Notasi

Atomi c numb er

Mass P number

Electron Configuration

Valence electro n O

K 1. 2. 3. 4.
84 36 40

Kr

5.
6. 7. 8.

Ar 27 Al 13 35,5 17 Cl 14 7 N
18
16

8
207 82 70

2-

Pb
3+
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