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Consumer Behaviour

The actions a person takes in purchasing and using products / services, including the mental and social processes that precede and follow these actions. The behavioral sciences help answer questions such as : 1. Why people choose one product or brand over another? 2. How they make these choices? 3. How companies use this knowledge to provide value to consumers? CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS Behind the visible act of making a purchase lies a decision process that must be investigated. The purchase decision process are the stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy : Five Stages of Consumer Behavior
Problem recognition

Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post-Purchase behavior

Five Stages of Consumer Behaviour

A. Problem Recognition: Perceiving a Need


Perceiving a difference between a person's ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. Can be as simple as noticing an empty bottle of sauce or it can be activated by marketing efforts.

B. Information Search: Seeking Value


The information search stage clarifies the options open to the consumer and may involve:
Scanning ones memory to recall previous experiences with products or brands. Often sufficient for frequently purchased products. When past experience or knowledge is insufficient The risk of making a wrong purchase decision is high The cost of gathering information is low. The primary sources of external information are: External Personal sources, such as friends and family. Search Public sources, including various product-rating organizations such as Consumer Reports. Marketer-dominated sources, such as advertising, company websites, and salespeople.

Internal Search

Two Steps of Information Search

C. Alternative Evaluation: Assessing Value


The information search clarifies the problem for the consumer by: (1) Suggesting criteria for the purchase. (2) Yielding brand names that might meet the criteria. (3) Developing consumer value perception. A consumer's evaluative criteria represent both: The objective attributes of a brand (such as features and specifications of the product) The subjective factors (such as prestige or image). These criteria establish a consumer's evoked set: The group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware.

D. Purchase Decision: Buying Value

From Whom to Buy

depends on such considerations Terms of sale Past experience buying from the seller Return policy. which can be influenced by store atmosphere time pressure a sale Pleasantness of the shopping experience.

Three Possibilities

When to Buy

Do Not Buy