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Transmission media

Guided media

Objectives
The purpose of this presentation is to make all of you familiar with : Defination of guided media Different types of cables Different types of connectors

Place of transmission medium

Transmission media

Defination
Anything that can carry information from a source to a destination.

Classes
Guided media and unguided media

Guided media
The media that GUIDES or BOUNDS the data signals along a specific path.

Types
Open wire Twisted Pair

Guided media

Optical fibre

Coaxial Cables

Media v/s bandwidth


Cable type
Open cable Twisted pair Coaxial cable Optical fibre

bandwidth
0-5 MHz 0-100 MHz 0-600 MHz 0-10 GHz

A transmission line consisting of two spaced parallel wires supported by insulators ,at the proper distance to give a desired value of impedance.

It consists of two conductors ,each surrounded by insulation.

TWISTED PAIR CABLE

Who invented it?


Alexander graham bell

Technical Focus:

Why Twisted-Pair Cable Reduces Noise ?

Interference from devices such as a motor can create unequal noise over two parallel lines. The line that is closer to the device receives more interference than the one that is farther. If however, the wires are twisted around each other, at regular intervals ,each wire is closer to the noise source for half of the time and farther for the other half. Both receive the same amount of noise. The noise from two wires cancel each other out at the receiver.

TYPES

UTP

STP

Unshielded twisted pair(UTP)


UTP is unshielded twisted pair cable that consist of : two conductors(usually copper) which have coloured plastic insulation . Colours indicate: 1. specific conductors in a cable 2. pairs of cable

Consists of 4 pairs (8 wires) of insulated copper wires typically about 1 mm thick.

The wires are twisted together in a helical form.


Twisting reduces the interference between pairs of wires. High bandwidth and High attenuation channel. Flexible and cheap cable. Category rating based on number of twists per inch and the material used

CAT 3, CAT 4, CAT 5, Enhanced CAT 5 and now CAT 6.

Categories of UTP
UTP comes in several categories that are based on the number of twists in the wires, the diameter of the wires and the material used in the wires.

Category 3 is the wiring used primarily for telephone connections.


Category 5e and Category 6 are currently the most common Ethernet cables used.

CAT 3
Bandwidth 16 Mhz
11.5 dB Attenuation 100 ohm Impedance Used in voice applications

CAT 5e
150 MHz Bandwidth

24.0 dB Attenuation
100 ohms Impedance

Transmits high-speed data


Used in Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps), Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) & 155 Mbps ATM

CAT 6
250 MHz Bandwidth
19.8 dB Attenuation 100 ohms Impedance

Transmits high-speed data


Used in Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) & 10 Gig Ethernet (10000 Mbps)

Shielded twisted pair(STP)


Cable that contains pairs of wires coated with a foil shield that reduces signal noise that might interfere with data transmission. n this variety of cable, shielding is applied both to the cable as a whole, as well as to each individual pair of copper wires within

Significance of SHIELD in shielded cable

We can be immune from lightning in a desert if we are surrounded by a metallic cover (inside a car, for example). The reason is that electromagnetic energy (lightning) can penetrate insulators, but not metals. Lightning on a metallic shell creates a current on the outside surface, which can be dangerous; the inside is protected. Note that this phenomenon is opposite from what happens with electricity. The electrical current passes through a metal, but it is stopped by an insulator. Electromagnetic energy passes through an insulator, but is stopped by a metal. The same idea is used in shielded twisted-pair cable. The shield is a metal that protects the cable from outside noise, electromagnetic interference.

Parameter STP
INTERFERENCE SPEED MORE(ONLY WHEN GROUNDED) FASTER DATA TRANSMISSION RATE HEAVIER PER METER THAN UTP

UTP
COMPARITIVELY LESS COMPARITIVELY SLOWER LIGHTER PER METER THAN STP

STRUCTURE

DURABILITY

LESS DURABLE

MORE DURABLE

CONNECTORS

RJ-45

An optical fiber is a flexible,transparent fiber made of very pure glass (silica) not much wider than a human hair that acts as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. And many strands of optical fibers bunch together to form the OPTICAL FIBER CABLE

QUICK HISTORY
Fiber optics, though used extensively in the modern world, is a fairly simple and old technology. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London a dozen years later.

LIGHT FOUNTAIN USED BY DANIEL COLLADON

STRUCTURE
It consists of:
A transparent core

A transparent cladding
A buffer A jacket

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
The optical fibers carry out the data transmission objective based on the principle of TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION

REFRACTION & REFLECTION

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION

MATERIALS USED TO MAKE FIBER


Silica Fluorozirconate Fluoroaluminate Chalcogenide glasses Crystalline materials like sapphire

TYPES
Optical fibres come in two types: Singlemode fibres and Multi-mode fibres. Single-mode fibres have small cores (about 9 microns in diameter) and transmit infrared laser light. Multi-mode fibres have larger cores (62.5 microns in diameter) and transmit infrared light from LEDs.

PROPAGATION

COMPARISON

ADVANTAGES
Greater bandwidth and faster transmission Less signal attenuation Noise resistance Thinner and lighter than metal cables More secure Corrosion less

DISADVANTAGES
Expensive installation Fragile than metal wires Difficult to splice Physical vibration shows as noise

INDOOR CABLE SPECIFICATION


LED (Light Emitting Diode) Light Source 3.5 dB/Km Attenuation (loses 3.5 dB of signal per kilometre) 850 nM - wavelength of light source Typically 62.5/125 (core dia/cladding dia). Multimode - can run many light sources.

OUTDOOR CABLE SPECIFICATIONS


Laser Light Source 1 dB/Km Attenuation (loses 1 dB of signal per kilometre) Monomode (Single Mode) 1170 nM - wavelength of light source

connectors

LC optical fiber connector

Coaxial is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a flexible, tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.

Who invent it?


Oliver heaviside

COAXIAL CABLES ARE IDENTIFIED BY RG DESIGNATION

Category
RG-59

Impedance
75 W

Use
Cable TV

RG-58

50 W

Thin Ethernet

RG-11

50 W

Thick Ethernet

Advantages
Sufficient frequency range to support multiple channel.
Lower error rates. Greater spacing between amplifiers is allowed because coaxial cable has the ability to reduce noise and crosstalk. Cost efficient

DISADVANTAGES
More expensive to install compared to others.

The thicker the cable, the more difficult to work with.

* CCTV

* Radio * Microwave * Satellite * Broadcast * Telecommunications

Analog TV

RG59/U

Acceptable performance on cable runs <225 metres Gives superior performance on cable runs <225 metres. Used for cable runs >225 metres but <545 metres. For cable runs greater than 545 metres.

RG6/U

RG11/U CCTV RG59/U

Acceptable performance on cable runs <225 metres


Gives for superior performance on cable runs <225 metres. Used for cable runs >225 metres but <545 metres. For cable runs greater than 545 metres. Standard cable for these applications Recommended for long cable runs and for backbone cabling.

RG6/U

RG11/U DTV, CATV, SATV, MATV RG6/U RG11/U

CONNECTORS
BNC

BNC CONNECTOR

BNC

BAYONE NEILL CONCELMAN

BNC connectors are bayonet type connectors, commonly used in CCTV systems. They are the most suitable connector for use with RG59/U cable. There are 3 popular types of BNC connectors : o BNC connector used in TV sets oBNC T connector used in Ethernet networks oBNC terminator -used to prevent the reflection of signal

F-TYPE CONNECTORS
F-type connectors are named according to the type of cable and application That they have been designed for.

F-TYPE CONNECTORS

Connector Name F-59 F-6 (F-56) F-11

Application / Description

A male F-connector that seizes the outer braid and jacket of an RG-59, RG-6 (RG-56) or RG-11 coaxial cable. The cable's centre conductor extends through the connector to form the centre contact.
An equipment or panel-mounted F-connector (usually female) with soldered cable connections. A 3/8" ( 32 pitch) thread is provided to accept the connector nut of the male connector. A male/male F-connector. A female/female F-connector used to couple two maleended cables together for in-line or wall-plate applications.

F-61

F-71 F-81

References
Networking%20cables%20%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.htm
Search%20Result%20for%20twisted%20pa ir%20cables.htm www.wikipedia.com

Special thanks to SAVINA MAM for giving us this opportunity. And thanks one and all for co-operating with us.

Presentation by:

PUSHKAR
and SHAFALI
ECE-2K8 G.Z.S.C.E.T