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# Chapter 5 Water and solution

## Physical Characteristics of water

1. Water is a colourless, tasteless and odourless liquid. 2. Water exist as a solid (ice), a liquid (water) and a gas (steam)
ICE
melting

freezing

WATER

Boiling/evaporation

condensation

STEAM

## Physical Characteristics of Water

3. Water has a density of 1 g per cm3. 4. Water is bad conductor of heat.
Wire gauze (prevent the ice from floating
- -

Water boiling

Ice

Heat

## Physical Characteristic of Water

5. Pure water freezes at 00C under normal atmospheric pressure. 6. Pure water boils at 1000C under normal atmospheric pressure.

## Freezing Point of water

When water is cooled, the water molecules lose energy, slow down in their motion, and come close to one another.
Thermometer

-- - --

## Ice with salt Distilled water

When the temperature reaches 00C, the water molecules arrange themselves very close together in an order. The water freezes

## Freezing point of water

The temperature remains at 00C until water freezes completely.
Temperature (00C)

Time (min)

## Cooling graph of water

Impurities lower the freezing point of water at below 00C

## Boiling point of water

1. When water is heated, the water molecules receive more energy and move about more quickly in all directions. 2. At 1000C, the water molecules are so active that they escape into the air.

## 3. When this happens, the water is said to be boiling.

4. During boiling, the temperature of the water remains at 1000c.

Glass tube

Distilled water

## Temperature (0C) Water start to boil 1000C

Boiling point of water Liquid

Gas

Time (min)

## Heating graph of water

When impurities (common salt) dissolve in the water, the water boils at a temperature above 1000C

Date:

Experiment: 5.1
Aim: To determine the freezing and boiling points of water. (A) Freezing point of water Diagram: Figure 5.1

Procedure:
1. The apparatus were set up as shown in Figure 5.1. 2. The temperature were recorded every 2 minutes in the table, until the temperature becomes constant.

## 3. A graph of temperature against time was plotted.

Observations: Thermometer reading for the freezing of water
Time (min) Temperature (00C) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Conclusion: Pure water freezes at 00C but water containing dissolved substances freezes at less than 00C.

Discussion:

1. Why is common salt added to ice in the experiment to determine the freezing point of water? To lower the temperature of the ice.
2. What is the meaning of freezing point?.

The temperature when water changes from liquid into solid (ice).
3. Why was salt added into the ice in Activity A? To further reduce the temperature of the ice so that the distilled water is cold enough to change into ice.

## 4. Why was distilled water used in this experiment?

Distilled water does not contain any impurities. The presence of impurities will affect the freezing point of water.

Experiment: 5.1
Aim: To determine the freezing and boiling points of water.

## (B) Boiling point of water.

Diagram: Figure 5.2 Procedure: 1. The apparatus were set up as shown in Figure 5.2. 2. The distilled water was heated until its temperature reaches 800C. The temperature of water was recorded every minutes until the temperature becomes constant.

## 3. A graph of temperature against time was plotted. Observations:

Time (min) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Temperature (0C) 80

Conclusion:

The temperature of water remains. when it boils. The boiling point of water is
Discussion: 1. What is the meaning of boiling point of water? The temperature when water changes from liquid into gas (steam).

2. What is the use of the glass tube in the experiment to determine the boiling point of water? To allow steam in the boiling tube to escape so that the pressure in the boiling tube does not increase. 3. What is the principle applied in a pressure cooker? The pressure cooker is based on the principle that the boiling point of water will be above 1000C if the pressure in the cooker is raised.

Experiment: 5.2 Aim: to observe the effects of impurities on the physical characteristics of water Diagram: Figure 5.5 & 5.2 Procedure: (A)Effect of salt on the melting point of ice. 1. A little distilled water was poured into a beaker of ice. A spatula of salt was added to the ice and well mixed. 2. The apparatus were set up as shown in Figure 5.5. 3. The melting point of the mixture was recorded.

(B) Effect of salt on the boiling point of water. 1. The set-up of apparatus as shown in Figure 5.2 on page 4 were prepared. 100 cm3 of salt water was used instead of distilled water this time. 2. The salt water was heated and the boiling point of water was recorded.
Activity A Melting point of ice -30C

Activity B

## Boiling point of water

1020C

Conclusion:

Impurities in water can ________ the boiling point and ________ the freezing point of water.
Discussion: 1. What is the meaning of melting point of ice? The temperature at which ice melts. 2. What is the relationship between the freezing point of water and the melting point of ice? The melting point of ice and the freezing point of water are the same.

3. Predict the boiling point and freezing point of mineral water. Give a reason for your answer.
The boiling point of mineral water will be more than 1000C and the freezing point of mineral water will be lower than 00C. This is because mineral water contains dissolved minerals (impurities) which can alter the boiling and freezing points of water.

## Composition of water 1. Water is a compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen.

2. Each molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.

## Molecule of water (H2O)

3. The chemical name of water is hydrogen hydroxide. 4. When hydrogen is burnt in air, hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water. Hydrogen + hydrogen hydroxide

Oxygen

(water)

## 6. Hydrogen mixed with air explodes on burning.

7. NEVER attempt to burn a large volume of hydrogen.

8. Water can be split into its elements, hydrogen and oxygen, by the electrolysis of water.
9. Electrolysis of water is the process of splitting (decomposing) water into hydrogen and oxygen by using electrical energy. Hydrogen hydroxide (water)
electrolysis

hydrogen + oxygen

10. Electrolysis of water is used to obtain hydrogen and oxygen for commercial use.

oxygen
Carbon electrode (anode)

hydrogen
Carbon electrode (cathode)

## Water + dilute sulphuric acid (enable electric current to flow on water

Experiment: 5.2
Aim: To determine the ratio of hydrogen and oxygen in a molecule of water.

Diagram:
Procedure: 1. The apparatus were set up as shown in Figure 5.2. 2. The switch was turned on. A lot of bubbles was released at each electrode.

3. The volumes of gases released every 5 minutes was recorded until one of the measuring cylinders was full.

4. When both the measuring cylinders were filled with gas, the gas in the measuring cylinders were tested with (a) a glowing splinter into measuring cylinder A (b) a lighted splinter into measuring cylinder B 5. A report was wrote on this activity.

Gas
Gas from the cathode

## Lighted splint test

Burns with a pop sound

inference
The gas is hydrogen

## Gas from the anode

Ratio of the two gases

Supports The gas is combustion (splint oxygen burns brighter) 2 volumes of hydrogen : 1 volume of oxygen

Conclusion: Water is a ________ that consists of ______and ________. One molecule of water is made up of _____ atoms of hydrogen and ___ atom of oxygen.

Discussions: 1. Explain the meaning of electrolysis of water? The break down of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas using electrical energy. 2. Why was dilute sulphuric acid added to the water?

## To enable water to conduct electricity.

3. State whether water is a mixture or a compound. Give reason for your answer. Water is a compound, because the components of water can only be separated chemically.

Time (min)

6 5 5

8 3 3

10 12 2 2 0 0

14 0 -3

Discussion:

## 1. To lower the temperature of the ice.

2. (a) higher, lower (b) boiling point 3. 00C.

Conclusion:
Pure water boils at 1000C and freezes at 00C but water containing dissolved substances boils at more than 1000C and freezes at less than 00C. Additional questions

1. This is because dissolved substances affect the boiling point of water but not the temperature of steam. 2. To allow steam in the boiling tube to escape so that the pressure in the boiling tube does not increase.

3. The pressure cooker is based on the principle that the boiling point of water will be above 1000C if the pressure in the cooker is raised.