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Welding Research Institute

Manual metal arc welding process

SMAW

HISTORY OF WELDING
1782- PRO.G.LICHTENBERG- ELECTRIC FUSION 1801- Sir HUMPHERYDAVY- ARC TWO POLES 1860- WILDE - ELECTRIC WELDING 1907- OSCAR KJELLBROG-FLUXCOATED 1909- STROH MENGER - HEAVY COATED 1912- US PATENT MECHANICALPROPERTIES 1918- AO SMITH/USA - CELLUOSIC COATING

Shielded Metal Arc Welding


Process Capabilities: Versatile process Indoor & Outdoor welding Multi-position welding Equipment is simple & portable Universal process for repair welding Limitations: Productivity is less > Fixed length of electrode > Deslaging

LIMITATIONS OF SMAW PROCESS


>> Less metal deposition Cannot be used for heavy fabrication welding >> Requires more number of welders >> Control of distortion is difficult >> Continuous & automatic Welding is not possible >> More strain to the welders

TYPES OF COVERING
Based of covering: > Rutile electrodes > Basic coated electrodes > Cellulose coated electrode >Iron powder,iron oxide electrodes
Based on application: > carbon-manganese steel electrodes AWS A5.1 > Stainless steel electrodes A5.4 > Low alloy steel electrodes A5.5 > Copper & Copper alloy electrodes A5.6 > Aluminium & Aluminium alloy electrodes A5.10 > Nickel & Nickel alloy covered electrodes A5.11 > Hardfacing electrodes A5.13 > Covered electrodes for cast iron A5.15

CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRODES Rutile Electrodes: > Quite & smooth arc > Excellent slag removal > Fine ripples > Medium penetration > Thick slag > Good running Cellulose Electrode: > Forceful & noisy arc > Friable slag > Coarse ripples > Deep penetration > Thin slag cover > More gas shield > vertical down

Basic Electrodes: > Adequate penetration > Slag removal is good > Contains more iron powder > Good mechanical Properties

PURPOSE OF FLUX COATING >> Gas shielding of arc >> Stabilizes the arc

>> Provides slag blanket


>> Alloying element will improve the

mechanical properties
>> Gives good appearance & penetration >> Welding in all position is easy >> Compensates for oxidation loss

COMPOSITION OF FLUX IN THE ELECTRODE COATING


1. Organic substance or Cellulose material:

Wood, Flour & Cellulose

High arc force


Large volume of gas mostly hydrogen 2. Rutile: Found in sand Arc stabilizer Good slag former 3. Ball Clay: Compound of silica & alumina

Slag former & Gives plasticity in the wet paste

COMPOSITION OF FLUX IN THE ELECTRODE COATING


4.Iron powder: Gives good operating characteristics Improves arc stability Makes the coating electrically conducting 5.Oxidizing Substance: Makes the weld metal flow freely Oxidizing substance are: iron oxide, Lamitite, Magnetite 6.Reducing Substances: They compensate for manganese Ferro Silicon Substances: Ferro Manganese, Ferro Silicon, Ferro Titanium

COMPOSITION OF FLUX IN THE ELECTRODE COATING


7. Ionizing Substances: Used for stabilizing the arc Substances : Chalk, Marble 8.Binding substance: Help the coating to grip firmly around the core wire Substances: Sodium Silicate, Potassium Silicate

CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRODES (AWS 5.1)

E6010
Electrode
60 Psi

70
80 90 100 110 120

Welding position

Coating and current conditions

CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRODES (AWS 5.5)

E8018-B1H4R
Electrode 80,000 Psi All position
1-F,H,V,OH 2-F,H , 4-F,H,VD,OH
0 CELLULOSE SODIUM CELLULOSE POTASSIUM DCEP

Difful. H
SUF %Mn %Ni

Moisture Resistant
%Cr %Mo %V

A1 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 2-1/2 3-1/4 1
1.2 2.00 0.15

1/2 1-

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

AC/DCEP/DCEN AC/DCEN AC/DCEP AC/DCEN/DCEP DCEP AC/DCEP AC/DCEP/DCEN AC/DCEP

TITANIA SODIUM TITANIA POTASSIUM IRON POWDER TI LOW HYDROGN Na LOW HYDROGEN K Fe POWDER Fe OXIDE Fe POWDER LOW H2

2-1/4 1

D1& D2

.25 .35

0.50

0.30

0.20

0.10

Metal Transfer
Factors influencing metal transfer: > Surface tension > Force of gravity > Magnetic forces > Metallurgical factors Surface tension forces: > Holds the liquid metal droplet to the tip. Force to be overcom Force of gravity: > Position of welding Flat --- Helps in metal transfer Overhead--Negative influence oppose metal transfe Magnetic forces: >Lorentz & Pinch forces. Metallurgical factors: > Gases in liquid metal droplet explode > The stream of gases carry metal droplets

Metal Transfer
Medium Current
Medium Voltage

Application: Down hand position welding

Forces effecting metal transfer

Activity of the pinch effect (schematic)

Common Welding Elements


For electrically-based welding processesSMAW,GMAW,FCAW & GTAW the common elements are: Joint types
joint edge preparation parts of a weld selection of joint preparation welding positions other types of weld welding terminology welding cables & grounding clamps safety equipment safety practices

SAFETY ACCESSORIES >> Welding hand screens & helmet >> Chipping goggles.

>> Apron
>> Jacket

>> Gloves
>> Sleeves >> >> >> Leggings Shoes Cap

RECOMMENDED COPPER CABLE FOR ARC WELDING


Cable diameter(mm) Length of cable in Mts. Current capacity in Amps.

--24 21 19 18 16.5 15 14.5 13.5

015Mts

15--30Mts

30-75Mts 400 Amps 300 Amps 300 Amps 175 Amps 150 Amps 100 Amps 75 Amps

600 Amps 600 Amps


500 Amps 400 Amps 400 Amps 350 Amps 250 Amps 200 Amps 200 Amps 195 Amps

300 Amps 300 Amps 200 Amps

150 Amps 150 Amps


125 Amps 100 Amps

EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES USED IN THE PROCESS >> Power source >> Electrode holder

>> Ground cable


>> Welding cable

>> Lugs

POWER SOURCE

Either AC or DC may be used for SMAW process.


Factors to be considered for SMAW:

>>
>> >>

Type of current---- AC or DC
Current requirement Positon of welding

>> Primary power available at the work station

RECOMMENDED SHADE NUMBER OF THE COLOURED GLASSES Range of welding current(Amps) Upto 100 Amps 100300 Amps Above 300 Amps

Shade No.

8--9 10--11 12--14

ELECTRODE MANUFACTURE:

>> Wire procurement - 8mm wire >> Wire drawing(mm) - 6.3, 5, 4, 3.15 & 2 > Wire straightening & cutting > Weighing machine > Sewing > Dry mixer > Wet mixer > slug press > Extruder > Conveyor > Eccentricity > End chamfering > Name printing > Backing & drying > packing

WELDING TECHNIQUES
>> Touch & Retract method

>> Scratch method


>> Maintaining the arc >> Stopping the arc >> Re-start or Re-strike the arc >> Stringer Beads

>> Weaving Beads

Welding Positions
GROOVE WELD

Flat position(1G) Horizontal position(2G) Vertical position(3G) Overhead position(4G)


FILLET WELD

Flat position(1F) Horizontal position(2F)

Vertical position(3F)
Overhead position(4F)

EFFECT OF VARIATION OF PARAMETERS

1.CURRENT TOO LOW:


Uneven bead height

Poor penetration Slag inclusion Irregular ripples

2.CURRENT TOO HIGH:


Wide & flat beads in uneven shape Excessive penetration parent metal More spatter Poor ripple appearance Porosity Undercut

EFFECT OF VARIATION OF PARAMETERS

3.ARC TOO SHORT:


Irregular ripple Burn through Unequal width & height of bead Electrode freezing the job

4. ARC

TOO LONG:

Unequal height of bead

Wide ripple Crater with blow holes More spatters

EFFECT OF VARIATION OF PARAMETERS

5 . TRAVEL TOO LOW:


More width & height of the bead Slag inclusion

6. TRAVEL TOO FAST:


Narrow width of the bead Porosity Elongated ripples

TYPES OF WELD DEFECTS IN ARC WELDING PROCESSES


1.POROSITY: Blow holes,worm hole, gas pockets,aligned porsity, clustered porosity, scattered porosity, surface porosity, starting porosity. 2.INCLUSIONS: Metallic inclusions, oxide inclusions, slag inclusions, wagon tracks, interpass inclusions, stringer inclusion, fingernail inclusion. 3.LACK OF FUSION: Lack of root fusion, lack of interpass fusion, lack of side wall fusion. 4.MISMATCH 5.BURN THROUGH 6.DISTORSION: Longitudional distortion, Angular distortion, Transverse distortion. 7.POOR WELD BEAD 8.EXCESSIVE SPATTER

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TYPICAL DEFECTS IN SMAW


9.CRACKING: Branch cracking, Longitudional cracking, Radiating cracking(star cracking), Toe cracking, Under bead cracking, Lameller tearing, Root cracking, Center line cracking, Hot cracking, Cold cracking, Micro fissuring, Crater cracking. Disconnected cracking. Reheat cracking, Hydrogen cracking, Solidification cracking, Inter granular cracking, Burning or Liquation cracking. 10.UNDER CUT: External, Internal(Root undercut) 11.WELD REINFORCEMENT: Excessive reinforcement, Insufficient reinforcement, Root reinforcement. 12.OVER LAPPING 13.LACK OF PENETRATION: Excessive penetration, incomplete penetration, 14.ARC STRIKES 15.CRATER PITS

TYPICAL DEFECTS IN SMAW


CRACKS: Linear ruptures of metal under stress.Three major classification are Hot cracking, Cold cracking & Micro fissuring. HOT CRACKING: Occurs at elevated temp.( above 540 C ) during cooling after the weld metal has been deposited & started to solidify from the molten state. Related to Hot shortness.Generally associated with grain boundary liquation or inter granular or interdendritic fissures, Under severe stress or shrinkage conditions. These fissures can grow. CAUSES 1.Stresses in WM. 2. Poor joint configuration. 3.Poor weld bead shape. 4. Use of restraint fixtures 5. Improper weld technique. 6. High heat input 7.Too large weld puddle. 8. Repeated reheating. 9. Segregation of liquid phases.

TYPICAL DEFECTS IN SMAW


CAUSES 10. S,B,P,As, Sn, Sr, Cu. 11.C above 0.15% & Mn/S ratio below 22:1. 12. < 3% FeB to coating for 2.25 Cr-1Mo alloy steel. 13. Insufficient ductility 14. C/Cb ratio 14-15 in ASS. 15.Variation in dilution. 16.Diffusion of atmospheric H, O, or N. 17.Differences of over 5% composition dissimilarities. 18. Differences in the coefficient of expansion. 19. Non ferrite composition. 20. Hot shortness. 21. Low thermal conductivity. REMEDIES 1.Slightly convex bead. 2. Slow welding until elliptical bead. 3.Improve joint configuration. 4. Suitable welding sequence. 5.Avoid repeated reheating. 6. Reduce heat input.

SELECTION OF ELECTRODES
>> Composition or Strength of BM.

>> Penetration requirement


>> Position of welding >> Fit-Up condition >> Skill of the welding personnel >> Cost of the welding operation

>> Service requirement of weld joint.

ADVANTAGES OF SMAW PROCESS


>> Light & heavy gauge metals can be welded. >> Fabrication welding, Construction welding & Maintenance welding >> All types of metals ( Ferrous, Nonferrous & alloys) can be welded

>> Welding operation is quick & easy


>> More suitable for short length welds >> Less expensive >> Less sensitive >> It is portable

APPLICATIONS OF SMAW PROCESS


>> >> Used for welding thin & thick gauge metals Used in welding bridges, bus bodies,domestic items like grills for gates, windows, chairs, doors . Used in welding roof structure for workshop, broken & cracked castings

>>

>>

Whenever welding is done in outdoor work, this process is very useful as a diesel generator welding set can be used. Used for hardfacing & repair welding

>>

Electrode Pilot Plant

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