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Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A.

Rathus
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Birth and the Newborn Baby: In the New World

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Birth and the Newborn Baby: Truth or Fiction?


The fetus signals the mother when it is ready to be born. After birth, babies are held upside down and slapped on the buttocks to stimulate independent breathing.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Birth and the Newborn Baby: Truth or Fiction?


The way that the umbilical cord is cut determines whether the babys belly button will be an inny or an outy. Women who give birth according to the Lamaze method do not experience pain.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Birth and the Newborn Baby: Truth or Fiction?


In the United States, 1 birth in 4 is by cesarean section. It is abnormal to feel depressed following childbirth.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Birth and the Newborn Baby: Truth or Fiction?


Parents must have extended early contact with their newborn children if adequate bonding is to take place. More children die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) than from cancer, heart disease, pneumonia, child abuse, AIDS, cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy combined.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Countdown
The Stages of Childbirth

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Events Occur just prior to the Beginning of Childbirth?


Dropping or Lightening
Head of fetus settles in pelvis

Braxton-Hicks contractions
First uterine contractions may be experienced as early as 6th month

Blood spotting in vaginal secretions


Day or so before labor

Rush of amniotic fluid from vagina


Occurs in 1 woman in 10

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Events Occur just prior to the Beginning of Childbirth?


Beginning of labor may be signaled by indigestion, diarrhea, ache in small or back, and abdominal cramps Placenta and uterus secretes prostaglandins
excite uterus muscles causing contractions

As labor progresses, oxytocin is released


stimulates contractions powerful enough to expel the fetus

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Happens during the First Stage of Childbirth?


Uterine contractions efface and dilate cervix First stage lasts from a few hours to more than a day Contractions increase in strength, frequency, and regularity Mother may be prepped
Shaving pubic hair Administer enema

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Happens during the First Stage of Childbirth?


Fetal monitoring
Measure fetal heart rate and mothers contractions

If necessary to speed up delivery, forceps or vacuum extraction tube may be used Transition (about 30 minutes)
Cervix is nearly fully dilated Head of fetus moves into vagina Frequent and strong contractions

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Figure 4.1 The Stages of Childbirth

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Happens during the Second Stage of Childbirth?


Begins when baby appears at opening of birth canal Ends with birth of baby Babys head crowned when it begins to emerge from birth canal Episiotomy may be performed once crowning takes place
Used to prevent tearing of mother Controversial and used less frequently

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Lessons in Observation: Birth

In the video, Lee had her baby in a hospital setting, without fetal monitoring or anesthesia. What are some other approaches to childbirth outlined in your text? Lee was in labor for 9 hours with her first child, Carter. Is this typical?

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Lessons in Observation: Birth

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Lessons in Observation: Birth

Lee and Dan were worried about the size of Carters testicles and his somewhat flattened facial features. Describe the newborn babys appearance and explain the likely duration of these characteristics.

What does the acronym APGAR stand for?

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Lessons in Observation: Birth


How are each of the five areas tested by the APGAR rated? Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration Explain the APGAR score ratings in connection with good, fair, and poor condition.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Lessons in Observation: Birth


What was Carters APGAR score? Why is this test performed twice, at one minute and at five minutes? Does the APGAR score predict the future health of a baby?

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Happens during the Second Stage of Childbirth?


Once babys head emerges from mother, mucus is suctioned from the babys mouth
Clears passageway for breathing

Umbilical cord is clamped and severed Newborn may be removed


Baby is footprinted ID bracelet is put on baby Antibiotic ointment or drops are applied to babys eyes Baby receives Vitamin K injection

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Happens during the Third Stage of Childbirth?


Also referred to as the placenta stage Lasts minutes to an hour or more Placenta separates from the wall of uterus and is expelled Obstetrician sews episiotomy, if performed

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Methods of Childbirth

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

How is Anesthesia Used in Childbirth?


General anesthesia
Puts mother to sleep

Negative effects of general anesthesia


Abnormal patterns of sleep and wakefulness Decreased attention and social responsiveness for at least 6 weeks

Local anesthetics
Deadens pain without putting mother to sleep Minor depressive effects on neonates shortly after birth

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What is Prepared Childbirth?


Lamaze method
Utilize breathing and relaxation exercises to lessen fear and pain Teaches women to associate relaxation with contractions

Coach
Aids the mother in the delivery room Provides social support to mother during labor

Doula
Experienced female companion provides continuous emotional support during labor Fewer cesarean deliveries, less anesthesia, and shorter, less painful labors

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What is the C-section?


Cesarean Section
Delivered by abdominal surgery

Physicians prefer C-section to vaginal delivery


Mothers small pelvis Maternal weakness or fatigue Baby is too large Baby is in distress

May be used to bypass infections in birth canal from HIV or Herpes

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

How Can a Woman Decide to Deliver Her Baby?


Diversity of birthing options All-in-one labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum rooms (LDRPs)
Birthing suite in hospital equipped for uncomplicated birth Easy access to emergency facilities if needed

Home Birth
Can be fairly safe for healthy women with little risk of complications

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Birth Problems

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What are the Effects of Oxygen Deprivation at Birth?


Hypoxia - Prenatal oxygen deprivation
can impair development of central nervous system and psychological disorders

Anoxia - Oxygen deprived at birth


predicted problems in learning and memory can cause health problems such as early-onset schizophrenia and cerebral palsy

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What is Meant by the Terms Prematurity and Low Birth Weight?


Premature or preterm baby
Occurs before 37 weeks gestation (normal is 40 weeks)

Low-birth-weight baby
Weighs less than 5.5 pounds

Small for date


Low-birth-weight, although born at full term

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Risks are Connected with being Born Prematurely or Low in Birth Weight?
Infant mortality
Neonates weighing 3.25 to 5.5 pounds are 7 times more likely to die than infants of normal weight Those weighing less than 3.3 pounds are nearly 100 times as likely to die

Delayed neurological development


Lower birth weight poorer performance throughout school years

Delayed motor development, such as walking Preschool experience fosters cognitive and social development

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Signs are Connected with being Born Prematurely or Low in Birth Weight?
Preterm babies show signs of immaturity
relatively thin fine, downy hair (lanugo) oily, white substance on skin (vernix)

Preterms born six weeks or more prior to full term


nipples not yet be emerged testicles of boys not yet descended into scrotum

Muscles immature and reflexes are weak Respiratory distress syndrome


walls of air sacs in lungs stick together

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

How are Preterm Infants Treated Following Birth?


Usually remain in hospital incubators
Temperature-controlled environment with protection from infection

Parents often do not treat preterms as well as full term


Less attractive than full-term babies High-pitched, grating cries More irritable

Preterms and parent interaction is less even when they are brought home

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

How are Preterm Infants Treated Following Birth?


Interventions for preterm infants
Benefit from external stimulation Massage Kangaroo care

Preterm infants exposed to stimulation


Gain weight more rapidly Show fewer respiratory problems Make greater advances in motor, intellectual, and neurological development than controls

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Developing in a World of Diversity


Maternal Mortality and Infant Mortality Around the World

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

The Postpartum Period

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Kinds of Problems in Mood do Women Experience during Postpartum Period?


Baby blues
Transient about 10 days

Postpartum depression (PPD)


Begins one month after delivery and may linger for weeks/months Major depressive disorder Psychotic features

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

How Critical is Parental Interaction with Neonates in the Formation of Bonds of Attachment?
Bonding
Formation of bonds of attachment between parent and child Essential to survival and well being of child

Maternal sensitive period


Amount of access to newborn (Klaus & Kennell, 1978) Extended early contact is not essential for adequate bonding

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Characteristics of Neonates

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

How do Health Professionals Assess the Health of Neonates?


Apgar scale
Based on five signs of health Interpretation of scores
7 or above no danger below 4 critical condition

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale


Based on four areas of behaviors Measures reflexes, motor behavior and muscle tone

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What are Reflexes?


Reflexes
Simple, unlearned stereotypical responses, elicited by certain types of stimulation Survival value Neural functioning is determined by testing reflex

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Kinds of Reflexes are Shown by Neonates?


Rooting
Baby turns head and mouth toward stimulus that strokes the cheek, chin, or corner of mouth Facilities finding mothers nipple for sucking

Sucking
Babies will suck almost any object that touches the lips Will become replaced by voluntary sucking

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Kinds of Reflexes are Shown by Neonates?


Moro or startle reflex
Back arches, legs and arms are flung out and then brought back toward chest into a hugging motion Occurs when babys position is suddenly changes or health and neck support is lost Elicited by loud noises or bumping baby Usually lost 6 to 7 months after birth

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Kinds of Reflexes are Shown by Neonates?


Grasping or palmar reflex
Using four fingers, babies grasp fingers/objects pressed against the palms of their hands Most babies can support their own weight Usually lost by 3 to 4 months Replaced by voluntary grasping at 5 to 6 months

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Kinds of Reflexes are Shown by Neonates?


Stepping reflex
Mimic walk when held under arms Usually disappears by 3 or 4 months

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Kinds of Reflexes are Shown by Neonates?


Babinski reflex
Fans or spreads toes in response to stroking foot Usually disappears at end of first year

Tonic-neck reflex
While lying on back, baby turns head to one side. Arm and leg on that side extend, while opposite side flex.

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Vision
Visual acuity
Estimate of 20/600 Best see objects 7 to 9 inches from eyes Lack peripheral vision of older child Able to track movement within one day of birth
preference for moving objects

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

A Closer Look
Studying Visual Acuity in Neonates: How Well Can They See?

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Vision
Visual accommodation
Self-adjustments made by eye lens to bring objects into focus Neonates show little or no visual accommodation
Focus on objects 7 to 9 inches away

Convergence
Does not occur until 7 or 8 weeks

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Hearing
Fetuses respond to sound Neonates respond to amplitude and pitch Show preference for mothers voice Responsive to sounds and rhythms of speech
Show no preference for specific languages

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Smell and Taste


Smell
Well developed at birth Demonstrate aversion for noxious and preference for pleasant odors Recognize familiar odors

Taste
Sensitive to different tastes Demonstrate facial expressions to basic tastes Prefer sweet tastes

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Touch and Pain


Touch
Sensitive to touch Touch elicits many reflex behaviors

Pain
Less sensitive to pain

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Learning
Or Really Early Childhood Education

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Can Neonates Learn?


Classical Conditioning
Involuntary responses are conditioned to a new stimuli

Operant Conditioning
Behavior (reflexes) are modified through reinforcement

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Patterns of Sleep are Found among Neonates?


Neonates spend about 16 hours per day in sleep
Typical infants has six cycles of waking and sleeping

REM Sleep
Neonates spend 50% time in REM sleep Decreases in percentage of REM
6 months 30% 2 to 3 years 20 to 25%

NREM Sleep

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Figure 4.15 REM Sleep and Non-REM Sleep

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

Why do Babies Cry?


Pain and discomfort Universal, expressive and functional communication
expressive response to unpleasant feelings stimulates caregiver response

Distinct causes and patterns of cries


Hunger, anger, pain Peaks of crying in late afternoon and early evening

Crying produces physiological response in others

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What Can I do to Stop an Infant from Crying?


Sucking serves as a built-in tranquilizer
Pacifier, sweet solutions

Soothing processes
Pick baby up, patting, caressing, rocking them Speaking to them in low voice

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What is SIDS?
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome crib death
Strikes while the baby is sleeping Most common cause of death in infants between 1 and 12 months Most likely to occur between 2 and 5 months
Period when reflexive behavior is weakening

Causes of SIDS remains obscure

Childhood and Adolescence: Voyages in Development, Second Edition, Spencer A. Rathus


Chapter 4

What are the Risk Factors for SIDS?


SIDS is most common among
babies aged 2 to 4 months babies put to sleep on their stomach premature and low-birth-weight babies males lower SES African Americans babies of teenage mothers babies of mothers who smoked or used narcotics during pregnancy