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Section Two: Matrices Textbook: Ch. 1.8, 1.

10
GOALS OF THIS CHAPTER
- develop notion of matrix inverse - discuss properties of matrix inverse - see elementary row operation procedure of finding an inverse - introduce cofactors and the adjoint of a matrix - see the adjoint formula for finding an inverse - understand what the existence of an inverse tells us about linear systems - understand and calculate elementary matrices

WHAT IS A MATRIX INVERSE?


When dealing with numbers, we have an understanding of what the inverse of a number a is: it is the unique number b that satisfies the inverse equation

ab = 1
We say b is the inverse of a (provided it exists). We can even solve for b:

b = 1/a
So we can write the inverse equation as:

a * 1/a = aa-1= 1

WHAT IS A MATRIX INVERSE?


It is natural to wonder if there is such a thing as an inverse for a matrix A. The answer is maybe. If there is an inverse (call it B), it must satisfy the matrix inverse equations:

AB = I

BA = I

Usually, we write A-1 instead of B, so that the matrix inverse equations look like:

AA-1 = I

A-1A = I

If the inverse does not exist, we say A is singular (or non-invertible). If the inverse does exist, then we say A is non-singular (or invertible).

WHAT IS A MATRIX INVERSE?


Thm. 1 Uniqueness of Inverse - done in class Proof - done in class

Thm. 2 Properties of Matrix Inverse - done in class Proof - done in class

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION PROCEDURE


Next, I will guide you through the steps needed to find the inverse of a square matrix A. This method will either find the inverse, or it will tell you that the inverse does not exist. Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

2 1 1

3 2 2

A=

1 0

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION PROCEDURE


Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 1 0

2 1 1

3 2 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1
STEP #1: Adjoin an identity matrix of the same size to the right hand side of A. We call this matrix [A|I].

STEP #2: Use elementary row operations to reduce the lefthand side of [A|I] to RREF.

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION PROCEDURE


Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 1 0

2 1 1

3 2 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1
R2 R2 R1

1 0 0

2 -1 1

3 -1 2

1 -1 0

0 1 0

0 0 1
R2 (-1)R2

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION PROCEDURE


Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

2 1 1

3 1 2

1 1 0

0 -1 0

0 0 1
R3 R3 R2

1 0 0

2 1 0

3 1 1

1 1 -1

0 -1 1

0 0 1

R1

R1 2R2

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION PROCEDURE


Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

0 1 0

1 1 1

-1 1 -1

2 -1 1

0 0 1

R1

R1 R3

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 1 1

0 1 -1

1 -1 1

-1 0 1
R2 R2 R3

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION PROCEDURE


Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 2 -1

1 -2 1

-1 -1 1

RREF

A-1

STEP #3: If the RREF of A is an identity matrix, then A has an inverse and the inverse is the matrix on the right hand side!

[A|I] E.R.O. [I|A-1]

ELEMENTARY ROW OPERATION PROCEDURE


Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O. The only other thing that may happen, is you obtain a full row of zeros along the way. If this happens, then A is not invertible (or A is singular). 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 -1 1 -2 1 -1 -1 1

RREF (full row of zeros)

A-1 does not exist (even though there is a matrix over here)

MINORS AND COFACTORS


For a 2x2 matrix, we can calculate a special number called the determinant. We denote it as det(A). Ex. 4 The 2x2 Determinant

1
A=

2 4

Multiply entries on main diagonal. Subtract the product of the remaining entries.

det(A) = 1*4 2*3 = -2

MINORS AND COFACTORS


Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2
A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 0 5

M11 = det

-7 2

= 0 (-35) = 35
The minor of the (1,1) entry.

MINORS AND COFACTORS


Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2
A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 1 0 2 -7

M23 =

det

= -7 0 = -7
The minor of the (2,3) entry.

MINORS AND COFACTORS


Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2
A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 1 3 2 5

M32 = det

= 5 6 = -1
The minor of the (3,2) entry.

MINORS AND COFACTORS


For any square matrix, we denote the cofactor of an entry as Aij. The cofactor is defined to be

Aij = (-1)i+jMij
Ex. 6 Cofactors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2
A= 3

M23 =

1 0

2 -7

0 5
A23 = (-1)2+3M23 = (-1)5(-7-0) = (-1)(-7) =7

0 -7 2

MINORS AND COFACTORS


For any square matrix, we denote the cofactor of an entry as Aij. The cofactor is defined to be

Aij = (-1)i+jMij
Ex. 6 Cofactors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2
A= 3

M11 =

-7 2

0 5
A11 = (-1)1+1M11 = (-1)2(0+35) = 35

0 -7 2

The cofactor returns a SINGLE NUMBER.

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


There is one cofactor for each entry in an nxn square matrix A. If we combine all these cofactors, we obtain the cofactor matrix, or cofmat(A).

A11 A12
cofmat(A) =

A1n A2n Ann

A21 A22 An1 An2

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1
B=

2 4

Since there isnt a matrix left over when we cross out the column and row, we just write down the number left over.

B11 B12
cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4)
=

B21 B22

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1
B=

2 4

B11 B12
cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)
=

B21 B22

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1
B=

2 4

B11 B12
cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)
=

B21 B22

(-1)3(2)

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1
B=

2 4

B11 B12
cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)
=

B21 B22

(-1)3(2) (-1)4(1)

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1
B=

2 4

B11 B12
cofmat(B) =

4
=

-3

B21 B22

-2 1

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


Ex. 8 3x3 Cofactor Matrix - done in class Once we know the matrix of cofactors, all we have to do is take the transpose of the matrix of cofactors to get to the adjoint.

adj(A) = cofmat(A)T

Ex. 9 3x3 Adjoint Matrix (using Ex. 8) - done in class

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


Why does the adjoint matter? Well, it turns out we can find the inverse of an nxn matrix A using the adjoint formula.

A-1 = 1/det(A) adj(A)

So, if we know the adjoint of a square matrix A, we just scalar multiply by one over the determinant to get the inverse. Right now, we can only use this for 2x2 matrices (we will learn how to find determinants of bigger matrices later).

THE ADJOINT MATRIX


This formula gives us a shortcut to find the inverse for a 2x2 matrix.

a
A=

b d
1

-b

A-1 =

ad-bc

-c a
Adjoint of A

Just scalar multiply these two pieces to get the inverse of A!

One over the determinant

USING THE INVERSE TO SOLVE Ax=b


Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

Suppose that the industrial process of a company can be modeled by the matrix equation Ax=b. The input vector x represents the amounts of materials that are entered into the industrial process and the output vector b represents the amounts of materials obtained after the process is complete. If the company would like the output of three materials to be 15, 10 and 5; how much of the materials are required as input into the process?

1 2 3
A= 1

1 2

0 1 2

USING THE INVERSE TO SOLVE Ax=b


Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

If we know A is invertible, we can easily solve the matrix system Ax=b.

A-1Ax = A-1b Ix = A-1b x = A-1b


In Ex. 3, we found the inverse of A:

0 1 -1
A-1 = 2

-2 -1

-1 1 1

USING THE INVERSE TO SOLVE Ax=b


Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

We can use information from the question to write out the output vector b.

15
b=

10 5

USING THE INVERSE TO SOLVE Ax=b


Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

The final answer is given by the multiplication x = A-1b:

x y z
=

0 1 -1 2 -2 -1 -1 1 1 5
=

15 10 5
So the company would require 5 units of the first, 5 units of the second, and 0 units of the third input materials.

5 0

USING THE INVERSE TO SOLVE Ax=b


If we know that an nxn matrix A is non-singular, then we also know many other things! We often call the following list A List of Non-Singular Equivalences. We will add more to this list in future chapters. (1) The nxn matrix A is invertible. (2) The system Ax=b has a unique solution for every b (3) The only solution of the homogeneous system Ax=0 is the trivial solution x=0 (4) A is row equivalent to I (ie. there is not a full row of zeros in the RREF of A). Proof to be completed in a future chapter

ELEMENTARY MATRICES
A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE I multiplying a row by a non-zero number

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1
R3 2 R3

1 0 0

0 1 0 E1

0 0 2

ELEMENTARY MATRICES
A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE II adding a multiple of one row to another

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1
R1 R1 3R3

1 0 0

0 1 0 E2

-3 0 1

ELEMENTARY MATRICES
A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE III switching two rows (called a permutation)

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1
R2 R3

1 0 0

0 0 1 E3

0 1 0

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

Ex. 11 Invertible Matrix as Product of Elementary Matrices - done in class

ELEMENTARY MATRICES
Thm. 12 Every elementary matrix is invertible. The inverse of an elementary matrix is an elementary matrix of the same type. Proof not required Appendix B: If and Only If Proofs done in class Thm. 13 A square matrix A is invertible if and only if it is the product of elementary matrices. Proof done in class Note: we can generalize Thm. 11 so that any square matrix A can be written as a product of elementary matrices and an upper triangular matrix. (see textbook pg. 133) This is important since A need not be invertible to do so!