18 views

Uploaded by Bryan Penfound

- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10
- 17105
- Alg Linear 02
- Matrices Tutorial
- Midterm1_StudyGuide
- Lin 3145
- Topic 3 - Matrices
- Hee
- Inverse of a Matrix Using Elementary Row Operations (Gauss-Jordan)
- week 2
- PERTEM~1
- Finite Element Method (Jorge Chavez)
- Matrices
- 03
- 4 Determinants
- 1.Determinant
- SCILAB Edited
- 2nd Ed Saad Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Systems
- CD Paper Pag 227
- D010 - Basic Introduction to Matrix Algebra v2

You are on page 1of 36

10

GOALS OF THIS CHAPTER

- develop notion of matrix inverse - discuss properties of matrix inverse - see elementary row operation procedure of finding an inverse - introduce cofactors and the adjoint of a matrix - see the adjoint formula for finding an inverse - understand what the existence of an inverse tells us about linear systems - understand and calculate elementary matrices

When dealing with numbers, we have an understanding of what the inverse of a number a is: it is the unique number b that satisfies the inverse equation

ab = 1

We say b is the inverse of a (provided it exists). We can even solve for b:

b = 1/a

So we can write the inverse equation as:

a * 1/a = aa-1= 1

It is natural to wonder if there is such a thing as an inverse for a matrix A. The answer is maybe. If there is an inverse (call it B), it must satisfy the matrix inverse equations:

AB = I

BA = I

Usually, we write A-1 instead of B, so that the matrix inverse equations look like:

AA-1 = I

A-1A = I

If the inverse does not exist, we say A is singular (or non-invertible). If the inverse does exist, then we say A is non-singular (or invertible).

Thm. 1 Uniqueness of Inverse - done in class Proof - done in class

Next, I will guide you through the steps needed to find the inverse of a square matrix A. This method will either find the inverse, or it will tell you that the inverse does not exist. Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

2 1 1

3 2 2

A=

1 0

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 1 0

2 1 1

3 2 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

STEP #1: Adjoin an identity matrix of the same size to the right hand side of A. We call this matrix [A|I].

STEP #2: Use elementary row operations to reduce the lefthand side of [A|I] to RREF.

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 1 0

2 1 1

3 2 2

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R2 R2 R1

1 0 0

2 -1 1

3 -1 2

1 -1 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R2 (-1)R2

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

2 1 1

3 1 2

1 1 0

0 -1 0

0 0 1

R3 R3 R2

1 0 0

2 1 0

3 1 1

1 1 -1

0 -1 1

0 0 1

R1

R1 2R2

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

0 1 0

1 1 1

-1 1 -1

2 -1 1

0 0 1

R1

R1 R3

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 1 1

0 1 -1

1 -1 1

-1 0 1

R2 R2 R3

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O.

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 2 -1

1 -2 1

-1 -1 1

RREF

A-1

STEP #3: If the RREF of A is an identity matrix, then A has an inverse and the inverse is the matrix on the right hand side!

Ex. 3 Finding the Inverse using E.R.O. The only other thing that may happen, is you obtain a full row of zeros along the way. If this happens, then A is not invertible (or A is singular). 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 -1 1 -2 1 -1 -1 1

A-1 does not exist (even though there is a matrix over here)

For a 2x2 matrix, we can calculate a special number called the determinant. We denote it as det(A). Ex. 4 The 2x2 Determinant

1

A=

2 4

Multiply entries on main diagonal. Subtract the product of the remaining entries.

Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 0 5

M11 = det

-7 2

= 0 (-35) = 35

The minor of the (1,1) entry.

Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 1 0 2 -7

M23 =

det

= -7 0 = -7

The minor of the (2,3) entry.

Let A be a square matrix. The minor matrix of the entry a(i,j) is the new matrix formed by deleting the ith row and jth column of A. The minor of a(i,j) is the determinant of the minor matrix, denoted as Mij. Ex. 5 Minors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

0 5

0 -7 2 1 3 2 5

M32 = det

= 5 6 = -1

The minor of the (3,2) entry.

For any square matrix, we denote the cofactor of an entry as Aij. The cofactor is defined to be

Aij = (-1)i+jMij

Ex. 6 Cofactors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

M23 =

1 0

2 -7

0 5

A23 = (-1)2+3M23 = (-1)5(-7-0) = (-1)(-7) =7

0 -7 2

For any square matrix, we denote the cofactor of an entry as Aij. The cofactor is defined to be

Aij = (-1)i+jMij

Ex. 6 Cofactors of a 3x3 Matrix

1 2 2

A= 3

M11 =

-7 2

0 5

A11 = (-1)1+1M11 = (-1)2(0+35) = 35

0 -7 2

There is one cofactor for each entry in an nxn square matrix A. If we combine all these cofactors, we obtain the cofactor matrix, or cofmat(A).

A11 A12

cofmat(A) =

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

Since there isnt a matrix left over when we cross out the column and row, we just write down the number left over.

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4)

=

B21 B22

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)

=

B21 B22

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)

=

B21 B22

(-1)3(2)

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

(-1)2(4) (-1)3(3)

=

B21 B22

(-1)3(2) (-1)4(1)

Ex. 7 2x2 Cofactor Matrix

1

B=

2 4

B11 B12

cofmat(B) =

4

=

-3

B21 B22

-2 1

Ex. 8 3x3 Cofactor Matrix - done in class Once we know the matrix of cofactors, all we have to do is take the transpose of the matrix of cofactors to get to the adjoint.

adj(A) = cofmat(A)T

Why does the adjoint matter? Well, it turns out we can find the inverse of an nxn matrix A using the adjoint formula.

So, if we know the adjoint of a square matrix A, we just scalar multiply by one over the determinant to get the inverse. Right now, we can only use this for 2x2 matrices (we will learn how to find determinants of bigger matrices later).

This formula gives us a shortcut to find the inverse for a 2x2 matrix.

a

A=

b d

1

-b

A-1 =

ad-bc

-c a

Adjoint of A

Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

Suppose that the industrial process of a company can be modeled by the matrix equation Ax=b. The input vector x represents the amounts of materials that are entered into the industrial process and the output vector b represents the amounts of materials obtained after the process is complete. If the company would like the output of three materials to be 15, 10 and 5; how much of the materials are required as input into the process?

1 2 3

A= 1

1 2

0 1 2

Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

In Ex. 3, we found the inverse of A:

0 1 -1

A-1 = 2

-2 -1

-1 1 1

Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

We can use information from the question to write out the output vector b.

15

b=

10 5

Ex. 10 Solving a matrix system with the inverse

x y z

=

0 1 -1 2 -2 -1 -1 1 1 5

=

15 10 5

So the company would require 5 units of the first, 5 units of the second, and 0 units of the third input materials.

5 0

If we know that an nxn matrix A is non-singular, then we also know many other things! We often call the following list A List of Non-Singular Equivalences. We will add more to this list in future chapters. (1) The nxn matrix A is invertible. (2) The system Ax=b has a unique solution for every b (3) The only solution of the homogeneous system Ax=0 is the trivial solution x=0 (4) A is row equivalent to I (ie. there is not a full row of zeros in the RREF of A). Proof to be completed in a future chapter

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE I multiplying a row by a non-zero number

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R3 2 R3

1 0 0

0 1 0 E1

0 0 2

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE II adding a multiple of one row to another

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R1 R1 3R3

1 0 0

0 1 0 E2

-3 0 1

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

A square matrix E is called an elementary matrix if it can be obtained from the identity matrix by a single elementary row operation. TYPE III switching two rows (called a permutation)

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

R2 R3

1 0 0

0 0 1 E3

0 1 0

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

ELEMENTARY MATRICES

Thm. 12 Every elementary matrix is invertible. The inverse of an elementary matrix is an elementary matrix of the same type. Proof not required Appendix B: If and Only If Proofs done in class Thm. 13 A square matrix A is invertible if and only if it is the product of elementary matrices. Proof done in class Note: we can generalize Thm. 11 so that any square matrix A can be written as a product of elementary matrices and an upper triangular matrix. (see textbook pg. 133) This is important since A need not be invertible to do so!

- Matrices - Ch. 1.8, 1.10Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- 17105Uploaded byS84S
- Alg Linear 02Uploaded byArnon Bruno
- Matrices TutorialUploaded byNelsonMoseM
- Midterm1_StudyGuideUploaded bySenchroma
- Lin 3145Uploaded byWorse To Worst Satittamajitra
- Topic 3 - MatricesUploaded bytazsyamil
- HeeUploaded byWorse To Worst Satittamajitra
- Inverse of a Matrix Using Elementary Row Operations (Gauss-Jordan)Uploaded byBrian Lee
- week 2Uploaded byss
- PERTEM~1Uploaded byAnto Ariyanto
- Finite Element Method (Jorge Chavez)Uploaded byBruno Agostinho Hernandez
- MatricesUploaded byNalia Khachu
- 03Uploaded byKunj Dipin Katyal
- 4 DeterminantsUploaded byHarsh Ravi
- 1.DeterminantUploaded byadimesic
- SCILAB EditedUploaded byRama Sugavanam
- 2nd Ed Saad Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear SystemsUploaded byChen Weiqiang
- CD Paper Pag 227Uploaded byAnonymous lEBdswQXmx
- D010 - Basic Introduction to Matrix Algebra v2Uploaded bydatateam
- Algebra S5Uploaded bytajefx
- hw9Uploaded byLinda Hlophe
- ElementaryUploaded byCody Sage
- Arrays in Excel Fa02Uploaded byHitesh Makwana
- Excel MatrixUploaded byleo_dh
- Solving SLE Using CramerUploaded byAbebayehu Yohannes
- Calibrar MagUploaded bypccm2010
- Reconstruction algorithms for permittivity and conductivity imaging.pdfUploaded byDicia Kesuma
- Definition and Examples of GroupsUploaded byVelistFarents
- m1gla NotesUploaded byChristoff Guntz

- Matrix MultiplicationUploaded byKuber Padia
- Complex Numbers HandoutUploaded byBryan Penfound
- Midterm ReviewUploaded byBryan Penfound
- Scan 0004Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Determinants - Ch. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- MatrixMultPractice2solUploaded byBryan Penfound
- Final Exam Review MATH 1201 (proofs to know)Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Vectors - 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Midterm 2 ReviewUploaded byBryan Penfound
- Linear Systems - Ch. 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 (Part)Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- MatrixMultPractice2Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Course Syllabus MATH 1201Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Matrices - Ch. 1.3 (Part), 1.4, 1.7Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Matrices - Ch. 1.5, 1.9Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Determinants - Ch. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5Uploaded byBryan Penfound
- Matrices - Ch. 1.6Uploaded byBryan Penfound

- Miscellaneous Algebra Prelim Solutions: University of MinnesotaUploaded bydmorawski
- JUJ 2007Uploaded byFatimah Abdul Khalid
- Multi-stage processesUploaded by4gen_2
- papeAutomatic detection of skin defects in citrus fruits using a multivariate image analysis approachr 09Uploaded bymariano_angelo
- summary chapter 3 townsend quantum mechanics modern approachUploaded byBruna Shinohara
- MA2213 SummaryUploaded byKhor Shi-Jie
- 10.1.1.110Uploaded byMohamed Abdulhameed
- Evaluación Experimental de La Toxicidad de Cobre in SituUploaded byAngel Isidoro
- Question Based on c All TipicUploaded byRishu kumar
- Investigatory projectUploaded byang_prin
- Acoustic-Structural Coupling of the Automobile Passenger CompartmentUploaded byStefan Eddy Smith
- Cpds Imp Ques Theory and Pgms (1)Uploaded bySsn Shashanka
- MThesis_KurkiTUploaded bysachin_badke
- Zdeněk Bittnar_ Jiří Šejnoha-Numerical methods in structural mechanics-Amer Society of Civil Engineers (1996)Uploaded byErickSimon
- IAS Mains Mathematics 2013Uploaded bynikhilgocrazy
- Training a SVM in a PrimalUploaded bympssassygirl
- solution3.pdfUploaded byGabrielleAngeles
- Assignment (Ch Determinants)Uploaded byAman Bansal
- Image Features Extraction and Fusion Based on Joint Sparse RepresentaionUploaded byMusthafa Kadersha
- qutip-doc-3.1.0Uploaded bySparśa Roychowdhury
- IEEE A4 FormatUploaded bySultan Khan
- DE ZG535Uploaded byRaaj Thevar
- MIIPSI Matrices for Impact IdentificationUploaded bySharad Singh
- II Assignment MmUploaded byshantan02
- eeesyllabusUploaded byAMARNATHNAIDU77
- Jee Adv Mp7 Paper1Uploaded bykvg3venu7329
- Group Theory and PhysicsUploaded byMax
- matlabUploaded byKama Raj Kr
- Economic and Econometric ModelsUploaded byHoang Phu
- s-parUploaded byPankaj Dhiman