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How A Forest Develops In Nature

Shrubs and small trees grow among the first plants and a

shrub land develops . Seedlings of tall forest trees germinate and grow in the shelter of the shrubs, and soon overtop them, forming a young forest. This gets taller and more complex over time. In the mature forest, individual trees die and young saplings grow up to replace them, but the forests composition and structure basically remain the same for centuries. When a mature hardwood forest is harvested or killed by nature, it is not long before a new forest takes its place. There are seeds in the ground already, dropped there by the trees of the past. There are usually young trees on the ground unless the stand was killed by fire or some other general catastrophe.

Forest Renewal
When nature renews a forest, it is often quite different from

the original forest. A mature stand in the Central Hardwood Forest, for example, is usually composed of oaks and hickories and other species referred to as climax types. They are species that grow well in bright sunlight or in partial shade. They have long life spans and compete well for the moisture and the space available. When these trees are removed or destroyed, however, other trees have a chance to get started. Seeds from pines or other trees in the vicinity blow onto the ground. Sometimes seeds sprout after being in the ground for many years.

Forest Composition
A new forest is composed mostly of trees referred to as early

succession species. Usually some seeds of the climax types also survive. And some trees re-sprout from the root systems of trees that have been killed. But it is only after many years that the climax types will dominate the forest once again. This same succession takes place when farms and pastures are allowed to lay idle, allowing forests to develop.

BIODIVERSITY IN A NATURE
Forest biological diversity is a broad term that refers to all the

life forms found within forested areas and the ecological roles they perform. As such, forest biological diversity encompasses not just trees but the multitude of plants, animals and micro-organisms that inhabit forest areas and their associated genetic diversity. Forest biological diversity can be considered at different levels, including the ecosystem, landscapes, species, populations and genetics.

CONTINUATION
Complex interactions can occur within and amongst these

levels. In biologically diverse forests, this complexity allows organisms to adapt to continually changing environmental conditions and to maintain ecosystem functions. In the annex to decision , the Conference of the Parties recognized that: Forest biological diversity results from evolutionary processes over thousands and even millions of years which, in themselves, are driven by ecological forces such as climate, fire, competition and disturbance.

Forest Ecosystem
The diversity of forest ecosystems (in both physical and

biological features) results in high levels of adaptation, a feature of forest ecosystems which is an integral component of their biological diversity. Within specific forest ecosystems, the maintenance of ecological processes is dependent upon the maintenance of their biological diversity.

FOREST PLANTS

There are some plants that grow in forests,some examples are: Sal.teak,semal,sheesham,neem,pal -ash,fig,khair,amla,and bamboo etc.

FOREST ANIMALS
There are some animals which

live in the forest some of them are: Bear,jackal,porcupine,elephant ,monkey,lion,tiger,leopard etc.

FOREST AS A DYNAMIC LIVING ENTITY


Forests are called dynamic living entity because of the

various plants, animals and microorganisms. The wide variety of animals helps the forest to regenerate and grow. Decomposers help in maintaining the supply of nutrients to the growing plants in the forest. In one sentence forests are the lifeline for the forest-dwelling communities , the forest is a dynamic living entity, full of life and vitality.

QUESTIONS

Questions and answers


Q.1:Where does central hardwood trees grow well? Q.2:How do young trees get killed?

Q.3:What does forest biological diversity refer to?


Q.4:Why is forest called dynamic living entity Q.5:Give some examples of forest animals and forest plants.

Fill In The Blanks


Q.1: ________ and __________ grow among the first plants and a shrub land develops . Q.2: Species that grow well in bright sunlight have _________ _____ _______and compete well for the moisture and the space available.

Q.3:___________________can be considered at different levels, including the ecosystem, landscapes, species, populations and genetics. Q.4: _____________ help in maintaining the supply of nutrients to the growing plants in the forest.
Q.5: The new forest is composed mostly of trees referred to as _______ succession species.

Question and answers


Ans.1:Central Hardwood trees grow well in bright sunlight or in partial shade. Ans.2:Usually young trees on the ground was killed by fire or some other general catastrophe. Ans.3:Forest biological diversity is a broad term that refers to all the life forms found within forested areas and the ecological roles they perform. Ans.4:Forests are called dynamic living entity because of the various plants, animals and microorganisms. Ans.5: Sal.teak,semal,sheesham,neem,palash,fig,khair,amla,and bamboo etc. Bear,jackal,porcupine,elephant,monkey,lion,tiger,leopard etc.

Fill in the blanks


Ans.1:Shrubs,small trees Ans.2:Long life span Ans.3:Forest Biological Diversity Ans.4:early.

This powerpoint presentation is made by: 1. Nihal 2. Praveen 3. Pratiush 4. Umair 5. Nikhil