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Unit - II Image Transforms

The Discrete Fourier Transform

Continuous function f(x) is discretized into a sequence

N samples x units apart

Where x = discrete values = 0,1,2, .N-1

The sequence any N uniformly spaced samples from a corresponding continuous function
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2-D functions and their Fourier spectra

Sampling continuous function

1D-Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) pair : DFT and Inverse DFT

2D-Discrete Fourier Transform pair:

DFT and Inverse DFT

2D-Discrete Fourier Transform pair:

DFT and Inverse DFT

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

1D-Discrete Fourier Transform pair:


DFT and Inverse DFT

2D-Discrete Fourier Transform pair:

DFT and Inverse DFT

2D-Discrete Fourier Transform pair:

DFT and Inverse DFT

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The number of complex multiplications and additions in DFT N2

The number of complex multiplications and additions in FFT N log2N .


Decomposition procedure FFT algorithm The reduction in proportionality from N2 to N log2N operations.

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FFT Algorithm

Discrete Fourier Transform

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Number of operations

The number of complex multiplications and additions required to implement FFT Algorithm:

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Inverse FFT

1-D DFT and Inverse DFT

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Taking Complex conjugate and dividing both sides by N:

Similarly for 2-D

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Implementation

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FORTAN implementation of successive doubling algorithm

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Other Separable Transforms

1-D Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

T(u) Forward Transformion of f(x) g(x,u) Forward Transform Kernel u = 0,1,.,N-1

1-D Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

f(x) Inverse Transform h(x,u) Inverse Transformation Kernel x = 0,1,.,N-1


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2-D Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

T(u,v) Forward Transformion of f(x) g(x,y,u,v) Forward Transform Kernel u = 0,1,.,N-1 v = 0,1,.,N-1

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2-D Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

f(x,y) Inverse Transform h(x,y,u,v) Inverse Transformation Kernel x = 0,1,.,N-1 y = 0,1,.,N-1

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Forward kernel is separable

Forward kernel is symmetric g1 = g2

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Example

Forward kernel

Forward kernel is separable and symmetric

Inverse Fourier kernel is also separable and symmetric


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Separable kernel computed in two steps

1. 1-D Transform along each row of f(x,y):

x,v = 0,1,2,,N-1 2. 1-D Transform along each column of T(x,v):

u,v = 0,1,2,,N-1

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Walsh Transform

N = 2n 1-D Forward Walsh Transform Kernel:

1-D Forward Discrete Walsh Transform of f(x):

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Values of 1-D Walsh Transformation Kernel for N=8

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1-D Inverse Walsh Transform Kernel:

1-D Inverse Walsh Transform:

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2-D Forward Walsh Transform Kernel:

2-D Forward Discrete Walsh Transform of f(x):

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2-D Inverse Walsh Transform Kernel:

2-D Inverse Walsh Transform:

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Walsh Transform kernel are separable and symmetric:

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Modification of the successive doubling FFT algorithm for computing the fast Walsh transform

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Hadamard Transform

1-D Forward Hadamard Transform Kernel:

1-D Forward Hadamard Transform:

where N = 2n for u= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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1-D Inverse Hadamard Transform Kernel:

1-D Inverse Hadamard Transform

for x= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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2-D Forward Hadamard Transform Kernel:

2-D Forward Hadamard Transform:

for u= 0,1,2,.,N-1 v= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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2-D Inverse Hadamard Transform Kernel:

2-D Inverse Hadamard Transform:

for x= 0,1,2,.,N-1 y= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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Hadamard Transform kernel are separable and symmetric:

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Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)

1-D Forward Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Kernel:

1-D Forward DCT :

for u= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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1-D Inverse DCT Kernel:

1-D Inverse DCT

for x= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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2-D Forward Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Kernel:

2-D Forward DCT :

where N = 2n for u= 0,1,2,.,N-1 v= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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2-D Inverse DCT Kernel:

2-D Inverse DCT

for x= 0,1,2,.,N-1 y= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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Haar Transform

Haar Transform based on Haar functions hk(z) Continuous and closed interval z [0, 1] for k = 0,1,2,,N-1 where N = 2n First step in generating Haar Transform, integer k decomposed uniquely k = 2p+ q 1 where N = 2n Where 0 p n-1 q= 0 or 1 for p = 0 1 q 2p for p 0

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if N=4, k, p and q values:

Haar Functions:

and

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Slant Transform

Slant Transform matrix of order N x N is the recursive expression SN:

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IM Identity matrix of order M x M

The coefficients are and

For N>1

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Example

Slant matrix S4:

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Hotelling Transform

Developed based on stastical properties of vector representations Tool for Image processing (H.T. has several useful properties) Population of random vectors of the form:

The mean vector of the population: E{arg} expected value of the argument Subscript m associated with the population of x vectors

The Covariance matrix of the vector population:

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Where T Vector Transposition x is n dimensional

Cx & (x-mx) (x-mx)T matrices of order n x n


Element cii of Cx variance of xi ith componeny of the x vectors in the population Element cij of Cx covariance between elements xi and xj Matrix Cx real & symmetric If elements xi and xj are correlated, the covariance = 0 &

cij = cji = 0
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For M vector samples from the random population, The mean vector & covariance from the samples:

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