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1. Feldspar Half the crust is composed of feldspar. It has a light colour and its main constituents are silicon, oxygen, sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminium. It is of three types-orthoelase, plagioclase, microline. 2. Quartz It has two elements, silicon and oxygen. It has a hexagonal crystalline structure. It is uncleavaged, white or colourless. It cracks like glass and is present in sand and granite. It is used in manufacture of radio and radar. 3. Pyroxene It is a mineral with green or dull black lustre. Calcium, aluminium, magnesium, iron, silica are its main constituents. 4. Amphibole A fibrous mineral with a hexagonal structure which has a green or black glittering appearance. Its main constituents are calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminium, silica. 5. Mica This is a layered, cleavaged, white, black or colourless mineral. It is used in electrical appliances. Its constituents are potassium, aluminium, magnesium, iron, silica. 6. Olivine Its components are magnesium, iron, silica etc. It is a glassy, green or yellow mineral with crystalline structure. 7. Apatite A complex compound containing calcium phosphate. It is red, brown, yellow or green in colour. Phosphorus and flourine are derived from it. 8. Barite It is barium sulphate and has a white or brown colour. It has a crystalline structure.

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9. Bauxite A hydrous oxide of aluminium, it is the ore of aluminium. It is noncrystalline and occurs in small pellets. 10. Calcite An important ingredient of limestone, chalk and marble, it is calcium carbonate. It is white or colourless. 11. Chlorite It is hydrous magnesium, iron, aluminium silicate. It has a cleavaged structure. 12. Cinnabar It is mercury sulphide and mercury is derived from it. It has a brownish colour. 13. Corundum It is aluminium oxide and is present in form of ruby and sapphire. It has a hexagonal structure. 14. Dolomite A double carbonate of calcium and magnesium, it is used in cement and iron and steel industries. It is white in colour. 15. Galena It is lead sulphate and lead is derived from it. 16. Gypsum It is hydrous calcium sulphate and is used in cement; fertiliser and chemical industries. 17. Haematite It is a red ore of iron. 18. Kaolinite China clay, it is basically aluminium silicate. 19. Magnesite It is magnesium carbonate and has a non-crystalline structure. 20. Magnetite It is the black ore (or iron oxide) of iron. 21. Pyrite It is iron sulphide. Iron and sulphuric acid are obtained from it.
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Formation of a series of terraces by a river


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Treppen Concept

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Ridge Mountain ridges refer to mountains which originated as a result of local folding and faulting. Generally, the slope of one side of the ridge is steep in contrast tD the moderate slope an the other side, In some cases a ridge -may have a symmetrical slope on hoth sides. Mountain Range It refers to a series of ridges which originated in the same age and underwent the same processes. The most prominent or characteristic feature of mountain ranges is their long and narrow extension. Mountain System A group of mountain ranges formed in a single period, similar in their form, structure and extension is termed a mountain system. Examples are the Basin Range of Nevada (USA), the Rocky mountain system oFNorth America aitd the Appalachian* Mountain Cham It consists of mountain ranges which differ in sisee and periods of formation. Mountain Group It refers to highlands composed of different types of mountains viz., fold, block or volcanic mountains although there is a proper arrangement of the mountains. Cordillera Cordillera refers to several mountain groups and systems. Cordillera is a community of mountains which includes ridges, ranges, mountain chains and mountain systems. The best example is the Western Cordillera in the western part of the USA and in British Columbia of Canada
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Horizontal distribution of temperature in the Pacific Ocean (February).

Horizontal distribution of temperature in the Pacific Ocean (August).

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Zone 1. Central Business District (C.B.D.); Zone 2. Transition zone; Zone 3. Zone of independence: Zone 4. Zone of better residence; Zone 5. Commuter zone

Internal structure of a city according to the Concentric Zone Theory.


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SECTOR THEORY Homer Hoyt gave this theory in 1939

MULTIPLE NUCLEI THEORY


Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman developed a theory in 1945
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Members of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation


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Factors Influencing Soil Erosion There are many factors which influence the process of soil erosion; these are discussed below: 1. Rainfall Precipitation is the most forceful factor causing erosion. Erosion is dependent on the amount, duration, intensity and frequency of rainfall. By the action of dashing rain drops on soil, soil granules are loosened, detached and separated into fine particles. Erosion is greater where the rainfall is not only heavy, but concentrated over short periods. 2. Slope of Topography The slope accelerates erosion as it increases the velocity of the flowing water. 3. Vegetation The vegetative cover protects the soil from the beating and dispersing action of the raindrops by forming a canopy over the soil surface. Vegetation also acts as a mechanical obstruction to flowing water, thus reducing its erosive potential. The plant roots help in building a better structure. They aid in opening the soil and thereby accelerating water absorption and reducing surface run-off. 4. Tillage The infiltration and permeability of the soil is improved by the practice of proper tillage and thereby reducing the chances of erosion. But excess tilling exposes the soil to erosion, especially by wind. 5. Nature of the Soil Erodability of the soil is influenced by the nature of the soil, particularly its texture, structure, organic matter, amounts and kinds of salts present, presence of hard pan in the soil and presence of high water table. 6. Soil Moisture The presence of high water table checks the infiltration and permeability, thus allowing more flow of water on the surface, and greater erosion. At the same time, long continuous rainless periods cause loosening of soil and thus expose the soil to erosion by wind. 7. Wind Velocity Stronger winds have greater erosive potential, thus wind velocity is directly proportional to intensity of erosion.
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Types of Erosion by Water Following are the types of soil erosion caused by water 1. Splash Erosion This type of erosion occurs when the falling raindrops splash on the soil, and beat the bare soil into flowing mud. 2. Sheet Erosion This occurs when soil is removed uniformly in a thin layer from the entire surface area. Movement of soil by splash erosion is the primary cause of sheet erosion. 3. Rill Erosion This type of erosion takes place when the run-off water, laden with soil flowing along the slopes, forms fingerlike channels. Rill erosion is an intermediate stage between sheet erosion and gulley erosion. 4. Gully Erosion As the volume of concentrated run-off increases and attains more velocity on slopes, it enlarges the rill into gullies. At an advanced stage, gullies result in ravines, which are sometimes 50 to 100 feet deep. In India ravines cover about 10 million hectares. 5. Slip Erosion Landslides cause slip erosionbig masses of soil and rock slip down, thus damaging the fields in the foothills anc1 causing obstructions in communication. The effect of slip erosion is localised. 6. Stream Bank Erosion Streams and rivers change their courses by cutting one bank and depositing the silt loads on the others.
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BAJRA

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