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Original Title: Intro to Chemistry_Pre-AP

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The Scientific Method is a systematic approach to problem solving. It is generally composed of the following parts:

Question Hypothesis Experiment Data Analysis Conclusion

Measurement

Measurement: A quantitative observation consisting of a numeric value and units. Three are 2 kinds of units: base and derived

Base Units: Units are mutually independent of each other Ex: 7 meters, 30 kg, 6 seconds Derived Units: Units are obtained mathematically from base units Ex: 10 cm3, 0.9 g/mL, 22 meters/second

Metric System

The Metric System is a decimalized system of measurement based on powers of 10

Used internationally and in the scientific community Consists of base units and prefixes

The United States, Liberia, and Myanmar (Burma) are the only three countries who do not use the metric system

Volume

liters (L)

Mass

grams (g)

Distance

meters (m)

Temperature

Kelvin (K)

Time

seconds (s)

Accuracy: the degree of agreement between the true value and the measured value (bullseye) Precision: the degree of agreement among several measured values (grouping)

Three different groups of students measure the mass of a medal, with a known value of 5.000 grams. Evaluate each groups data for its accuracy and precision (low or high):

Group 1

Trial 1 5.003 g

Group 2

Trial 1 5.400 g

Group 3

Trial 1 5.503 g

Trial 2 5.002 g

Trial 3 5.001 g high Accuracy ______ high Precision ______

Trial 2 5.202 g

Trial 3 5.905 g low Accuracy ______ low Precision ______

Trial 2 5.499 g

Trial 3 5.501 g low Accuracy ______ high Precision ______

Uncertainty in Measurement

All measuring instruments have a degree of uncertainty. The more divisions a device has, the more accurate the measurement. The last digit of a measurement is always estimated (uncertain). How would you read the volume in this graduated read from the cylinder if the markings showed every 5 mL instead of bottom of the meniscus every 1 mL?

Uncertainty in Measurement

If we measure the length of the paw print with a decimeter ruler, we know for a certainty that it is between 0 and 1 decimeters. We estimate the next digit:

Uncertainty in Measurement

If we measure the length of the paw print with a centimeter ruler, we know for a certainty that it is between 3 and 4 centimeters. We estimate the next digit:

Uncertainty in Measurement

If we measure the length of the paw print with a millimeter ruler, we know for a certainty that it is between 34 and 35 millimeters. We estimate the next digit:

Significant Figures

Significant Figures are the digits in a measurement that are known with some degree of certainty are called significant figures.

The number of significant figures in a measurement = the number of digits that are known + the estimated digit The more significant figures after the decimal, the more accurate the measurement.

Ex: This triple beam balance shows a mass of 62.41 grams. There are 4 significant figures in this measurement.

There are rules for counting significant figures related to:

Non-zero integers Zeroes

Leading zeroes Captive zeroes Trailing zeroes

Non-zero integers are always significant

Leading zeroes are never significant

Captive zeroes are always significant

Trailing zeroes are only significant if the number contains a decimal

How many significant figures are in the following measurements? 7 1. 8,675,309 km ____ 4 2. 90,210 L ____ 1 3. 0.07 mg ____ 4 4. 0.2020 daL ____ 5 5. 300.00 g ____

Scientific Notation

Scientific Notation is mathematical shorthand that makes large and small numbers manageable It is composed of three parts:

Coefficient Base Exponent

4.56 x Coefficient

-7 10

Base

Exponent

Coefficients

Coefficients must be greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 Coefficients can be positive or negative All numbers in the coefficient are counted as significant

Which of the following numbers are written incorrectly? 22 x 105 7 x 10-3 9.5 x 102 0.3 x 10-9 10 x 108 -1.00 x 106

Bases Base is always a 10 Bases are never counted as significant Exponents Exponents are always integers Exponents can be positive (big number) or negative (small number) Ex: 1 x 103 = 1000 and 1 x 10-3 = 0.001 Exponents are never counted as significant Which of the following numbers are written incorrectly? 4.1 x 10-5 7 x 100 2.2 x 620 0.15 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-1 -7 x 106.3

Scientific Notation

How to enter the number 2.5 x 10-8 into the calculator:

Enter the coefficient 2.5

Multiplication & Division Calculate raw answer Rounded answer must contain no more significant figures than the measurement with the least number of significant figures

Example: What is the density of a bar of gold with a mass of 87.82 g and a volume of 4.55 cm3? (Density = mass volume)

87.82 g 4 sig figs 4.55 cm3 3 sig figs = 19.301099 g/cm3 raw answer 19.3 g/cm3 3 sig figs

Addition & Subtraction Calculate raw answer Rounded answer can have no more digits to the right of the decimal point than the measurement with the least number of digits to the right of the decimal point Example: What is the difference in length between a professional shot put throw of 23.125 meters and an amateur shot put throw of 21.2 meters?

23.125 m 21.2 m = 1.925 m 1.9 m 3 digits 1 digit raw after decimal after decimal answer

Exact Numbers

Exact Numbers are different from measurements because they have no uncertainty Significant figures does not apply Examples

Conversions (3 feet = 1 yard) Counting Numbers (20 M&Ms)

Prefix teragigamegakilohectodeka(base unit) decicentimillimicronanopicoSymbol T G M k h da (none) d c m n p Numeric Representation 1012 109 106 103 102 101 100 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 1,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,000,000 1,000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001 0.000000001 0.000000000001

Powers of Ten

Remember

King Henry died by drinking chocolate milk.

Kilo Hecto Deka Base Deci, Centi, and Milli.

Metric Conversions

Example: How many kilograms are in 75 decigrams?Move decimal 4 places to the left: 75 dg = 0.0075 kg

(start)

k h da

base

c mx x

Move decimal 3 places to the right: 12 daL = 12,000 cL

(start)

k h da

base

c mx x

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

base

c mx x

_______ dg = 4.2 hg 4,200 _______ dam = 6,055 mm 0.6055 0.01 _______ L = 1 cL 300 _______ cK = 0.003 kK 11.7 _______ s = 11,700,000 s

Pressure is the force over a given area If someone stepped on your foot, which shoe would you prefer they wore? Pressure is measured in units of: 1 Atmospheres (atm) 101.3 kiloPascals (N/m2) 760 mmHg (mm of Mercury) 760 torrs Pressure is measured by 2 instruments: Barometer Manometer

Pressure Conversions

400 torr = __________ kPa

400 torr 101.3kPa 760 torr = 53.32kPa

Density

Density is the ratio of an objects mass and volume

The formula for density is D = m/v

In chemistry, the 2 most common units of density will be g/mL and g/cm3

The four cubes to the right have the same volume (1 cm3), but different masses. How does this effect their densities?

Density

The density of an object is an intensive physical property, meaning it cannot be changed no matter the quantity

A property that changes with the amount or quantity of the substance is an extensive property.

Objects that float < 1 g/mL Objects that sink > 1 g/mL

Counting Matter

What are some common ways we count matter? Dozen = 12 Ream = 500 Gross = 144 Mole = 6.02 x 1023

The Mole

In the same way a dozen is worth 12, a mole is worth 6.02 x 1023

This number is called Avogadros number Mole is abbreviated as mol

The mole is a large number because particles are so small, it takes many of them make up an amount we can see and understand

The Mole

1

Mole Calculations

6.02 x 1023 particles = 1 mole Ex: How many particles are in 3.00 moles of N2? 3.00 mol N2 6.02 x 1023 particles = 1.81 x 1024 particles 1 mol N2 Ex: How many moles of Na are in 1.10 x 1023 particles? 1.10 x 1023 particles Na 1 mol Na = 1.83 x 1022 6.02 x 1023 particles Na moles

2 Unit Conversions

Convert the density of titanium (4.54g/mL) to kg/L.

Classifying Matter

Pure Substances

Pure substances cannot be separated by physical means

Elements: cannot be chemically separated, listed on the periodic table

carbon (C)

sulfur (S)

copper (Cu)

mercury (Hg)

salt (NaCl)

water (H2O)

sugar (C6H12O6)

rust (Fe2O3)

Pure Substances

Particle representations of

Elements

Compounds

Periodic Table

Each square on the periodic table contains: Name of Element Symbol

First letter is upper case, second letter must be lower case

Atomic Mass

Number (usually with a decimal) indicates the mass (g) of 1 mole of that element

Atomic Number

Types of Elements

Groups/Familes

Period/Series

The Mole

How do chemists count Avogadros number? By measuring mass (just like how they count aluminum cans for recycling)

The mass (think grams) of one mole of a substance

One mole of carbon contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms of C

1 carbon atom is 12.011 amu 1 mole of carbon is 12.011 grams

The mass of 1 mole (in grams) Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass (get from periodic table)

Examples:

1 mole of C atoms 1 mole of Mg atoms 1 mole of Cu atoms = = = 12.0 g 24.3 g 63.5 g

Practice

Find the molar mass

1 mole of Au atoms = 1 mole of Sn atoms =

Chemical Formulas

The chemical formula describes a compound using numbers and element symbols

Subscripts denote number of each element in a compound

Ex: H2O has 2 hydrogens and 1 oxygen Ex: Al2(SO4)3 has 2 aluminums, 3 sulfurs, and 12 oxygens

Ex: 6H2O has 12 hydrogens and 6 oxygens Ex: 3Al2(SO4)3 has 6 aluminums, 9 sulfurs, and 36 oxygens

A Binary Ionic Compound contains 2 elements: metal & nonmetal When you write a formula, you add subscripts to the symbols for the ions until the algebraic sum of the ions charges is zero. Naming:

Name the metal Drop the end of nonmetal and add ide

Diatomic Elements

Some elements are always found as a pair (2 together)

H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 Try to remember HOF BrINCl

Example:

How many atoms of O are present in 78.1 g of oxygen?

Practice:

78.1 g O2 32.0 g O2

Classifying Matter

Mixtures

Mixtures are composed of two or more substances that can be separated by physical means; contains elements and/or compounds

Heterogeneous Mixtures: not uniform throughout Homogeneous Mixtures: uniform throughout

Heterogeneous Mixtures

Heterogeneous Mixture: two or more substances physically combined; not uniform throughout Ex: Granite, chex mix

Suspensions

A suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. The internal phase (solid) is dispersed throughout the external phase (fluid) through mechanical

Suspensions will eventually settle.

Homogeneous Mixtures

Homogeneous Mixture: two or more substances physically combined; uniform throughout

Know as a solution composed of

Solute: substance being dissolved (smaller amount) Solvent: substance that does the dissolving (larger amount)

Separating a Mixture

Separating a mixture components are separated without changing their physical identity

Manual Separation

Decanting

Separates two liquids of different densities

Sifting

Separates two solids of different particle size by pouring

Sorting

Separates two solids by picking

Magnetism

Separates metals (such as iron) from a mixture

Filtration

Separates solid substances from liquids and solutions

Evaporation

Separates a dissolved solid from its solvent

Distillation

Separates homogeneous mixture with different boiling points (heat mixture and catch condensed vapor)

Centrifuging

Separates heavier particles (bottom of tube) from lighter particles (top of tube) by spinning them at high speeds

Chromatography

Separates substances on the basis of their differences in solubility in a solvent - different substances are attracted to paper or gel and move at different speeds

Properties of Matter

A property is a characteristic that describe matter or how it behaves Physical determined without a chemical change

Extensive vary with amount of matter (Ex. Mass, volume, length, area) Intensive does not vary with amount (Ex. Density, color, odor, melting point, solubility)

Ex. Flammability, reactivity with acid, stability of a compound (how easily it decomposes)

Changes of Matter

Physical Changes do not involve a change in chemical identity

Ex: boiling, freezing, melting, dissolving, evaporating, and crystallizing

Changes of Matter

Chemical Changes new substances are formed in the reaction

Ex: iron rusting, copper oxidizing, wood burning, silver tarnishing

Color Change Gas produced without heating Precipitate formed New odor develops Large amount of heat or light produced

The LCM says matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change

The mass of the reactants is always the same as the mass of the products. The number of atoms of each element is always the same in the reactants and the products.

LCM Examples

Calcium chloride and sodium sulfate combine to form calcium sulfate and sodium chloride. CaCl2 + Na2SO4 CaSO4 + 2NaCl Before and After: Does the mass change?

Energy

Energy is the ability to do work Heat: Energy used to cause the temperature of an object to rise. Temperature - measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles

We measure temperature with a thermometer.

Heat is a form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their difference in temperature

Heat flows from hot to cold It can be absorbed or released Measured in units of calories or Joules

The End

Be Prepared for Unit 1 Test.

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