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CHAPTER NINE

Learning, Memory, and Product Positioning


McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Role of Learning

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Learning Theories and Involvement

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Learning through Conditioning


Conditioning refers to learning based on association of a stimulus and response. Classical (low involvement): using an established relationship between a stimulus and response (Pavlov Dog) Operant (high involvement): molding or shaping behavior by using a reinforcement (Skinners pigeon)

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Classical Conditioning

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Affective Influence in Trial

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Operant Conditioning

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The Process of Shaping

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Cognitive Learning
Cognitive learning encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations. Iconic Rote (low involvement): the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning Vicarious/Modeling (low or high involvement): Observing the outcomes of others behaviors and adjusting their own accordingly Reasoning (high involvement): Individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations and concepts.

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Summary of Learning Theories and Involvement

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Linking Learning to Memory...

Characteristics of Learning
Strength of Learning Extinction Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus
Discrimination

Response Environment

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The Impact of Repetition

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Repetition Timing on Advertising Recall

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Forgetting Over Time

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Memory
Total accumulation of prior learning experiences Explicit memory (Remembering)
Conscious recollection of an exposure event

Implicit memory (Knowing)


Non-conscious retrieval of previously encountered
stimuli A sense of familiarity, a feeling or a set of beliefs about an item without conscious awareness of when & how they were acquired

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Short-term Memory
Portion of total memory that is currently
activated or in use Often refereed to as working memory Analogous to thinking Has limited capacity An active, dynamic process, not a static structure

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Short-term Memory
Information processing activities
Elaborative activities
Use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes,
beliefs & feelings to interpret & evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information Serve to redefine/add new elements to memory

Maintenance rehearsal
Continual repetition of information to hold it in current
memory for use in problem solving or transferal to longterm
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Short-term Memory
Short-term memory activities involve
Concept
Abstraction of reality that capture the meaning of an item
in terms of other concepts Similar to dictionary definition of a word

Imagery
Involves concrete sensory representations of ideas,
feelings & objects Permits direct recovery of aspects of past experiences Involves recall & manipulation of sensory images

Marketers want to obtain imagery responses


than / in addition to verbal ones
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Long-term Memory
Unlimited, permanent storage
Semantic memory
Basic knowledge/feelings about a concept Understanding of an object / event at its
simplest level

Episodic memory
Memory of sequence of events in which a
person participated Often elicit imagery & feelings

Recalling long-term memory is not


completely objective Memory is sometimes shaped & changed as it is accessed

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Long-term Memory
Schema / Schematic memory /knowledge
structure Complex web of associations Pattern of association of concepts & episodes
with other concepts & episodes around a particular concept It is what the consumer thinks & feels when the brand name is mentioned Similar to brand image Source is personal experience as well as marketing activities

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Long-term Memory
Schema / Schematic memory /knowledge
structure Can contain product characteristics, usage
situations, episodes & affective reactions Concepts, events & feelings are
Stored within nodes within memory Connected with associative links
Links vary how strongly & directly they are associated with a node

Some aspects are relatively permanent


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Long-term Memory

United Colors of Benetton


Formal Expensive Informal Work Place Posh Parties Fashionable Young Executives Festive People
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Sleek

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Long-term Memory
Scripts
Memory of how an action sequence should
occur A special type of schema Necessary for consumers to shop effectively Difficulty is to teach the consumers about appropriate acquisition, use and disposal behavior

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Brand Image
Schematic memory of a brand

Target markets interpretation of product


attributes, benefits, usage situations, users and manufacturer/marketer characteristics

In essence, it is what consumers have learned


about the brand

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Product Positioning
Decision by a marketer to try to achieve a
defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment

Often used interchangeably with brand image Marketing mix is manipulated in line with the
desired product position

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Product Positioning

Perceptual Mapping
Technique for measuring & developing a
products position

Takes consumers perception of similar


brands & relates these to product attributes

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Product Positioning

Trendy, Youthful, Fast


I1 I 2 UCB

Westecs

Economical, Common

Expensive, Prestigious

Traditional, Conservative
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Product Repositioning
Deliberate decision to significantly alter the
way the market views a product

Evolution is natural & inevitable Can involve performance, evoked feelings,


situations in which to use or even users

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Brand Equity
Value customers assign to a brand beyond its
functional characteristics Implies economic value Based on product position of the brand Source of economic value from a positive brand image comes from Consumers behaviors toward existing items with
that brand name Principle of stimulus generalization

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Brand Leverage
Often termed family branding, brand
extensions or umbrella branding

Capitalizing on brand equity by using an


existing brand name

Sometimes done to bolster the brand image To be effective product must be connected
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Brand Leverage
Successful brand leverage requires the new
product to fit with the original product on at least 1 of 4 dimensions: Complement Substitute Transfer Image

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