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Models of school effectiveness

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School Functions at Multi-Levels


Technical/Economic Functions Individual (students, staff, etc) Institutional Knowledge and skills training Career training Job for staff As a life place As a work place/ a service organization Serving the economic or instrumental needs of the community Provision of quality labor forces Modification of economic behavior 5/3/12 Contribution to the manpower

Community

Society

School Functions at Multi-Levels


Human/Social Functions Individual (students, staff, etc) Institutional Community Society Psychological developments Social developments Potential developments As a social entity/system As a human relationship Serving the social needs of the community Social integration/ mobility/social class perpetuation, social equality, selection and allocation of human resources

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School Functions at Multi-Levels


Political Functions Individual (students, staff, etc) Institutional Development of civic attitudes and skills

As a place for political socialization, political coalition, a place for political discourse or criticism

Community Society

Serving the political needs of the community Political legitimitization, political structure maintenance and continuity, democracy 5/3/12 promotion

School Functions at Multi-Levels


Cultural Functions Individual (students, staff, etc) Institutional Acculturation Socialization with values, norms, and beliefs As a center for cultural transmission and reproduction As a place for cultural revitalization and integration Serving the cultural needs of the community Cultural integration and continuity Cultural reproduction, revitalization

Community Society

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New directions and old traditions in studying school effectiveness

New Directions

Old Traditions

Based of multiple Nature of conception SE Conception at five levels


Both short-term and longterm

Biased on simplistic conception Conception only at one to two levels Mainly short term Emphasizing mainly technical or social E assuming no big differences Dilemmas are ignored

To different constituencies, Expectati different types of SE are on of SE expected

Dilemmas exist

Complicated relationships Assumpti between E types, levels, on about efficiency. relations hips

Positive relationships between types, levels, etc.

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New directions and old traditions in studying school effectiveness

New Directions

Old Traditions

Separate/single Focus of Multi-types of effectiveness effectiveness type of Multi-levels of effectiveness study and Relationship between Separate/single level of effectiveness discussio types, levels etc n

To maximize effectiveness Implicatio in multi-types, multi-levels ns for etc managem ent and policy

Mainly to maximize effectiveness in separate type as single level

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Models of School Effectiveness


Goal Model

Conceptio Achievement of stated goal n of SE Condition Goals are clear, consensual, for Model time-bound and measurable; Usefulnes Resources are sufficient s Evaluation Objectives listed in the Indicators school/program plans e.g, / Key achievement Areas
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Models of School Effectiveness


Resource-Input Model

Conceptio Achievement of needed n of SE resources and inputs Condition There is a clear relationship for Model between inputs and outputs; Usefulnes Resources are scarce s Evaluation Resources procured, e.g., Indicators quality of students intake, / Key facilities, finance support Areas
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Models of School Effectiveness


Process Model

Conceptio Smooth and healthy internal n of SE process Condition There is a clear relationship for Model between process and Usefulnes outcome s Evaluation Leadership, communication, Indicators participation, coordination, / Key social interaction Areas
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Models of School Effectiveness


Satisfaction Model

Conceptio Satisfaction of all powerful n of SE constituencies Condition The demands of the for Model constituencies are Usefulnes compatible and cannot be s ignored Evaluation Satisfaction Education Indicators Authorities, management / Key board, teachers, parents, Areas students, etc
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Models of School Effectiveness


Legitimacy Model

Conceptio Successful legitimate of n of SE marketing activities for school survival Condition The survival and demise for Model among schools must be Usefulnes assessed s Evaluation Public relations, marketing, Indicators public image, reputation, / Key status in the community, 5/3/12 Areas accountablity

Models of School Effectiveness


Ineffectiveness Model

Conceptio Absence of characteristics n of SE of ineffectiveness in school Condition There is no consensual for Model criteria of effectiveness; but Usefulnes strategies for school s improvement are needed Evaluation Existing conflicts, Indicators dysfunctions, difficulities, / Key defects, weakness, etc Areas
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Models of School Effectiveness


Organizational Learning Model

Conceptio Adaptation to n of SE environmental changes and internal barriers Condition Schools are new or for Model changing; the environmental Usefulnes changes cannot be ignored s Evaluation Awareness of external Indicators needs and changes, internal / Key process monitoring, 5/3/12 Areas development planning

Models of School Effectiveness


Total Quality Management Model

Conceptio Total management of n of SE internal people and process to meet strategic constituencies needs Condition The constituencies needs for Model are compatible; the Usefulnes technology and resources s are available for total management Evaluation Leadership, people 5/3/12 Indicators management, strategic

Pendekatan Kajian Keberkesanan Sekolah


Menurut Averch, et al. (1994)

terdapat 5 bentuk pendekatan iaitu: Pendekatan Input Output Pendekatan Proses Pendekatan Organisasi Pendekatan Penilaian Pendekatan Eksperiental
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Pendekatan Input - Output


melihat sekolah sebagai kotak hitam

yang mengandungi pelajar


Sumber sumber dimasukkan kepada

pelajar dalam kotak hitam dan output mengalir keluar


output ditakrifkan menerusi

prestasi kognitif yang menggunakan satu ujian prestasi standad


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Inputs Sumber sekolah

Pelajar

Outputs Hasil Pendidikan (outcomes)

Rajah 1 Pendekatan inputoutput


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Perubahan outcome pendidikan

disebabkan variasi dalam input sumber


Statistik : ex post facto , data silang

regressi berganda
Darjah keyakinan : kesahan dalaman

dan kesahan luarannya bergantung kepada ujian


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Outcomes pelajar pencapaian kognitif - score dalam

ujian pembacan atau matematik yang standad


sumber sekolah- kualiti kemudahan

sekolah, purata pengalaman guru, tahap kelulusan guru, purata saiz kelas, nisbah guru pelajar
Faktor latar belakang - SES keluarga,

tahap pendidikan ibu bapa, lokasi tempat tinggal


5/3/12 Pengaruh rakan sebaya - sikap,

Dapatan
Terdapat bukti yang lemah bahawa

sekolah mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat terhadap outcomes pelajar bukti yang kukuh terhadap pencapaian pelajar

Sumber sekolah tidak membekalkan

Faktor latar belakang didapati

mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat ke atas pencapaian


5/3/12 bukti yang lemah mempengaruhi

Pengaruh rakan sebaya - hanya

Pendekatan Proses
tumpuan kepada dalam kotak

hitam

Sumber sumber dianggap sudah

sedia ada atau ditetapkan: yang penting ialah proses proses bagaimana sumber diolah/ dikenakan kepada pelajar dan merangsang pelajar kepada proses guru, pelajar, pengajaran pembelajaran , atau interaksi 5/3/12

Proses itu adalah berkaitan dengan

Sumber Process es Pelajar Hasil Pendidikan outcomes

Rajah 2 The process approach


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Ciri guru - kemahiran, perlakuan,

sikap, ekpektasi guru terhadap pelajar


Kaedah pengajaran - dilakukan dalam

bilik darjah atau dalam makmal, pemindahan pembelajaran, pengukuhan/pemgayaan dan maklumbalas, attention factors in learning
Ciri individu pelajar - kebolehan dan 5/3/12

Outcomes ialah ukuran prestasi

kognitif yang terhad


Penyelidikan selalunya bercorak

eksperimen kecil-kecilan dan kadang kadang dalam makmal


Kesahan dalaman sama ada

eksperimen itu mempunyai rekabentuk yang sesuai


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Dapatan
Kajian dalam bilik darjah pendekatan pengajaran, perbezaan

guru dan saiz kelas tidak menunjukkan kesan yang berterusan ke atas outcomes pelajar
kaedah pengajaran pula

mencadangkan bahawa tiada perbezaan dalam kaedah yang diperkenalkan terhadap pencapaian pelajar 5/3/12

Kajian makmal kaedah penyampaian pengajaran

yang terancang memberikan kesan yang kukuh terhadap pencapaian


konsep pengukuhan dan ganjaran

yang positif memberikan keyakinan yang positif

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Pendekatan Organisasi
Sekolah dilihat sebagai institusi yang

memuaskan matlamat dan tuntutan yang pelbagai daripada birokrasi dalaman, masyarakat, ibubapa dan pelajar
Input ialah peraturan, prosedur,

insentif dalam sistem


Pendekatan ini lebih memberi

perhatian kepada orang orang dalam sistem seperti guru, 5/3/12

Peratura n Prosedur Insentif Hasil yang memuaskan bagi pelajar

Tanggungjaw aban Innovasi ,Penyesuaian

Objektif Lain

Rajah 3 - The Organizational 5/3/12

Ukuran tanggungjawaban :-

bagaimana organisasi sekolah respond kepada perubahan pelanggan.


Bagaimana sekolah yang

responsive dapat menghasilkan outcomes akademik yang memuaskan


Kebanyakan penyelidikan berbentuk

kajian kes

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Dapatan
terdapat hubungan positif antara saiz

sistem dengan sentralisasi

lebih besar birokrasi dan lebih tinggi

sentralisasi maka kurang berlaku inovasi dan adaptasi peringkat organisasi

inovasi organisasi didapati tidak

menunjukkan penambahbaikan terhadap outcomes pencapaian berbanding bentuk tradisi tersedia ada 5/3/12

Pendekatan Penilaian
Cuba menganalisa keberkesanan

tindakan intervensi yang luas yang secara langsung berkaitan dengan isu dasar sosial
Sumber yang diberikan kepada tiap -

tiap pelajar dipertingkatkan


soalan penyelidikan adalah intervensi

yang luas memberi kesan terhadap outcomes?


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Pelaj ar

Hasil Pendidik an (outcom es)

Interve nsi

Rajah 4 The evaluation 5/3/12 approach

Pendekatan Eksperiental
Tumpuan kepada apa yang berlaku

atau terjadi kepada pelajar pada akhirnya


tumpuan utama kesan pengalaman

sekolah ke atas konsep kendiri pelajar dan hubungan dengan orang lain juga dengan institusi sosial
Soalan penyeldikan : apa yang

sekolah lakukan kepada pelajar


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Pelajar

Pemerhati/Penyelidik

Rajah 5 : Pendekatan Eksperiental


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Penyelidikan dilakukan dengan cara

pemerhatian langsung melalui pemerhatian langsung melalui pemerhatian turut serta diikuti dengan huraian pengalaman penyelidikan
pembolehubah yang terlibat : perhubungan pelajar guru dan

kesannya ke atas pelajar


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sistem persekolahan dan kesannya ke

atas pelajar
perhubungan antara sekolah dengan

masyarakat dan kesannya terhadap pelajar


masalah kesahan dalaman dan

objektiviti penyelidikan

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TERIMA KASIH
5/3/12