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Nucleus

Click to edit Master subtitle style By Prof. Dr. Safinaz Safwat Prof. Dr. Shefaa El Sawy 2009- 2010

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Characteristics of the Nucleus


Largest organelle in

the cell

Membrane-limited

compartment that stores the genetic information in all eukaryotic cells.


Location of

assembly of ribosomal subunits


Contains:
1. Nearly all of the DNA

Characteristics of the Nucleus


The nucleus does

NOT produce proteins; they are imported into the nucleus from the cytoplasm.

The nucleus directs

the process of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm by informational

Characters of nucleus
Site

Shape

Number

It usually resides in the center of the cell, and its shape often mimics the shape of the cell
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Sit It usually resides in the center e


of the cell

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It may be peripheral or basally situated

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Sha Usually spherical pe


but can be

The

shape of

Usually spherical but can be

Spindle-shaped fibroblast nuclei

Lobulated nuclei of white blood cells (neutrophils)

Numb The number of nuclei present in a cell can assist in er identifying the cell or tissue.
Usually only one nucleus per cell

but there are exceptions

Osteoclasts (O) are


multi-nucleated

No nuclei

are present in red blood cells

Muscle fiber is multinucleated

Liver cell is binucleated


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Components of the Nucleus


Nuclear envelope

Nucleoplasm

Chromatin

Nucleolus
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Components of the Nucleus


1- Nuclear Envelope formed by two lipid membranes 2- Chromatin both euchromatin and heterochromatin 3- Nucleolus
non-membranous, spherical, intranuclear structure

Components of the Nucleus - colloidal protein solution 4- Nucleoplasm


enclosed by the nucleus. Its also known as the nuclear sap or matrix.

Function:
1.

provides a medium for the rapid diffusion of metabolites and for the movement of different kinds of RNA

Nuclear envelope
1.

2.

Act as a barrier that separate the content of the nucleus from the cytoplasm sequestration of immature RNAs containing noncoding intervening sequences

Presents in an interphase cell & disintegrates durin cell division

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Nuclear Envelope
3 - Control movement of proteins between the nucleus & the cytoplasm (via nuclear pore) this leads to regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. 4- It provides the structural framework of the nucleus 5- It also assists in localizing location of Nucleus the chromatin
Nuclear Pore

Cytoplasm

Nuclear Envelope Components


It has a complex structure consisting of:
1. 2. 3.

Two concentric lipid bilayers (nuclear membranes) An underlying nuclear lamina Nuclear pore complexes.

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Nuclear Envelope Components


Nuclear Envelope (NE) is formed by two parallel membranes that surround the nucleus
inner membrane outer membrane

These membranes are separated by the perinuclear cisterna and are fused at the

Nuclear Envelope Components

Note nuclear pores (arrows) & bi-layered nuclear envelope

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Faces the cytoplasm Cytoplasmic

Outer Nuclear Membrane

surface possesses ribosomes as the outer nuclear membrane is continuous with rER membrane.
The perinuclear

cistern is continuous with the cisternae of the rER.


The ribosomes

synthesize the

Inner Nuclear Membrane


It is supported by a rigid network of intermedaiate filaments; lamins. The nuclear lamina
It is a fibrous

meshwork that provides structural support to the nucleus.


Underlies the inner

nuclear membrane

The nuclear lamins interact with chromosome s so it infuence chromosomal distribution and function within the nucleus

Lamins disassembled during mitosis and assembled when mitosis end.

Nuclear Pore within the nuclear envelope


Nuclear pores are

interruptions in the nuclear envelope where the outer and inner nuclear membranes fuse.
There number

varies from cell to other according of activity of the cell (3000-5000)

The nuclear pore is surrounded by nonmembranous structures (glycoproteins) embedded in its rim. These structures and the pore are called the nuclear pore complex

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- It is composed

of three ring-like arrays of proteins stacked on top of each other:

1 - Cytoplasmic ring:
located on the

rim of the cytoplasmic aspect of the nuclear pore.


It possesses

cytoplasmic filaments that

2- The spoke ring (middle ring):


formed of eight

similar units that project into the lumen of the nuclear pore as well as into the perinuclear cistern.

It anchors the glycoprotein components of the nuclear pore complex into the rim of the nuclear

3- Nuclear ring:
located on the rim

of the nucleoplasmic aspect of the nuclear pore.

A filamentous basket-like structure, the nuclear basket, appears to be suspended from the nuclear ring and protruding into the nucleoplasm.

Depending on the

size of the molecules, molecules Transport travel through NPC by 2 mechanisms

across the nuclear pore complex