You are on page 1of 51

Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.

www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Chapter 10
Image Segmentation
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Chapter 10
Image Segmentation
Image segmentation divides an image into regions that are
connected and have some similarity within the region and
some difference between adjacent regions.
The goal is usually to find individual objects in an image.
For the most part there are fundamentally two kinds of
approaches to segmentation: discontinuity and similarity.
Similarity may be due to pixel intensity, color or texture.
Differences are sudden changes (discontinuities) in any of these, but
especially sudden changes in intensity along a boundary line, which is
called an edge.
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
There are three kinds of discontinuities of intensity: points,
lines and edges.
The most common way to look for discontinuities is to scan a
small mask over the image. The mask determines which kind
of discontinuity to look for.

=
= + + + =
9
1
9 9 2 2 1 1
...
i
i i
z w z w z w z w R
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Point Detection
threshold e nonnegativ a : where T
T R >
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Line Detection
Only slightly more common than point detection is to find a
one pixel wide line in an image.
For digital images the only three point straight lines are only
horizontal, vertical, or diagonal (+ or 45).
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Line Detection
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Edge Detection
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Edge Detection
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Edge Detection
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Edge Detection
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators
First-order derivatives:
The gradient of an image f(x,y) at location (x,y) is defined
as the vector:



The magnitude of this vector:

The direction of this vector:
(
(

=
(

= V
c
c
c
c
y
f
x
f
y
x
G
G
f
| |
2
1
2 2
) ( mag
y x
G G f + = V = V f
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

y
x
G
G
y x
1
tan ) , ( o
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators
Roberts cross-gradient operators
Prewitt operators
Sobel operators
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators
Prewitt masks for
detecting diagonal edges
Sobel masks for
detecting diagonal edges
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
y x
G G f + ~ V
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators: Example
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators: Example
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators: Example
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators
Second-order derivatives: (The Laplacian)
The Laplacian of an 2D function f(x,y) is defined as


Two forms in practice:


2
2
2
2
2
y
f
x
f
f
c
c
+
c
c
= V
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators
Consider the function:



The Laplacian of h is



The Laplacian of a Gaussian sometimes is called the Mexican
hat function. It also can be computed by smoothing the image
with the Gaussian smoothing mask, followed by application of
the Laplacian mask.

deviation standard the : and
where ) (
2 2 2
2
2
2
o
o
y x r e r h
r
+ = =

2
2
2
4
2 2
2
) (
o
o
o
r
e
r
r h

(


= V
The Laplacian of a
Gaussian (LoG)
A Gaussian function
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators: Example
Sobel gradient
Laplacian mask Gaussian smooth function
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Detection of Discontinuities
Gradient Operators: Example
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Edge Linking and Boundary Detection
Local Processing
Two properties of edge points are useful for edge linking:
the strength (or magnitude) of the detected edge points
their directions (determined from gradient directions)
This is usually done in local neighborhoods.
Adjacent edge points with similar magnitude and direction are
linked.
For example, an edge pixel with coordinates (x
0
,y
0
) in a
predefined neighborhood of (x,y) is similar to the pixel at (x,y)
if
threshold e nonnegativ a : , ) , ( ) , (
0 0
E E y x y x f s V V
threshold angle nonegative a : , ) , ( ) , (
0 0
A A y x y x < o o
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Edge Linking and Boundary Detection
Local Processing: Example
In this example,
we can find the
license plate
candidate after
edge linking
process.
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Edge Linking and Boundary Detection
Global Processing via the Hough Transform
Hough transform: a way of finding edge points in an image
that lie along a straight line.
Example: xy-plane v.s. ab-plane (parameter space)
b ax y
i i
+ =
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Edge Linking and Boundary Detection
Global Processing via the Hough Transform
The Hough transform consists of
finding all pairs of values of u
and which satisfy the equations
that pass through (x,y).
These are accumulated in what is
basically a 2-dimensional
histogram.
When plotted these pairs of u and
will look like a sine wave. The
process is repeated for all
appropriate (x,y) locations.
u u = + sin cos y x
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Edge Linking and Boundary Detection
Hough Transform Example
The intersection of the
curves corresponding
to points 1,3,5
2,3,4
1,4
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Edge Linking and Boundary Detection
Hough Transform Example
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Assumption: the range of intensity levels covered by objects of
interest is different from the background.

Single threshold
Multiple threshold

s
>
=
T y x f
T y x f
y x g
) , ( if 0
) , ( if 1
) , (
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
The Role of Illumination
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
The Role of Illumination
(a) (c)
(e)
(d)
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( y x r y x i y x f =
) , ( y x i
) , ( y x r
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Basic Global Thresholding
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Basic Global Thresholding
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Basic Adaptive Thresholding
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Basic Adaptive Thresholding
How to solve this problem?
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Basic Adaptive Thresholding
Answer: subdivision
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Optimal Global and Adaptive Thresholding
This method treats pixel values as probability density functions.
The goal of this method is to minimize the probability of
misclassifying pixels as either object or background.
There are two kinds of error:
mislabeling an object pixel as background, and
mislabeling a background pixel as object.
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Use of Boundary Characteristics
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Thresholding
Thresholds Based on Several Variables
Color image
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Region-Based Segmentation
Edges and thresholds sometimes do not give good
results for segmentation.
Region-based segmentation is based on the
connectivity of similar pixels in a region.
Each region must be uniform.
Connectivity of the pixels within the region is very
important.
There are two main approaches to region-based
segmentation: region growing and region splitting.
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Region-Based Segmentation
Basic Formulation
Let R represent the entire image region.
Segmentation is a process that partitions R into subregions,
R
1
,R
2
,,R
n
, such that






where P(R
k
): a logical predicate defined over the points in set R
k
For example: P(R
k
)=TRUE if all pixels in R
k
have the same gray
level.
R R
i
n
i
=
=1
(a)
j i j i R R
j i
= = , and all for (c) |
n i R
i
,..., 2 , 1 region, connected a is (b) =
n i R P
i
,..., 2 , 1 for TRUE ) ( (d) = =
j i j i
R R R R P and regions adjacent any for FALSE ) ( (e) =
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Region-Based Segmentation
Region Growing
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Region-Based Segmentation
Region Growing
Fig. 10.41 shows the histogram of Fig. 10.40 (a). It is difficult to
segment the defects by thresholding methods. (Applying region
growing methods are better in this case.)
Figure 10.41
Figure 10.40(a)
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Region-Based Segmentation
Region Splitting and Merging
Region splitting is the opposite of region growing.
First there is a large region (possible the entire image).
Then a predicate (measurement) is used to determine if the
region is uniform.
If not, then the method requires that the region be split into
two regions.
Then each of these two regions is independently tested by
the predicate (measurement).
This procedure continues until all resulting regions are
uniform.
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Region-Based Segmentation
Region Splitting
The main problem with region splitting is determining where to
split a region.
One method to divide a region is to use a quadtree structure.
Quadtree: a tree in which nodes have exactly four descendants.
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Region-Based Segmentation
Region Splitting and Merging
The split and merge procedure:
Split into four disjoint quadrants any region R
i
for which
P(R
i
) = FALSE.
Merge any adjacent regions R
j
and R
k
for which P(R
j
UR
k
) =
TRUE. (the quadtree structure may not be preserved)
Stop when no further merging or splitting is possible.
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Segmentation by Morphological Watersheds
The concept of watersheds is based on visualizing an image in
three dimensions: two spatial coordinates versus gray levels.
In such a topographic interpretation, we consider three types of
points:
(a) points belonging to a regional minimum
(b) points at which a drop of water would fall with certainty
to a single minimum
(c) points at which water would be equally likely to fall to
more than one such minimum
The principal objective of segmentation algorithms based on
these concepts is to find the watershed lines.
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Segmentation by Morphological Watersheds
Example
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Segmentation by Morphological Watersheds
Example
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
Segmentation by Morphological Watersheds
Example
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
The Use of Motion in Segmentation
ADI: accumulative difference image
Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed.
www.imageprocessingbook.com
2002 R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods
The Use of Motion in Segmentation