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TYPES OF DAMS & ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

BY Dr. R. Anbalagan PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE UTTARAKHAND

Dam - Solid barrier constructed across river valley at a suitable location with a view to impound behind it


OBJECTIVES OF DAM CONSTRUCTION


 Generation of hydropower  Providing water for irrigation facilities Silt control  Providing water supply for industrial uses and domestic consumption  Fighting droughts and controlling of floods  Providing navigational facilities Tourism purposes

EFFECTS OF DAM CONSTRUCTION


 Land submergence and

rehabilitation

 Development of fisheries - pisciculture  Bird Sanctuary  Climate effect  Reservoir induced seismicity (RIS)  Effect in wild life  Environmental Impacts Socio-economic impacts

PARTS OF DAM

Schematic section of a dam

CONTD.  Foundation natural surface on which dam rests embraces whole width and length of super structure at general level of fresh rocks  Abutmentssloping sides of valley forming part of foundation  Heel u/s portion of dam where it contacts bearing surface  Toe d/s portion of dam - where it contacts bearing surface  Crest top of dam  Free board area between MRL and crest of dam

CONTD.  Axis of Dam an imaginary line drawn either along centre of plan of crest of dam or line defined by contact of u/s part of crest with u/s face of dam  Dead Storage Level (DSL) elevation of reservoir below which water remains permanently determined by HRT or other outlets  Head Race Tunnel tunnel that supplies water to power house  Max. Reservoir Level (MRL) highest elevation up to which water can be stored in reservoir without over-topping the dam or being released through spillway

CONTD.  Tail Water Level level of water at d/s base of dam due to release of water from spillway, power house, irrigation outlets, etc Gross Storage storage up to MRL dead storage + live storage  Live Storage storage between MRL and DSL  Dead Storage Storage up to DSL  SpillWay Concrete structure used to pass flood season discharge from upstream of dam to downstream without damaging the dam structure

CLASSIFICATION OF DAMS
DAMS

GRAVITY

EMBANKMENT

COMPOSITE

EARTH-FILL HOLLOW SOLID


1. 2. 3. 4. HOMOGENEOUS MODIFIED ZONED HYDRAULIC FILLED

ROCK-FILL

CONCRETE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ST. GRAVITY CURVED GRAVITY BUTTRESS ARCH CUPOLA

MASONRY

1. CENTRAL CLAY CORE 2. SLOPING CLAY CORE 3. UPSTREAM SLOPING CONCRETE DIAPHRAGM

GRAVITY DAM
 Gravity Dam  Concrete or masonry structure which resists imposed forces by its weight and section without relying on arch or beam action. Usage restricted to straight or slightly curved dams. Heavy loads imposed on foundation.

Cord-Height Ratio
C- H Ratio = Width of the Valley at the Contemplated Height of dam (W) Contemplated Height of dam (H) If C-H Ratio is <3 Gorge 3-5 Narrow 5-10 Wide >10 - Very wide

HOLLOW GRAVITY DAM


 Preferred if shortage for cement and/or aggregate  Low consumption of concrete materials due to hollow structure  Generally low height dams <20m wide to fairly wide valley C-H ratio >5 for better storage capacity  Hard, massive foundation rocks for proper anchoring of structure and water tightness  Light structure

STRAIGHT GRAVITY DAM


 Fairly wide to wide valleys preferred to accommodate main dam and appurtenant structures C-H ratio >4  Various types of geological conditions preferred  Hard massive rocks preferred moderately hard rocks also good no faults or thrusts below dam max. load in river bed foundation less number of Geological discontinuities  Seepage below dam should be minimum  Roller compacted dams also fall in this category  Less overburden on abutments and river bed preferred for economic reason  All heights of dam possible  Ex Bhakra Nangal Dam 225m high

MASONRY DAM
 Same like straight gravity dam in structure  Constructed out of stone masonry blocks hard massive igneous rocks like granite, syenite etc. fine to medium grained rocks for good strength & stability of structure  Valley size, foundation rocks same as straight gravity dam but low to medium height dams - constructed on moderately hard to hard rocks - less number of Geological discontinuities  Height in general preferable less than 50m sometimes up to 80m  Availability of sufficient reserves of masonry blocks near dam site min. transportation  Availability of skilled mass power  Ex.. 63m high and 510m long Gandhisagar dam across Chambal river in M. P

CURVED GRAVITY DAM


 More or less same like straight gravity dam but axis not straight sometimes deviation close to abutment ends  Deviation to accommodate better topographical setting or to avoid adverse geological conditions  Convex side upstream  Ex.. Jamrani Dam Uttrakhand under construction

BUTTRESS DAM
 Thin walled dam  Consists of thin upstream sloping deck, supported by buttresses  Wide, U-shaped valleys - preferred Low height dams <20m  Thin dam section high seepage through foundation  Hard foundation rocks to resist erosion of foundation rocks less geological discontinuities  Consumption of concrete materials less cheap  Structural joints provided if faults, major shear zones pass through river bed Ex.. Errochti dam in Scotland

ARCH DAM
 Thin walled dam continuously curved in plan with upstream convex side, straight in section Tight narrow gorges with C-H ratio 3 or less - preferred  Arching action max. load to abutments so strong abutment rocks narrow river section  Abutment rocks hard massive with less geological discontinuities  Thin dam section more seepage below dam  Erosion of foundation rocks rocks resistant to erosion  e. g. Iduki dam in India across Periyar river in Kerala 169m high, 365m long

CUPOLA DAM
 Curved in section as well as in plan  Same conditions like Arch dam  Transfer of load uniform throughout foundation Design and construction challenging  E. g. Vajont dam, Italy, 1969

EMBANKMENT DAMS
 Loose naturally available material flexible soil or rock fill  All embankment dams composite in nature  Spillway made of concrete/masonry material Generally flexible type of dams suitable over varying geological conditions Particularly in seismically active terrain more suitable

HOMOGENEOUS DAM
 Use of locally available soil generally silty soil  Ponds and tanks Height ranging 3 to 5m max. up to 8m  Constructed across existing drainage  Provided with an over flowing spillway concrete or masonry on existing drainage  Foundation - Soil or poor rocks  Compaction of embankment materials important factor  C-H ratio >10

MODIFIED HOMOGENEOUS DAM


 Filter provided on the d/s side of dam to prevent internal erosion of embankment materials  Height normally up to 20m even more  An open drain at toe to collect seepage water  Filter fine to coarse grained sand

ZONED HOMOGENEOUS DAM


 A central clay core to prevent seepage through dam  More safe and stable dam - generally 30 to 40m height  E. g. Bargi dam in M. P.

CENTRAL CLAY CORE ROCK-FILL DAM


1. Central clay core 2. Filter 3. shell  Clay core 70% clay fractions - rest silt and other size fractions  Filter fine to medium grained sand fractions source RBM and old terrace materials  Shell gravel to big boulders source RBM and old terrace materials foundation most of rocks suitable even soft rocks water tightness below dam to be ensured  E. g. Rogum dam, Russia 335m highest in World; Nurek Dam, Russia 300m high;

CONTD.  Foundation treatments less  Flexible, self healing type of dam  Due to big dam section, load per unit area on foundation less suitable in most lithological conditions  Cheap Worlds highest dams are of this type  Wide to very wide valleys C-H ratio >5  E. g. Kalagarh dam across Ramganga river 80m high, Uttarakhand, India

SLOPING CLAY CORE ROCK-FILL DAM


 Same as above except with an u/s sloping clay core  Advantage shear strength of clay core improve by the weight of overlying material  Ex.. - Tehri Dam 260.5m high across Bhagirathi river, Uttarakhand, India

UPSTREAM SLOPING CONCRETE DIAPHRAGM


 Consists of u/s sloping concrete diaphragm on rockfill material  Good compaction of rock-fill to avoid sinking of diaphragm  Comfortable height up to 70m, more in many cases in Japan many dams between 30-50m  Topographical and geological conditions same as clay core rockfill dam - good rock in diaphragm area for preventing settlement  Very cheap fast construction easy operation  Good stability under seismic conditions  E. g. - Shubaiyah Dam, China 100m high

CONTD.

Upstream sloping concrete diaphragm

PHYSICAL FACTORS GOVERNING SELECTION OF TYPES OF DAM


 Topography  Geology and foundation condition  Materials available for construction  Hydrology  Spillway  Earthquake