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THE HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITIONS

(Aristotelian Classification)

Conditional Proposition
The conditional is the if - then proposition. It expresses a relation in virtue of which one judgment or proposition necessarily flows from the other. Example. If you are a Catholic, then you are a Christian. Parts: Antecedent Consequent

If it rains

then the ground is wet.

Antecedent: condition, cause, reason Consequent: conditioned, effect, result There is a necessary or logical connection between the antecedent and consequent.
Terms of conditional:

If then,

unless

when

Not all if then statements are conditional, example: If you need money then go to the bank. Both antecedent and consequent must be statements

Disjunctive Proposition
The disjunctive is the either - or statement It expresses that two things cannot be false at the same time; one at least must be true. Example: A person is either a male or female. You are either for or against Christ. Parts are called disjuncts

Proper Disjunctive - when the component parts are mutually exclusive or contradictories, they cannot be both true. Pass or fail Dead or alive Today is either Monday or Tuesday. A parent is either a father or a mother. Improper Disjunctive - when the component parts are not mutually exclusive. Doctor or engineer Red or blue

I will visit my friend either on Monday or Tuesday. The parent who will attend the meeting is either the father or the mother.

Conjunctive Proposition
The conjunctive proposition expresses that two alternatives cannot be true simultaneously. Example: One cannot be in Davao and in Cebu at the same time. You cannot inhale and exhale at the same time. Parts are called conjuncts

One cannot study and play at the same time.

Two-part conjunctive the conjuncts are limited to two alternatives only. The suspect cannot be guilty and not guilty. A parent cannot be a father and a mother at the same time. More than two-part conjunctive the conjuncts are not limited to two alternatives. One cannot study and play at the same time The president cannot be a conservative and liberal at the same time.

COMPLEX AND HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITIONS (Modern Logic Classification)

Simple and Complex Statements


Simple statement - does not contain any other statement as its component. Examples: John is a student. Manila is a city.

Complex or compound statement contains logical components. (hypothetical and negative propositions in the Aristotelian
logic are considered complex.)

Additional examples::

John is a student and John is honest. It is not the case that Marie is the best student in the class. Either the rebels surrender or they die in battle. If there is a weather disturbance, then classes will be suspended.
For statements to be compound, it is necessary that the components are statements in themselves and that they are sensical on their own. The man who killed Ninoy was a murderer.
Not a complex statement

The truth-value of a complex/compound statement depends of the truth-value of its components. The truth value of the statement: Manila is a city and AMV is a college. depends on the truth value of the components: . Manila is a city AMV is a college. A compound statement is a truth-functional statement. A truth-function is an expression whose truth-value (truth or falsity) is completely determined by the truth values of its component statements.

Additional Examples:
*The

sun is shining and the boys are playing.

is a function of its component simple propositions: "The sun is shining" "the boys are playing."

* It is not the case that Marie is the most beautiful girl in the world. The truth value of this proposition is determined by the truth-value of the logical component: Marie is the most beautiful girl in the world.

Negation
The negation of a statement is formed by using "not in the original statement or by prefixing the phrases
"it is false that.." "it is not the case that.."

Examples: John is not the president of the class. It is not the case that the Philippines is the poorest country in Asia. It is false that life is tragic.

The symbol for negation is the curl . Examples: Students are responsible. - S It is not the case that students are -~S responsible.

'~'
This is a simple statement the negative statement

The curl denies or contradicts the statement it preceeds. The definition of negation may be presented in this truth table: If p is true then
p ~p --------T F F T ~p is false If p is false then ~p is true

Material Implication
Material implication is an if then statement. Example: If the Philippines is a democratic country, then Vatican is a state. Parts: Antecedent Consequent - If.. - then..

Material Implication
This is another type of implication where there is no real or causal connection between the antecedent and the consequent. Example: If man could be have wings, then our ancestors are pigs. Material implication is an emphatic way of denying the antecedent. symbol of material implication - the horse shoe

If Manila is a city then UST is a university. Philosophy is not myth then science is empirical.

M ~P

U S

The horse shoe is a truth functional connective material implication is true if it is not the case that the antecedent of the statement is true and its consequence is false. The only way it can be false is if the antecedent is true and the consequent is false

Material implication may be defined by this truth table: p q p q _____________ T T T T F F F T T F F T Application:


Five is an odd number number.
This is true (T)

one is an even
This is false (F)

T F thus the material implication is false (F)

Disjunction
The disjunctive is the either - or statement. Two things cannot be false at the same time one at least must be true. The disjunction of two statements is formed by inserting the word "or" between them. Examples: An A proposition is affirmative or O is negative. The antecedent is condition or consequent is cause.

The symbol for disjunction (inclusive) is the wedge v Examples: I either run or I get hit. pvq Logic is not fiction or arts is not magic.

~p v ~q

The wedge is a truth-functional connective. It connotes that a disjunctive statement is true if at least one of the components it connects is true.

Disjunction may be defined by this truth table: p q p v q _____________ T T T T F T F T T F F F Application:


Five is an odd number v one is an even number.
This is true (T) This is false (F)

T F thus the disjunction is true (T)

Conjunction
The conjunctive is formed by placing the word and between two statements. The conjunction in Aristotelian is not a conjunction in modern logic. Examples: An I proposition is affirmative and E is negative. Three is a odd number and six is divisible by two. PNB is a bank and SM is a department.

The symbol for conjunction is the dot.

.)

Examples: p.q PNB is a bank and SM is a mall. Politics is not showbiz and painting is an art. ~p . q Snakes are reptiles and birds are not wild. p . ~q

The dot is a truth-functional connective. It connotes that a conjunctive statement is true if both components it connects are true.

Conjunction may be defined by this truth table: p q p . q _____________ T T T T F F F T F F F F Application:


Five is an odd number . one is an even number.
This is true (T) This is false (F)

T F thus the conjunction is false (F)

Material Equivalence
Material equivalence is the bi-conditional statement The phrase if and only if is placed between two statements. Examples: UST is a university if and only if a university is a big school. Ten is an even number if and only if an even number is divisible by two.

The symbol for material equivalence is

Examples: PNB is a bank if and only if and SM is a mall. p q Politics is showbiz if and only if painting is p ~q not an art. Metal is not air if and only if lightning is electrical ~p q

The is a truth-functional connective. It connotes that a materially equivalent statement is true if both components are true or both are false.

Material equivalence may be defined by this truth table: p q p q _____________ T T T T F F F T F F F T Application:


Five is an odd number
This is true (T)

one is an even number.


This is false (F)

T F thus the material equivalence is false (F)

Application
~(If critical thinking is important then Logic is required in college) or
T T T v T

(St. Thomas is a philosopher and St. Dominic is the founder of the Order of

Preachers.)

~ ( T T ) v ( T . T) ~ (T) v T
F v T

[(one is less than any even number and two is divisible by two) or (five is an odd number or six is less than seven)] then ~(ten is equal to five times two or nine is eleven minus five).

[ (T . T) v (T v T)] > ~(T v F) [ T v T] > ~T T>F F

Determine the truth-value AT BF C-? ~[(A . B) > (C v A)] [ ~(B > C) v (A . B)]

~[(F) > (T)] [ ~(T) v (F)] ~[T] [ F v F] F F T