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THE BEVERAGES: WINES

WINE
WINE is an alcoholic beverage obtained through fermentation of freshly gathered grapes. FERMENTATION is the action of yeast upon sugar converting them to alcohol and carbon dioxide.

WINE PRODUCING COUNTRIES


ITALY- is the number one producer of wine in terms of volume or quantity. FRANCE-is the number one producer of fine/quality wines.
SPAIN PORTUGAL GERMANY USA AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND CHILE ARGENTINA SOUTH AFRICA

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF WINE


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. CLIMATE ANNUAL WEATHER CONDITION SOIL GRAPE VARIETY VITICULTURE-the science of growing vines VINIFICATION-the process of converting the grape juice(must) into wine 7. LUCK OF THE YEAR-vintage 8. STORAGE AND TEMPERATURE

TYPES OF WINE
1. STILL WINE/TABLE WINE RED WINE WHITE WINE ROSE/BLUSH

2. SPARKLING WINE
CHAMPAGNE a. If it was produced & bottled in the Champagne region of France. b. If it was produced using Champagne method. Spumante- Italy Cava- Spain Sekt- Germany

3. FORTIFIED WINE
a. SHERRY(from Spain) Fino-Dry, Amontillado- Medium, Oloroso-Sweet b. PORT (from Portugal)-ruby, tawny, late bottled vintage, vintage. c. MADEIRA (from Portugal) SercialDry,Verdelho-medium, Bual- sweet, Malmsey-very sweet d. MARSALA (from Sicily)

4. AROMATISED WINES
1. Vermouths Dry vermouth Sweet vermouth Rose vermouth Red vermouth

HOW WINES ARE MADE?


FOUR MAIN STEPS IN WINE MAKING

1. 2. 3. 4.

Harvest the fruit at its peak Ferment the grapes into wine Clarify and stabilize the wine Allow the aging process

WINE MAKING PROCESS

VINEYARD

HARVESTING

CRUSHING

PRESSING

FERMENTATION

MATURING

FINISHING

STORING WINE
WINE CELLAR A place for wine to grow to maturity without distraction. Essentially, wine needs to be kept in a clean, dark, damp place with good ventilation, where it can be stored vibration free at a constant temperature.

IDEAL CONDITIONS FOR STORAGE


Temperature Humidity Darkness Calm Cleanliness Angle of Storage

WINE CELLAR

WHITE GRAPE VARIETY


1. Chardonnay Variable, ranging from citrus and minerals to ripe tropical fruit, buttery, toasty (from oak).

2. Sauvignon Blanc
Minerals, nettles, asparagus, green pea, grassy, gooseberry, passion fruit.

3.

Semillon- is an important grape variety in Australia.

4. Riesling- the classic grape of German wines. It produces light, fragrant and delicately flavored wines.

5. Chenin Blancmakes tasty white wines in the Loire region of France.

6. Pinot Blanc- this grape is especially good grape for making sparkling wine.

7. Muller-Thurgau- is the most widely grown grape in Germany

8. Gewurtztraminer- is the spicy white grape of Alsace in France and parts of Germany.

RED GRAPE VARIETY


1.Cabernet Sauvignon The most important red grape variety if Bordeaux 2. Pinot Noir- the great red variety of Burgundy.

MERLOT- it is used in making varietal wines and to blend with Cabernet Sauvignon.

GAMAY- is a light, fresh fruity and delightful red grape variety.

SHIRAZ/ SYRAHmakes a very dark, full bodied, intensely flavored red wine.

GRENACHE- is a sweet red grape variety that makes a very light colored orange pink wine.

ZINFANDEL- is a red grape variety only grown in California, USA.

SANGIOVESE- makes a well known Chianti.

NEBBIOLO- makes a big, full bodied, full flavored wines.

LAMBRUSCO- a grape that makes a very fruity, rather sweet, fizzy red wine.

3 SENSES INVOLVED IN WINE TASTING


SIGHT-eyes SMELL- nose TASTE-tongue The tongue is capable of detecting different flavor & aroma. Front- sweetness Sides- sourness Back/Rear- bitterness

5 S OF WINE TASTING

1. SEE 2. SWIRL 3. SNIFF 4. SIP 5. SAVOR

AROMAS ASSOCIATED WITH WINE


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fruits Herbs Vegetables Earth Flowers 6. Grass 7. Tobacco 8. Toast 9. Smoke 10.Coffee, mocha, chocolate

ODORS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH WINE


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Paint Vinyl Glue Gorgonzola Rotten eggs 6. Cannabis 7. Perfume 8. Fabric Softener 9. Glue 10.Musty odor

WHATS A BAD WINE??


Moldy Fruit Vinegar Chemical or Bacterial Smell Oxidized Wine Cooked Aromas and taste Corky Wine

WINE TERMINOLOGIES
Acetic- vinegar smell and taste Aeration- letting the wine breathe before drinking it. Balance- when all the wine elements are harmonious and no single element dominates. Clean- wine without disagreeable aromas or taste. Cooked- wine that has been exposed to high temperature Floral- tasting and smelling of flowers Fresh- a lively, clean and fruity wine

Grassy- aromas and flavors of cut grass. Fruity- having obvious aroma and taste of fruits. Herbaceous- herbal or vegetal in flavor Length- the time the sensations of taste and aroma persist after swallowing Appearance- refers to wines clarity; not color Brilliant- clear appearance of wine Cloudiness- lack of clarity Hazy- wine that has small amounts of visible matter.

Legs- the drops of wine that slide down the sides when it is swirled Aroma- smell of the wine (young) Bouquet- smell of the wine (old) Musty- having a moldy or mildew smell. Smoky- aromas caused by low acidity, tannin or both. Toasty- wine aroma derived from fire bending of the oak barrels. Acidic- wine that taste tart or sour Astringent- extremely dry, bitter Body- the fullness or weight of the wine on the palate

Corked- a wine that has been tainted with moldy smell from a bad cork. Dry- no sugar or sweetness Flabby- soft, lacking acidity and mouth feel Finish- the lasting impression of wine on the palate. Full Bodied- rich, mouth filling texture and weight on the palate. Tannin- the backbone of red wine; gives the mouth a puckering and dry feeling.

COMPONENTS/STRUCTURE OF WINE
1. Sugar 2. Acidity- the backbone of white wine 3. Tannin- the backbone of red wine 4. Alcohol

Temperatures For Serving Wine


White wine & Sparkling Wine- 45-50 degrees Fahrenheit Red Wine- cool room temperature of 60 to 68 degrees Fahrenheit

MATCHING FOOD WITH WINE


Generally the following traditions apply:

White wine is best served with white meat ( chicken, pork, veal), shellfish and fish Red wine is best served with red meat (lamb, beef, duck, or game ) The heavier the food, the heavier and more robust the wine should be. Champagne could be served throughout the meal.

Port and red wine go well with cheese Dessert wines best complement desserts and fresh fruits that are not highly acidic. When a dish is cooked with wine, it is best served with that wine. Regional food is best complemented by wines of the region. Wines should never accompany salads with vinegar dressings, chocolate dishes, or curries; the tastes will clash or be overpowering Sweet wines should be served with foods that are not too sweet.