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Dietary biodiversity and

crop-fish systems

Barbara Burlingame, ESNA


Matthias Halwart, FIRI
Issues
• Dietary energy supply can be satisfied
without diversity
• Micronutrient supply (including
essential fatty acids and amino acids)
cannot
• Wild and domesticated species and
intraspecies biodiversity play key roles
in global food security
• Different species or varieties have
significantly different nutrient contents
Traditional use and availability of aquatic
biodiversity in rice-based ecosystems
Cambodia China Laos
Fish 70 52 27
Crustaceans 6 2 5
Molluscs 1 4 8
Amphibians 2 4 10
Insects 2 3 16
Reptiles 8 - 7
Aquatic Plants 13 19 20
Total 102 84 93

Source: Balzer, Balzer, Pon, 2002; Luo, in press; Xaypladeth, in


Fish nutrients (per 100 g fresh
wt)

Low High RDI, adult


(per day)

Protein (g) 8 25
Fat (g) <1 >25
Saturated f.a. (g) <0.5 >5
PUFA (g) < 0.5 >12
Calcium (mg) 20 200 1,000
Iron (mg) <0.5 >10 9-20
Thiamin (mg) <0.01 >0.4 1.1
Biodiversity and Nutrient Content -
variations in essential fatty acid
content of selected aquatic species:
Saturated Monounsaturate Polyunsaturat
Species – 100g
Fats (g) d Fats (g) ed Fats (g)
Cod - steamed, flesh only 0.1 0.4 0.4
Haddock - steamed, flesh only 0.1 0.1 0.2
Whiting - steamed, flesh only 0.1 0.3 0.2
Herring - grilled, flesh and skin 2.8 4.7 2.3
Mackerel - grilled, flesh and 3.5 8.5 3.5
skin
Trout (Rainbow) - grilled flesh 1.1 2.0 1.7
Salmon - smoked 0.8 1.8 1.3
Salmon - steamed, flesh only 2.0 4.7 3.3
Salmon (Pink) - tinned in brine 1.3 2.4 1.9
Tuna - tinned in brine 0.2 0.1 0.2
Mussel 0.5 0.4 1.0
Rice Cultivar Differences in Nutrient
Content

Source: Kennedy, G.; Burlingame, B. (2003). Analysis of food composition


data on rice from a plant genetic resources perspective. Food Chemistry
International Rice
Commission
The Commission recommended that:
• Existing biodiversity of rice varieties and their
nutritional composition need to be explored
before engaging in transgenics.
• Nutrient content needs to be among the
criteria in cultivar promotion.
• Cultivar-specific nutrient analysis and data
dissemination should be systematically
undertaken.
• Biodiversity questions and/or prompts should
be included in food consumption surveys
• Acquiring nutrient data and intake data for
varieties is essential in order to understand
the impact of biodiversity on food security
FAO (2002). Report of the International Rice Commission
20th Session (23-26 July 2002, Bangkok). FAO,
Rome.
International Rice
Commission
The Commission recommended that:
• Member countries should promote the
sustainable development of aquatic biodiversity
in rice-based ecosystems and policy decisions
and management measures should enhance the
living aquatic resource base.
• In areas where wild fish are depleted, rice-fish
farming should be considered as a means of
enhancing food security and securing sustainable
rural development.
• Attention should be given to the nutritional
contribution of aquatic organisms in the diet of
rural people who produce or depend on rice.

FAO (2002). Report of the International Rice Commission


20th Session (23-26 July 2002, Bangkok). FAO,
Rome.
Recommendations for Action

IRC recommendations serve as


model
– Locally
– Nationally
– Regionally
– Internationally (CGRFA)
Thank you