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VIBRATION ANALYSIS BASICS

Presented by : H.S.A

Topics:

Introduction to Vibration Theory

Topics:
Introduction to Vibration Theory Basic Terminology & Practices

Topics:
Introduction to Vibration Theory Basic Terminology & Practices Basic Fault Identification

Topics:
Introduction to Vibration Theory Basic Terminology & Practices Basic Fault Identification Case History Examples (show from MT)

Topics:
Introduction to Vibration Theory Basic Terminology & Practices Basic Fault Identification Case History Examples (Show from MT) Advanced Topics

Topics:
Introduction to Vibration Theory Basic Terminology & Practices Basic Fault Identification Case History Examples Advanced Topics Requested Topics ???

WHAT IS VIBRATION?

MOTION OF A BODY ABOUT A REFERENCE POINT

For example, SHAFT VIBRATION

CAUSED BY AN UNDESIRABLE MECHANICAL FORCE

It's helpful to understand a little about the signal processing step in order to get the most benefit from the Analyzer

VIBRATION SOURCE TRANSDUCER ELECTRICAL SIGNAL TIME WAVEFORM

INFORMATION NEEDED FOR ANALYSIS

SIGNAL PROCESSING SPECTRUM PROBLEM DETECTION

AUTOMATED DIAGNOSTICS

MANUAL DIAGNOSTICS

COLLECTION OF VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS

Compare Across Points


5.3 mils
2.3 mils

1.2 mils

3.1 mils

Directional vibration on outboard bearing

Signal Processing Flow


Transducer Amplitude

Waveform

Time

FFT

Spectrum
Amplitude

Data Collector/Analyzer

Frequency

Heavy Spot

Rotation

Time Waveform
Heavy Spot Amplitude +

Time

Rotation

1 revolution

Time Waveform
Heavy Spot Amplitude +

Time

360 degrees

Rotation

1 revolution

3600 rpm 60 Hz 1 order

= = =

3600 cycles per minute 60 cycles per second one times turning speed

Time Waveform
Amplitude +

Time

1000 rpm
1 revolution

Time Waveform
Amplitude +

Time

1000 rpm
4 blades 4 x 1000 rpm = = 1 revolution vibration occurs 4 times per revolution vibration occurs at 4000 cycles per minute = 4000 cpm

Time Waveform
Amplitude +

12 tooth gear

Time

1000 rpm
1 revolution

Time Waveform
Amplitude +

12 tooth gear

Time

1000 rpm
1 revolution

12 teeth are meshing every revolution of the gear 12 x 1000 rpm = = vibration occurs at 12,000 cycles per minute 12,000 cpm = 200 Hz

+ 0 Time

+ 0 Time

+ 0

Time

Time Waveform contains all the different frequencies mixed together


+

Time

TIME WAVEFORM

AMPLITUDE VS TIME

We are now entering the Frequency Domain

FFT - Fast Fourier Transform

We are now entering the Frequency Domain


FFT - Fast Fourier Transform Separates individual frequencies

We are now entering the Frequency Domain


FFT - Fast Fourier Transform Separates individual frequencies Detects how much vibration at each frequency

Amplitude

Time

Amplitude

Amplitude

Time Amplitude

Frequency

Time 1x

+ 0 Time

Frequency

4x

Frequency

+ 0

Time 12x Frequency

FREQUENCY SPECTRUM (or FFT)

AMPLITUDE VS FREQUENCY

Amplitude 1.8 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 1000 2000 Frequency 3000 4000

VIBRATION TERMINOLOGY

FREQUENCY HERTZ CPM ORDERS PHASE (LAG) DEGREES

WHERE IS IT Frequency (CYCLES / SECOND) (CYCLES / MINUTE) (MULTIPLES OF RUN SPEED) TIME BETWEEN EVENTS (ROTATIONAL MEASUREMENT)

Amplitude

AMPLITUDE DISPLACEMENT VELOCITY ACCELERATION

HOW BAD IS IT? (MOVEMENT) (SPEED) (FORCE)

Spectrum

What's an Fmax, and why does it matter?

What's an Fmax, and why does it matter?

Maximum Frequency of the Spectrum

What's an Fmax, and why does it matter?


Maximum Frequency of the Spectrum If you don't collect it, you can't analyze it

Fmax = low frequency

Fmax = high frequency

What's an Fmax, and why does it matter?


Maximum Frequency of the Spectrum If you don't collect it, you can't analyze it Why not always collect the highest Fmax possible? Limitations of the analyzer Takes extra data storage space Reduces the Resolution of the Spectrum

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What's the difference between Acceleration, Velocity, & Displacement ?

What's the difference between Acceleration, Velocity, & Displacement ?

The frequency range of interest


Acceleration (high freq.) Velocity (general purpose) Displacement (low freq)

And let's not forget Phase Analysis

Phase Comparison

In Phase:

180 Out of Phase:


o

Phase Comparison

In Phase:

180 Out of Phase:


o

Amplitude - A + 0 Time

Amplitude - A + 0

Time

Amplitude - B +
0 Time

Amplitude - B +
0 Time

In Phase:
A B

180 Out of Phase:


o

A B

Tach Pulse

Phase Measured between the two

0 360 degrees

Time

Vibration Signal

Time for a demonstration:


Rotor kit / Strobe data collection tips

Spectrum Analysis
1.8 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3

1xRPM - BALANCE
2xRPM - ALIGNMENT 3-6xRPM - LOOSENESS GEARS & ANTI FRICTION BEARINGS 6-30xRPM 30-50xRPM

1000

2000 Frequency

3000

4000

Vibration Spectrum and Parameter Bands


SubHar monic 1X Amplitude 2X Bearing Bearing Gears Bearing

1x Trend of Balance 5 mm/sec

2x

50x Trend of Bearings Alarm Time (Days)

Time (Days)

1 mm/sec

SELECTED FREQUENCY BAND ALARMING


SubHar monic 1X Amplitude 2X Bearing Bearing Gears Bearing

1x Trend of Balance 5 mm/sec

2x

50x Trend of Bearings Alarm Time (Days)

Time (Days)

1 mm/sec

OVERALL ALARM

AREA (ENERGY) UNDER THE SPECTRUM


'SHOTGUN'

METHOD, NO DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION

ALARM LEVEL = 0.1 IN/SEC

PEAK - RMS OVERALL VALUE

BEARING AND GEAR PROBLEMS WILL NOT GIVE EARLY WARNING WITH OVERALL ALARMS

ENVELOPE ALARMING
CONSTRUCTED FROM BASELINE SPECTRA "VARIABLE SHAPE ENVELOPING" EFFECTIVE IN FINDING SMALL CHANGES

0.1 in/sec Increase


200 % rise over Reference

0.3 in/sec Absolute Value .02 in/sec Minimum Value

Diagnosing Machine Faults

Imbalance

Diagnosing Machine Faults


Imbalance Misalignment

Diagnosing Machine Faults


Imbalance Misalignment General Looseness or Wear

Diagnosing Machine Faults


Imbalance Misalignment General Looseness or Wear Bearing Defects

Diagnosing Machine Faults


Imbalance Misalignment General Looseness or Wear Bearing Defects Gear Defects

Diagnosing Machine Faults


Imbalance Misalignment General Looseness or Wear Bearing Defects Gear Defects and many more...

What is Imbalance?
Center of Shaft = Center of Mass

Heavy Spot
Center of Mass Center of Shaft

Rotation

Types of Imbalance

Imbalance can be separated into two components: Couple Imbalance:


o

Static Imbalance:

(constant across rotor)

(opposite across rotor)

IMBALANCE

CHARACTERISTICS

IMBALANCE

CHARACTERISTICS
HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM

IMBALANCE

CHARACTERISTICS
HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW AXIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X SHAFT RPM

IMBALANCE

CHARACTERISTICS
HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW AXIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM

IMBALANCE

CHARACTERISTICS
HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW AXIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM 1 X RPM SINUSOIDAL PATTERN IN THE TIME WAVEFORM

IMBALANCE

CHARACTERISTICS
HIGH RADIAL PEAKS AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW AXIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X SHAFT RPM LOW HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM 1 X RPM SINUSOIDAL PATTERN IN THE TIME WAVEFORM CAN CAUSE OTHER FAULTS TO SHOW UP, ESPECIALLY LOOSENESS

IMBALANCE
RADIAL VIBRATION AT 1 X TURNING SPEED IS MUCH MORE SIGNIFICANT THAN IN THE AXIAL DIRECTION

Freq: 60.04 Order: 1.010 Spec: .390

What is misalignment?

Deviation from a common centerline during operation.

GRRR!

hmmm!

BEFORE

AFTER

Types of Misalignment
Offset

Angular

Both

MISALIGNMENT

CHARACTERISTICS

MISALIGNMENT

CHARACTERISTICS
2 X SHAFT RPM MAY DOMINATE

MISALIGNMENT

CHARACTERISTICS

2 X SHAFT RPM AXIAL DOMINATES HIGH AXIAL AT 1, 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM

MISALIGNMENT

CHARACTERISTICS

2 X SHAFT RPM AXIAL DOMINATES HIGH AXIAL AT 1, 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM HIGH RADIAL AT 1, 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM

MISALIGNMENT

CHARACTERISTICS

2 X SHAFT RPM AXIAL DOMINATES HIGH AXIAL AT 1, 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM HIGH RADIAL AT 1, 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM ABOVE 4 X ARE USUALLY LOW

MISALIGNMENT

CHARACTERISTICS

2 X SHAFT RPM AXIAL DOMINATES HIGH AXIAL AT 1, 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM HIGH RADIAL AT 1, 2 AND 3 X SHAFT RPM HARMONICS OF SHAFT RPM ABOVE 4 X ARE USUALLY LOW PHASE READINGS SHOW A 180 DEGREE SHIFT ACROSS THE COUPLING

MISALIGNMENT
2X IS DOMINANT LOCATION OF VIBRATIONS
VANE PASS IS DUE TO 11 BLADE PUMP IMPELLER VANE PASS
Freq: 59.50 Order: 2.010 Spec: .640

Using Phase to distinguish Imbalance from Misalignment


Cross Coupling Phase

180 deg out

In Phase

GRRR!

MECHANICAL LOOSENESS

MULTIPLE HARMONICS OF RUN SPEED

2X 3X 1X 6X 5X 7X 4X 8X

RUN SPEED HARMONICS 1X, 2X, 3X, 4X, 5X, 6X, 7X, 8X

Discuss "Harmonics"

Bearing Fault Frequencies

Function of the Geometry of the Bearing


Outer Race (BPFO)

Inner Race (BPFI)

Ball Spin (BSF) Cage (FTF)

ROLLER BEARING EXAMPLE

Freq: 441.03 Order: 7.390 Spec: .180

Discussion Topics:
Fault frequencies Inner -vs- Outer race defects "Side-band" analysis Severity stages

GEARMESH FAULT

Freq: 106.89 Order: 21.00 Spec: .062

RESONANCE
So much to say and so little time (lead in to advanced topics)

Typical Periodic Vibration Survey Flow

Database Exception Report

Route

Data Collector
Automated Diagnosis
Report Generation & Machine History

Data Analysis

Maintenance Action
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