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Facoltà di Ingegneria

dell’Automazione e del Controllo dei sistemi complessi

MATHEMATICAL MODELING

OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

L’EPISCOPO GAETANO

MAZZARA BOLOGNA GIUSEPPE

ELETTRICAL MODELS FOR BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Biological System

Physical Laws

Electrical Parameters

State-Space Transfer

Equations Function

RESISTANCE

Resistance Resistive and dissipative properties of system

V Potential

Ohm’s Law V

V=RI I R I Current

y=Rz

z “Generalized flow”

RESISTANCE EXAMPLES

Applications of generalized Ohm’s law

θ1 θ2

Fourier’s Thermal transfer law Δθ=RtQ Q

φ1 φ2

Q

CAPACITANCE

Capacitance Storage properties of system

V

Capacitance Law V Potential

1

V = ∫ idt

C Current

I I

C

Also Capacitance Law can be generalized, applying it to other systems

y “Generalized effort”

1

y = ∫ zdt “Generalized flow”

C z

CAPACITANCE EXAMPLES

Applications of generalized Capacitance law

x

Hooke’s Mechanics Compliance law

1 F

F=

CM ∫ vdt

ΔV

Fluidic Compliance law ΔV=CfΔP

ΔP

Δ θ=θ1-θ2

INERTANCE

Inertance Inertial properties of system

Inductance Law V

V Potential

dI

V =L L I Current

dt I

y “Generalized effort”

dz

y=L “Generalized flow”

dt z

INERTANCE EXAMPLES

Applications of generalized inertance law

dv m F

F =m

dt

dQ Q ΔP

∆P = LF

dt

Exercise 1: 5-element Windkessel Model of

aortic and arterial hemodynamics

arterial vasculature

Exercise 1: 5-element Windkessel Model of

aortic and arterial hemodynamics

State space equations: VC

dQ R V P

= − ao Q − C + ao

dt Lao Lao Lao

dVC Q Pao

= −

dt Cao + C P Rao ( Cao + C P ) Pao input Q output

Q, VC State space variables

Transfer function:

Q S ( RP Cao + RPC P ) + 1

= 2

Pao S ( RPCao Lao + RPC P Lao ) + S ( Lao + Rao R p Cao + Rao RPC P ) + Rao + R P

Exercise 2: Equivalent electrical circuit of

Hodgkin-Huxley model of neuronal electrical

activity

C Membrane capacitance

Rk,Na,C1 Resistance of membrane to K,Na,C1

Ek,Na,C1 Nernst Potential of membrane for K,Na,C1

Exercise 2: Equivalent electrical circuit of

Hodgkin-Huxley model of neuronal electrical

activity

Equations are:

dV 1 1 1 E K E Na ECl

I =C

+ + +

V+ − +

dt RK RNa RCl RK RNa RCl

V + EK

IK =

RK

V − E Na

I Na =

RNa

V + ECl

I Cl =

RCl

Exercise 3: Analysis of the respiratory mechanics model

with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

RP RC, LC, CS

Cw

CL

Lc Inertance through central airways Cw Compliance of chest-wall

Cs Compliance of central airways CL Compliance of lung

Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model

with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

Equations are:

dQ 1

Pao = RC Q + LC +

dt C S ∫ ( Q − Q ) dt A

1 1 1

RP QA + + ∫ QA dt =

C L CW CS ∫ ( Q − Q ) dt

A

d 2 Pao 1 dPao d 3Q LC d 2Q 1 RC dQ 1 1 1

2

+ = LC 3

+

RC +

2

+

+

+ + Q

dt RPCT dt dt RP CT dt CS RPCT dt R P CS CW CL

−1

1 1 1

Where: CT = + +

C

L CW C S

Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model

with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

Used Simulink model is:

where b = breaths/min

parameters are:

RC= 1 cm H2O L-1

RP= 0.5 cm H2O L-1

CL= 0.2 L cm H2O

CW= 0.2 L cm H2O

CS= 0.005 L cm H2O

Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model

with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

Simulation for LC=0 cm H2O s2 L-1 Neglecting inertance

at 15 breaths/min:

Q=0.127 L/s

Volume=0.502 L

at 60 breaths/min:

Q=0.504 L/s

Volume=0.496 L

Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model

with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

Simulation for LC=0.01 cm H2O s2 L-1 Taking inertance into account

at 15 breaths/min:

Q=0.129 L/s

Volume=0.515 L

at 60 breaths/min:

Q=0.512 L/s

Volume=0.509 L

Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model

with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

Simulation for LC=0.01 cm H2O s2 L-1, CL=0.4 L cm H2O-1, RP=7.5 cm H2O s L-1

Subject with emphysema (higher lung compliance and higher peripheral airway resistance)

at 15 breaths/min:

Q=0.166 L/s

Volume=0.661 L

at 60 breaths/min:

Q=0.457 L/s

Volume=0.496 L

Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model

with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

Summary of all simulations

Conclusions: Both inertance-complete model and neglecting-inertance one have quite similar

trends at all input frequencies. Emphysema model, instead, has a very different trend,

particularly at high frequencies; infact its peak-to-peak amplitude both for air flow and for air

volume is smaller as emphysema features outline.

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