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Università degli Studi di Catania

Facoltà di Ingegneria

Corso di Laurea Specialistica in Ingegneria


dell’Automazione e del Controllo dei sistemi complessi

Corso di Fondamenti di Bioingegneria Elettronica

MATHEMATICAL MODELING
OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
L’EPISCOPO GAETANO
MAZZARA BOLOGNA GIUSEPPE

ANNO ACCADEMICO 2006-2007


ELETTRICAL MODELS FOR BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Biological System

Physical Laws

Electrical Parameters

State-Space Transfer
Equations Function
RESISTANCE
Resistance Resistive and dissipative properties of system

V Potential
Ohm’s Law V
V=RI I R I Current

Ohm’s Law can be generalized, applying it to other systems

Generalized Ohm’s Law y “Generalized effort”


y=Rz
z “Generalized flow”
RESISTANCE EXAMPLES
Applications of generalized Ohm’s law

Mechanics damping law F=Rmv

Fluidic Poiseuille’s law ΔP=RtQ Q ΔP

θ1 θ2
Fourier’s Thermal transfer law Δθ=RtQ Q

φ1 φ2

Chemical Fick’s law of Diffusion ΔΦ=RcQ


Q
CAPACITANCE
Capacitance Storage properties of system

V
Capacitance Law V Potential
1
V = ∫ idt
C Current
I I
C
Also Capacitance Law can be generalized, applying it to other systems

Generalized Capacitance Law


y “Generalized effort”
1
y = ∫ zdt “Generalized flow”
C z
CAPACITANCE EXAMPLES
Applications of generalized Capacitance law
x
Hooke’s Mechanics Compliance law
1 F
F=
CM ∫ vdt

ΔV
Fluidic Compliance law ΔV=CfΔP
ΔP

Thermal Heat storage law Q=Ct Δθ θ1 θ2


Δ θ=θ1-θ2
INERTANCE
Inertance Inertial properties of system

Inductance Law V
V Potential
dI
V =L L I Current
dt I

Also inertance Law can be generalized, applying it to other systems

Generalized Inductance Law


y “Generalized effort”
dz
y=L “Generalized flow”
dt z
INERTANCE EXAMPLES
Applications of generalized inertance law

Newton’s second law ma

dv m F
F =m
dt

Fluidic inertance law


dQ Q ΔP
∆P = LF
dt

There is no element that represents inertance in thermal and chemical systems


Exercise 1: 5-element Windkessel Model of
aortic and arterial hemodynamics

Rao Viscous resistance of aortic wall

Lao Inertance to flow through aorta

Cao Compliance of aortic wall

Rp//Cp Modeling of the rest of


arterial vasculature
Exercise 1: 5-element Windkessel Model of
aortic and arterial hemodynamics
State space equations: VC

dQ R V P
= − ao Q − C + ao
dt Lao Lao Lao
dVC Q Pao
= −
dt Cao + C P Rao ( Cao + C P ) Pao input Q output
Q, VC State space variables

Transfer function:
Q S ( RP Cao + RPC P ) + 1
= 2
Pao S ( RPCao Lao + RPC P Lao ) + S ( Lao + Rao R p Cao + Rao RPC P ) + Rao + R P
Exercise 2: Equivalent electrical circuit of
Hodgkin-Huxley model of neuronal electrical
activity

C Membrane capacitance
Rk,Na,C1 Resistance of membrane to K,Na,C1
Ek,Na,C1 Nernst Potential of membrane for K,Na,C1
Exercise 2: Equivalent electrical circuit of
Hodgkin-Huxley model of neuronal electrical
activity

Equations are:
dV  1 1 1  E K E Na ECl
I =C 
+ + + 
V+ − +
dt  RK RNa RCl  RK RNa RCl

V + EK
IK =
RK

V − E Na
I Na =
RNa

V + ECl
I Cl =
RCl
Exercise 3: Analysis of the respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

RP RC, LC, CS

Cw

CL

Rc Resistance of central airways Rp Resistance of peripheral airways


Lc Inertance through central airways Cw Compliance of chest-wall
Cs Compliance of central airways CL Compliance of lung
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways

Equations are:
dQ 1
Pao = RC Q + LC +
dt C S ∫ ( Q − Q ) dt A

 1 1  1
RP QA +  +  ∫ QA dt =
 C L CW  CS ∫ ( Q − Q ) dt
A

Reducing two equations to one, we obtain:

d 2 Pao 1 dPao d 3Q  LC  d 2Q  1 RC  dQ 1  1 1
2
+ = LC 3
+ 
 RC + 
 2
+ 
 + 
 +  +  Q
dt RPCT dt dt  RP CT  dt  CS RPCT  dt R P CS  CW CL 

−1
 1 1 1 
Where: CT =  + + 
C
 L CW C S 
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Used Simulink model is:

Input Pao=sin(2πb*60-1*t) cm H2O


where b = breaths/min

Output Q and Volume

Fixed values for system


parameters are:
RC= 1 cm H2O L-1
RP= 0.5 cm H2O L-1
CL= 0.2 L cm H2O
CW= 0.2 L cm H2O
CS= 0.005 L cm H2O
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Simulation for LC=0 cm H2O s2 L-1 Neglecting inertance

Peak to peak amplitudes


at 15 breaths/min:
Q=0.127 L/s
Volume=0.502 L

Peak to peak amplitudes


at 60 breaths/min:
Q=0.504 L/s
Volume=0.496 L
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Simulation for LC=0.01 cm H2O s2 L-1 Taking inertance into account

Peak to peak amplitudes


at 15 breaths/min:
Q=0.129 L/s
Volume=0.515 L

Peak to peak amplitudes


at 60 breaths/min:
Q=0.512 L/s
Volume=0.509 L
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Simulation for LC=0.01 cm H2O s2 L-1, CL=0.4 L cm H2O-1, RP=7.5 cm H2O s L-1
Subject with emphysema (higher lung compliance and higher peripheral airway resistance)

Peak to peak amplitudes


at 15 breaths/min:
Q=0.166 L/s
Volume=0.661 L

Peak to peak amplitudes


at 60 breaths/min:
Q=0.457 L/s
Volume=0.496 L
Exercise 3: Analysis of respiratory mechanics model
with effect of inertance to gas flow in central airways
Summary of all simulations

Conclusions: Both inertance-complete model and neglecting-inertance one have quite similar
trends at all input frequencies. Emphysema model, instead, has a very different trend,
particularly at high frequencies; infact its peak-to-peak amplitude both for air flow and for air
volume is smaller as emphysema features outline.