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‬ ‫سيلفيو برلسكوني رئيس وزاراء إيطاليا:‬ ‫وزير الخارجية األلمانى [فستر فيله]:‬ ‫“ال جديد في مصر فقد صنع المصريون التاريخ كالعادة”‬ ‫ستولتنبرج رئيس وزراء النرويج :‬ ‫“اليوم كلنا مصريين”‬ .‫ق الوا عن ثورة 52 يناير‬ ‫“أتطلع إلى زيارة مصر والحديث مع الذين ق اموا بالثورة”.

‬ .‫ق الوا عن ثورة 52 يناير‬ ‫“شعب مصر أعظم شعوب األرض و يستحق جائزة نوبل للسالم”‬ ‫هاينز فيشر رئيس النمسا :‬ ‫“ي جب أن نربي أب ناءنا ليصبحوا كشباب مصر”‬ ‫شبكة ‪ CNN‬اإلخبارية:‬ ‫الرئيس األمريكي باراك أوباما :‬ ‫“ألول مرة نرى شعبا يقوم بثورة ثم ينظف الشوارع بعده”.

Course Name :- .

2012 Instructor: Mohamed Sayed Bayoumi A.Lecture 1: Course organization and introduction to feedback control Feb. Professor Aerospace Engineering Cairo University .

(mech. & Pneumatic. Fluid. Sensitivity. and Stability -Design: PID controller ..-Translational-Rotational). Thermal system. Elect.Implementation: Op-Amp.Course Description • This course is concerned with both analysis and design of feedback linear control systems – Analysis: System Modeling. . Response (Partial function.

– Harison. Feedback Control Systems. . – Raven. – Van de vegte. Bishop. Feedback Control Systems. Feedback Control Systems. – Ogata. Introduction to Control Systems. Phillips and Royce D. Prentice Hall. Modern Control Systems. – Nice. Harbor. 2008.Reading material • Text book: – Charles L. 11th Edition.H. Feedback Control Systems.C. Dorf and R. Introduction to Control Systems – R.

Course Evaluation • Homework: 5% (late homework will not be accepted) • Quiz I: 3% • Mid-Term: 20% • Class participation: 2% • Final exam: 70% .

Disturbance (Noise) Input R(t) Reference desired output + (+) uk Controller Control signal Actuator uact Process Actuating signal Output c(t) (actual outpu) Feedback signal b(t) measurement .

A modern Feedback Control System .

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Figure 2.1: WATT’S SPEED GOVERNOR .

Figure 2.3: MISSILE LAUNCHING AND GUIDANCE SYSTEM

A design example : Open loop

A design example Closed loop

a control system is a system that is used to realize a desired output or objective • Open-loop control systems .What is a control system? • Generally speaking.

. uk Actuator Actuating signal uact Process Output c(t) (actual output) Features: Only there is a forward action from the input to the output.10 .Chapter 1 Introduction 1.3 Fundamental structure of control systems 1) Open loop control systems Disturbance (Noise) Input r(t) Reference desired output Controller Control signal Fig1.2.

. Discrete (data) systems. 2) Negative feedback—Feedback. 3) Rapidness (instantaneous characteristic).3 types of control systems 1) linear systems versus Nonlinear systems. Time-varying systems. 1.4 Basic performance requirements of control systems 1) Stability.Chapter 1 Introduction Notes: 1) Positive feedback. 2) Time-invariant systems vs. 4) Constant input modulation vs. 3) Continuous systems vs. 2) Accuracy (steady state performance). Servo control systems. 1.

– Closed-loop control systems (this is what we are most interested in for this course) • Definition of a closed-loop (or feedback) control system – Plant: part of the system to be controlled – Sensor: used for the measurement of a variable – Controller (or compensator): used to obtain satisfactory characteristics for the total system .

Chapter 1 Introduction 2) Closed loop (feedback) control systems Input r)t( Reference desired output Disturbance )Noise( Output c)t( )actual output( + (+) uk Controller Control signal Actuator uact Process Actuating signal Feedback signal b)t( measurement Fig1. also a backward action between the output and the input (measuring the output and comparing it with the input).11 . 1) measuring the output (controlled variable) . Features: not only there is a forward action . . 2) Feedback.

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disturbances.Advantages/Disadvantages Open-Loop Systems Simple Closed-Loop Systems Complex & expensive Inexpensive Cannot correct for disturbances or plant variations Less sensitive to noise. plant variations Better control of transient steady-state response Better accuracy Self-sustained oscillations possible .

the actuator and the sensor Fig. Establish the system configuration Meet the specifications Identify the actuator Finalize the design 5.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Identify the variables to control 3. Optimize the parameters and analyze the performance Performance meet the specifications 2. Describe a controller and select key parameters to be adjusted 7. Establish control goals 6. Obtain a model of the process.1.12 . Write the specifications for the variables Performance does not 4.

• Advantages of feedback – Feedback allows high performance in the presence of uncertainty – Feedback allows the dynamics of a system to be modified • One major disadvantage of feedback – It may create instability .

Lecture 2: Mathematical foundation and system modeling Outline of this lecture • Mathematical foundation – Complex variables – Differential equations – Laplace transform • System modeling – Definition of mathematical model – Definition of linear system – Transfer functions .

System modeling • Definition of mathematical model: – Mathematical relationships that relate the output of a system to its input – It should be understood that no mathematical model of a physical system is exact – We generally strive to develop a model that is adequate for the problem at hand without making the model overly complex • Definition of linear system: – A system is linear if superposition applies .

a mathematical conversion from one way of thinking to another to make a problem easier to solve problem in original way of thinking transform solution in original way of thinking inverse transform Definition solution in transform way of thinking 2.• Transforms -. Transforms .

problem in time domain Laplace transform solution in s domain inverse Laplace transform solution in time domain • Other transforms • Fourier • z-transform • wavelets 2. Transforms .

A correction • About the differential theorem of Laplace transform – An example: to calculate L[du(t)/dt] .

• The inverse Laplace transform is given by .

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– Mechanical translational systems .

X(t) K X(t) Mass Spring System m f(t) kx ( t ) m f(t) m x& & t ) ( mx& t ) = -kx(t ) &( mx& t ) +kx(t ) = 0 &( Free body diagram + f( t) + f(t) ms2 X ( s ) + kX ( s ) = 0 + F(s ) ( ms + k ) X ( s ) = 0 + F(s) 2 X ( s) F ( s) = 1 = Transfer function 2 ms +k .

Static balance K ky (t ) d m f (t ) f (t ) y(t ) kd my& t ) &( mg m&&(t ) = mg .k{d + y (t )} + f (t ) y mg = kd m&&(t ) = -ky(t ) + f (t ) y .

2 F ( s ) ms + Cs = k .One degree of freedom Forced Vibration K m C K X(t) & Cx(t ) m & m&&(t ) = -Cx(t ) .F .kx(t ) + f (t ) x f(t) X(t) f(t) Free body diagram X(t) Forced vibration & m&&(t ) + Cx(t ) + kx(t ) = f (t ) x ms X ( s) + CsX ( s) + kX ( s) = F ( s) 2 X ( s) 1 = = T .

x2 ) f1 k 2 ( x2 .x1 ) m2 f2 x2 m2 f2 x2 .x1 ) x1 & & C2 ( x2 .Two degree of freedom k1 c1 m11 m x1 f1 k2 C2 m2 2 x1  x2 k1 x1 & C1 x1 f2 x2 x2  x1 k1 x1 & C1 x1 m1 f1 k 2 ( x1 .x2 ) m1 x1 & & C2 ( x1 .

x2 ) + C2 ( x1 .x2 ) .x2 ) & & m2 &&2 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 = f 2 + C2 x1 + k2 x1 x m2 f2 x2 .x2 ) + f1 x k1 x1 & C1 x1 & & m1&&1 + (C1 + C2 ) x1 + (k1 + k2 ) x1 = f1 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 x m1 f1 x1 & & m2 &&2 = k2 ( x1 .C1 x1 .k2 ( x1 .x2 ) + f 2 x & & k 2 ( x1 .x1  x2 & & & m1&&1 = -k1 x1 .x2 ) C2 ( x1 .C2 ( x1 .

x1 ) k 2 ( x2 .x2 ) + f 2 x & & m2 &&2 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 = f 2 + C2 x1 + k2 x1 x m2 f2 x2 .x2  x1 & & & m1&&1 = -C1 x1 .x1 ) & & m2 &&2 = -C2 ( x1 .x1 ) + f1 x & & m1&&1 + (C1 + C2 ) x1 + (k1 + k2 ) x1 = f1 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 x f1 k1 x1 & C1 x1 m1 x1 & & C2 ( x2 .k1 x1 + C2 ( x2 .x2 ) .k2 ( x1 .x1 ) + k2 ( x2 .

x1 ) x1 & & C2 ( x2 .x2 ) f1 k 2 ( x2 .x1  x2 k1 x1 & C1 x1 x2  x1 k1 x1 & C1 x1 k1 x1 & C1 x1 m1 f1 m1 f1 k 2 ( x1 .x1 ) k 2 ( x1 .x1 ) & & C2 ( x2 .x2 ) m1 x1 & & C2 ( x1 .x1 ) m2 f2 x2 .x2 ) x1 & & C2 ( x1 .x2 ) m2 f2 x2 m2 f2 x2 k 2 ( x2 .

x2 ) .x1 ) + f 2 x & & m2 &&2 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 = f 2 + C2 x1 + k2 x1 x k 2 ( x2 .x1 ) & & C2 ( x2 .x2 ) + f1 x & & m1&&1 + (C1 + C2 ) x1 + (k1 + k2 ) x1 = f1 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 x f1 m1 x1 & & C2 ( x1 .x1 ) .k2 ( x1 .k2 ( x2 .x1 ) m2 f2 x2 .C1 x1 .C2 ( x1 .x2 ) k 2 ( x1 .k1 x1 & C1 x1 & & & m1&&1 = -k1 x1 .x2 ) & & m2 &&2 = -C2 ( x2 .

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a( t) Ta( t ) = through .Ta( t ) .Ts( t) 0 Ta( t ) ( t ) Ts ( t ) s( t) .variable angular rat e difference = acro ss-variable .

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Gear Ratio = n = N1/N2 N2  L L L N1  m n  m n m .

x r  converts radial motion to linear motion .

System with Gears Power = constant T11 = T22 1 2 = n .

b x1 a x2 x1*a =x2*b e x1 a y x2 b .

27 A gear system .Figure 2.

31 Gear train .Figure 2.

block diagram . Rotational mechanical system with gears. b.Figure 2. system after reflection of torques and impedances to the output shaft.30 a. c.

Motor shaft Output shaft .

and inductors . voltage-charge. resistors. and impedance relationships for capacitors.3 Voltage-current.Table 2.

Mathematical models of electrical systems .

RC network v1(t) R v2(t) i (t ) = C dv2 dt i(t) C v1 (t ) .v2 (t ) i(t ) = R dv2 v1 (t ) .v2 (t ) C = dt R dv2 RC + v2 (t ) = v1 (t ) dt .

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ei eo .

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ei eo .

 2( s ) ks  error( s )   Vbattery  max .V2( s ) V1( s ) R2 R  R2 R R2 R1 + R2  max V2( s ) V2( s ) ks ks  1( s ) .

Figure 2.9 Three-loop electrical network .