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Course Name :-

Lecture 1:
Course organization and introduction to feedback control
Feb. 2012 Instructor: Mohamed Sayed Bayoumi A. Professor Aerospace Engineering Cairo University

Course Description
This course is concerned with both analysis and design of feedback linear control systems Analysis: System Modeling, (mech.-Translational-Rotational), Elect., Fluid, Thermal system. Response (Partial function, Sensitivity, and Stability -Design: PID controller - Implementation: Op-Amp. & Pneumatic.

Reading material
Text book:

Charles L. Phillips and Royce D. Harbor, Feedback Control Systems, Van de vegte, Feedback Control Systems, Nice, Feedback Control Systems, Ogata, Feedback Control Systems, Harison, Introduction to Control Systems, Raven, Introduction to Control Systems R.C. Dorf and R.H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 11th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2008,

Course Evaluation
Homework: 5% (late homework will not be accepted) Quiz I: 3% Mid-Term: 20% Class participation: 2% Final exam: 70%

Disturbance (Noise) Input R(t) Reference desired output

+
(+)

uk
Controller Control signal Actuator

uact
Process Actuating signal

Output c(t) (actual outpu)

Feedback signal b(t)

measurement

A modern Feedback Control System

Figure 2.1: WATTS SPEED GOVERNOR

Figure 2.3: MISSILE LAUNCHING AND GUIDANCE SYSTEM

A design example : Open loop

A design example Closed loop

What is a control system? Generally speaking, a control system is a system that is used to realize a desired output or objective Open-loop control systems

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.2.3 Fundamental structure of control systems

1) Open loop control systems


Disturbance (Noise) Input r(t) Reference desired output Controller Control signal Fig1.10 . uk Actuator Actuating signal uact Process Output c(t) (actual output)

Features: Only there is a forward action from the input to the output.

Chapter 1 Introduction
Notes: 1) Positive feedback; 2) Negative feedbackFeedback. 1.3 types of control systems
1) linear systems versus Nonlinear systems. 2) Time-invariant systems vs. Time-varying systems. 3) Continuous systems vs. Discrete (data) systems.

4) Constant input modulation vs. Servo control systems.

1.4 Basic performance requirements of control systems


1) Stability. 2) Accuracy (steady state performance). 3) Rapidness (instantaneous characteristic).

Closed-loop control systems (this is what we are most interested in for this course)

Definition of a closed-loop (or feedback) control system Plant: part of the system to be controlled Sensor: used for the measurement of a variable Controller (or compensator): used to obtain satisfactory characteristics for the total system

Chapter 1 Introduction
2) Closed loop (feedback) control systems
Input r)t( Reference desired output Disturbance )Noise( Output c)t( )actual output(

+
(+)

uk
Controller Control signal Actuator

uact
Process Actuating signal

Feedback signal b)t(

measurement
Fig1.11 .

Features: not only there is a forward action , also a backward action between the output and the input (measuring the output and comparing it with the input). 1) measuring the output (controlled variable) . 2) Feedback.

Advantages/Disadvantages
Open-Loop Systems Simple Closed-Loop Systems Complex & expensive

Inexpensive
Cannot correct for disturbances or plant variations

Less sensitive to noise, disturbances, plant variations


Better control of transient steady-state response Better accuracy Self-sustained oscillations possible

Chapter 1 Introduction
1. Establish control goals 6. Describe a controller and select key parameters to be adjusted 7. Optimize the parameters and analyze the performance Performance meet the specifications

2. Identify the variables to control


3. Write the specifications for the variables

Performance does not 4. Establish the system configuration Meet the specifications Identify the actuator Finalize the design 5. Obtain a model of the process, the actuator and the sensor
Fig.1.12

Advantages of feedback
Feedback allows high performance in the presence of uncertainty Feedback allows the dynamics of a system to be modified One major disadvantage of feedback It may create instability

Lecture 2:

Mathematical foundation and system modeling Outline of this lecture Mathematical foundation Complex variables Differential equations Laplace transform
System modeling Definition of mathematical model Definition of linear system Transfer functions

System modeling Definition of mathematical model: Mathematical relationships that relate the output of a system to its input It should be understood that no mathematical model of a physical system is exact We generally strive to develop a model that is adequate for the problem at hand without making the model overly complex
Definition of linear system: A system is linear if superposition applies

Transforms -- a mathematical conversion from one way of thinking to another to make a problem easier to solve
problem in original way of thinking transform solution in original way of thinking inverse transform

Definition

solution in transform way of thinking


2. Transforms

problem in time domain Laplace transform solution in s domain

inverse Laplace transform

solution in time domain

Other transforms Fourier z-transform wavelets

2. Transforms

A correction About the differential theorem of Laplace transform An example: to calculate L[du(t)/dt]

The inverse Laplace transform is given by

Mechanical translational systems

X(t) K

X(t)

Mass Spring System

m f(t)

kx ( t )

m f(t)

m x& & t ) (

mx& t ) = -kx(t ) &( mx& t ) +kx(t ) = 0 &(

Free body diagram

+ f( t) + f(t)

ms2 X ( s ) + kX ( s ) = 0 + F(s )
( ms + k ) X ( s ) = 0 + F(s)
2

X ( s) F ( s)

1 = Transfer function 2 ms +k

Static balance K

ky (t )
d m f (t ) f (t ) y(t )

kd

my& t ) &(

mg

m&&(t ) = mg - k{d + y (t )} + f (t ) y

mg = kd

m&&(t ) = -ky(t ) + f (t ) y

One degree of freedom Forced Vibration

K m

K X(t)

& Cx(t )

& m&&(t ) = -Cx(t ) - kx(t ) + f (t ) x

f(t)

X(t)

f(t)
Free body diagram

X(t)

Forced vibration

& m&&(t ) + Cx(t ) + kx(t ) = f (t ) x


ms X ( s) + CsX ( s) + kX ( s) = F ( s)
2

X ( s) 1 = = T .F . 2 F ( s ) ms + Cs = k

Two degree of freedom

k1

c1
m11 m
x1

f1 k2

C2

m2 2
x1 x2
k1 x1
& C1 x1
f2
x2

x2 x1
k1 x1
& C1 x1

m1
f1 k 2 ( x1 - x2 )

m1
x1
& & C2 ( x1 - x2 )

f1
k 2 ( x2 - x1 )

x1
& & C2 ( x2 - x1 )

m2
f2
x2

m2
f2
x2

x1 x2
& & & m1&&1 = -k1 x1 - C1 x1 - k2 ( x1 - x2 ) - C2 ( x1 - x2 ) + f1 x
k1 x1
& C1 x1

& & m1&&1 + (C1 + C2 ) x1 + (k1 + k2 ) x1 = f1 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 x

m1
f1

x1

& & m2 &&2 = k2 ( x1 - x2 ) + C2 ( x1 - x2 ) + f 2 x

& & k 2 ( x1 - x2 ) C2 ( x1 - x2 )

& & m2 &&2 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 = f 2 + C2 x1 + k2 x1 x

m2
f2
x2

x2 x1
& & & m1&&1 = -C1 x1 - k1 x1 + C2 ( x2 - x1 ) + k2 ( x2 - x1 ) + f1 x
& & m1&&1 + (C1 + C2 ) x1 + (k1 + k2 ) x1 = f1 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 x
f1

k1 x1

& C1 x1

m1
x1
& & C2 ( x2 - x1 )
k 2 ( x2 - x1 )

& & m2 &&2 = -C2 ( x1 - x2 ) - k2 ( x1 - x2 ) + f 2 x & & m2 &&2 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 = f 2 + C2 x1 + k2 x1 x

m2
f2
x2

x1 x2
k1 x1
& C1 x1

x2 x1
k1 x1
& C1 x1

k1 x1

& C1 x1

m1
f1

m1
f1 k 2 ( x1 - x2 )

m1
x1
& & C2 ( x1 - x2 )

x1
& & C2 ( x1 - x2 )

f1
k 2 ( x2 - x1 )

x1
& & C2 ( x2 - x1 )

k 2 ( x1 - x2 )

m2
f2
x2

m2
f2
x2

k 2 ( x2 - x1 )

& & C2 ( x2 - x1 )

m2
f2
x2

k1 x1

& C1 x1

& & & m1&&1 = -k1 x1 - C1 x1 - k2 ( x1 - x2 ) - C2 ( x1 - x2 ) + f1 x


& & m1&&1 + (C1 + C2 ) x1 + (k1 + k2 ) x1 = f1 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 x
f1

m1
x1
& & C2 ( x1 - x2 )

k 2 ( x1 - x2 )

& & m2 &&2 = -C2 ( x2 - x1 ) - k2 ( x2 - x1 ) + f 2 x & & m2 &&2 + C2 x2 + k2 x2 = f 2 + C2 x1 + k2 x1 x

k 2 ( x2 - x1 )

& & C2 ( x2 - x1 )

m2
f2
x2

Ta( t ) - Ts( t)

Ta( t ) ( t )

Ts ( t ) s( t) - a( t)

Ta( t )

= through - variable

angular rat e difference = acro ss-variable

Gear Ratio = n = N1/N2 N2 L L L N1 m

n m n m

converts radial motion to linear motion

System with Gears

Power = constant

T11 = T22
1 2 = n

b x1 a x2

x1*a =x2*b

e x1 a

x2 b

Figure 2.27 A gear system

Figure 2.31 Gear train

Figure 2.30 a. Rotational mechanical system with gears; b. system after reflection of torques and impedances to the output shaft; c. block diagram

Motor shaft

Output shaft

Table 2.3 Voltage-current, voltage-charge, and impedance relationships for capacitors, resistors, and inductors

Mathematical models of electrical systems

RC network
v1(t)

R v2(t)

i (t ) = C

dv2 dt

i(t)

v1 (t ) - v2 (t ) i(t ) = R
dv2 v1 (t ) - v2 (t ) C = dt R dv2 RC + v2 (t ) = v1 (t ) dt

ei

eo

ei

eo

V2( s ) V1( s ) R2 R

R2 R

R2 R1 + R2

max

V2( s ) V2( s ) ks

ks 1( s ) - 2( s ) ks error( s )

Vbattery max

Figure 2.9 Three-loop electrical network