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Multicellular Eukaryotes Have cell walls made of cellulose Carry out photosynthesis using chlorophyll a & b Store energy as starch (carbohydrates) Most are autotrophs A few are parasites (live on living organisms) or saprobes (live on dead organisms)

Parasitic plants extract nutrients and water directly from its hosts tissues

After a (Cuscuta) Dodder attaches itself to a plant, it wraps itself around it. If the host contains food beneficial to dodder, the dodder produces haustoria that insert themselves into the vascular system of the host. The original root of the dodder in the soil then dies. The dodder can grow and attach itself to multiple plants.

Mistletoe takes nutrients from the trees

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Sunlight Water Minerals Gas Exchange Transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body
Remember Photosynthesis:

6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2

(water + carbon dioxide + sunlight glucose + oxygen)

Plants

most likely evolved from an organism like the freshwater multicelluar green algae living today. Plants had to overcome challenges as they moved from water to land: Adapt to be able to acquire water Adapt features to transport water Be able to conserve water more effeciently

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Bryophytes (Mosses and their relatives) 2. Seedless Vascular (Ferns and their relatives) 3. Gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants) 4. Angiosperms (flowering plants)

Water-conducting tissue (vascular) Seeds Flowers

VASCULAR

PLANTS Contain tube-like cells for transport (Tracheophytes)


Can grow large and farther away from water source.

NONVASCULAR

PLANTS Does not contain tube-like cells for transport. (Bryophytes)


Water and nutrients travel by diffusion and osmosis. Small and grows close to water source

NONVASCULAR PLANTS
Plants draw up water by osmosis only a few centimeters above the ground. Low growing plants that are found in moist, shaded areas. Seedless plants reproduce using spores RHIZOIDS A LONG THIN CELL THAT ANCHORS MOSS TO THE GROUND AND ABSORBS H20 & MINERALS FROM SOIL

Includes:

Mosses

Liverworts

Hornworts

FERNS

ANGIOSPERMS (FLOWERING PLANTS)

GYMNOSPERMS (CONE BEARING PLANTS)

They

are vascular but reproduce using spores

Bear

their seeds directly on the surface of cones. Vascular plants


Gymnosperm

means naked seed Includes conifers such as pines and spruces

Most conifers are evergreens. They retain their leaves throughout the year. Most needles stay on the plant for 2-14 years. Can carry on photosynthesis as soon as spring arrives! A few are deciduous.

Deciduous - Lose their leaves at a particular season and are dormant in the winter.

Can

be classified as:

Annuals Biennials Perennials

Annuals

live only one growing season Biennials live only two growing season Perennials live for more than two years

Roots

absorbs water and dissolved nutrients, anchors the plant, protect the plant from bad soil, and transports water to rest of the plant Stems support system for the plant body, transport system for water and nutrients Leaves plants main photosynthetic system

Desert

Plants

Root system
Shallow to obtain water Cactus needlesreduced surface area

Reduced leaves

Thick stems

To store water
Germinate only when enough moisture present

Dormant Seeds

Life

in the water:

Have tissues with large air-filled spaces through which oxygen can diffuse down the stem Seeds that float and delay germination Specialized air roots that allow O2 to get to the roots down in the mud

Salty

conditions:

Specialized cells in the leaves that pump the salt out of the plant tissue onto the leaf surface where rain washes it off

Venus Fly Trap

Poor

soil:

If the soil cant provide N2, plants trap and digest insects that release N2

Plants

without Roots:

Live on body of another plant No roots live in a humid environment to retain/store water from rainfall

Spanish Moss

Fighting

insects:
Milkweed

Make/secrete chemicals that are toxic if eaten

Need

for Pollination

Plants will mimic a pollinators mate

Wasp attempting to mate with the flower Ophrys speculum mimics a female wasp

Monocots

One seed leaf Parallel veins in leaves Flower parts in multiples of threes Ex. Grass, orchids Two seed leaves Contain netted veins Flower parts in multiples of four or fives Exs trees, shrubs

Dicots